Agrippina (opera)

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Agrippina (HWV 6) is an opera seria in three acts by George Frideric Handel, from a libretto by Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani. Composed for the 1709–10 Venice Carnevale season, the opera tells the story of Agrippina, the mother of Nero, as she plots the downfall of the Roman Emperor Claudius and the installation of her son as emperor. Grimani's libretto, considered one of the best that Handel set, is an "anti-heroic satirical comedy",[1] full of topical political allusions. Some analysts believe that it reflects the rivalry of Grimani with Pope Clement XI.

Handel composed Agrippina at the end of a three-year visit to Italy. It premiered in Venice at the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo on 26 December 1709, and was an immediate success. From its opening night it was given a then-unprecedented run of 27 consecutive performances, and received much critical acclaim. Observers were full of praise for the quality of the music—much of which, in keeping with the contemporary custom, had been borrowed and adapted from other works, including some from other composers. Despite the evident public enthusiasm for the work, Handel did not promote further stagings. There were occasional productions in the years following its premiere but, when Handel's operas fell out of fashion in the mid-18th century, it and his other dramatic works were generally forgotten.

In the 20th century, Handelian opera began a revival which, after productions in Germany, saw Agrippina premiered in Britain and in America. In recent years performances of the work have become more common, with innovative stagings at the New York City Opera and the London Coliseum in 2007. Modern critical opinion is that Agrippina is Handel's first operatic masterpiece, full of freshness and musical invention which have made it one of the most popular operas of the continuing Handel revival.[2]

Composition history[edit]

Johann Mattheson of Hamburg, an early influence on Handel's operas

Handel's earliest opera compositions, in the German style, date from his Hamburg years, 1704–06, under the influence of Johann Mattheson.[3] In 1706 he travelled to Italy where he remained for three years, learning the Italian style of music and developing his compositional skills. Initially he stayed in Florence where he was introduced to Alessandro and Domenico Scarlatti, and where his first Italian opera was composed and performed.[4] This was Rodrigo (1707, original title Vincer se stesso ê la maggior vittoria), in which the Hamburg and Mattheson influences remained prominent.[3][4] The opera was not particularly successful, but was part of Handel's process of learning to compose opera in the Italian style and to set Italian words to music.[4]

After Florence, Handel spent time in Rome, where the performance of opera was forbidden by Papal decree,[5] and in Naples. He was able to apply himself to the composition of cantata and oratorio; at that time there was little difference (apart from increasing length) between cantata, oratorio and opera, which are all based on the alternation of secco recitative and aria da capo.[6][7] Works from this period include Dixit Dominus, and the dramatic cantata Aci, Galatea e Polifemo, written in Naples. While in Rome, Handel had become acquainted with Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani, probably through Alessandro Scarlatti.[8] The Cardinal was a distinguished diplomat who wrote libretti in his spare time, and acted as an unofficial theatrical agent for the Italian royal courts.[9][10] He made Handel his protégé, and gave him his libretto for Agrippina. It has been surmised that Handel took the libretto to Naples where he set it to music.[8] However, according to John Mainwaring, Handel's first biographer, it was written very rapidly after Handel's arrival in Venice in November 1709. This theory is supported by the autograph manuscript's Venetian paper.[11] Grimani arranged to present the opera in Venice, at his family-owned theatre, the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo, as part of the 1709–10 Carnevale season.[2] A similar story had been used before, as the subject of Monteverdi's 1642 opera L'incoronazione di Poppea, but Grimani's libretto centred on Agrippina, a character who does not appear in Monteverdi's darker version.[9] This was Handel's second Italian opera, and probably his last composition in Italy.[12]

Composing Agrippina[edit]

In composing the opera Handel borrowed extensively from his earlier oratorios and cantatas, and from other composers including Reinhard Keiser, Arcangelo Corelli and Jean-Baptiste Lully.[13] This adapting and borrowing was common practice at the time, but its extent in Agrippina is greater than in almost all the composer's other major dramatic works.[13] The overture, which is a French-style two-part work with a "thrilling" allegro,[14] and all but five of the vocal numbers, are based on earlier works, in many cases after significant adaptation and reworking.[12]

A caricature of Margherita Durastanti, the original Agrippina, from between 1709 and 1712

Examples of recycled material include Pallas's "Col raggio placido", which is based on Lucifer's aria from La resurrezione (1708), "O voi dell' Erebo", which was itself adapted from Reinhard Keiser's 1705 opera Octavia. Agrippina's aria "Non hò cor che per amarti" was taken, almost entirely unadapted, from "Se la morte non vorrà" in Handel's earlier dramatic cantata Qual ti reveggio, oh Dio (1707); Narcissus's "Spererò" is an adaptation of "Sai perchè" from another 1707 cantata, Clori, Tirsi e Fileno; and parts of Nero's Act 3 aria "Come nube che fugge dal vento" are borrowed Handel's oratorio Il trionfo del tempo (all from 1707).[15] Later, some of Agrippina's music was used by Handel in his London operas Rinaldo (1711) and the 1732 version of Acis and Galatea, in each case with little or no change.[16] The first music by Handel heard in London may have been Agrippina's "Non hò che", transposed into Alessandro Scarlatti's opera Pirro è Dimitrio which was performed in London on 6 December 1710.[17] The Agrippina overture and other arias from the opera appeared in pasticcios performed in London between 1710 and 1714, with additional music provided by other composers.[18] Echoes of "Ti vo' giusta" (one of the few arias composed specifically for Agrippina) can be found in the air "He was despised", from Handel's Messiah (1742).[19]

Two of the main male roles, Nero and Narcissus, were written for castrati, the "superstars of their day" in Italian opera.[2] The opera was revised significantly before and possibly during its run.[20] For example, in Act III Handel originally had Otho and Poppaea sing a duet, "No, no, ch'io non apprezzo", but he was dissatisfied with the music and replaced the duet with two solo arias before the first performance.[21] Again, during the run Poppaea's aria "Ingannata" was replaced with another of extreme virtuosity,"Pur punir chi m'ha ingannata", either to emphasise Poppaea's new-found resolution at this juncture of the opera or, as is thought more likely, to flatter Scarabelli by giving her further opportunity to show off her vocal abilities.[20]

The instrumentation for Handel's score follows closely that of all his early operas, and consists of two recorders, two oboes, two trumpets, three violins, two cellos, viola, timpani, contrabassoon and harpsichord.[22] By the later standards of Handel's London operas this scoring is light, but there are nevertheless what Dean and Knapp describe as "moments of splendour when Handel applies the full concerto grosso treatment."[23]

Libretto[edit]

Grimani's libretto avoids the "moralizing" tone of the later opera seria libretti written by acknowledged masters such as Metastasio and Zeno.[12] The favourable reception given to the opera may, according to critic Donald Jay Grout, owe much to Grimani's work in which "irony, deception and intrigue pervade the humorous escapades of its well-defined characters."[3] All the main characters, with the sole exception of Claudius's servant Lesbus, are historical, and the broad outline of the libretto draws heavily upon Tacitus's Annals and Suetonius' Life of Claudius.[12] It has been suggested that the comical, amatory character of the Emperor Claudius is a caricature of Pope Clement XI, to whom Grimani was politically opposed.[24] Certain aspects of this conflict are also reflected in the plot: the rivalry between Nero and Otho mirror aspects of the debate over the War of the Spanish Succession, in which Grimani supported the Habsburgs, and Pope Clement XI France and Spain.[9]

Performance history[edit]

Premiere[edit]

Title page of original printed edition

The date of Agrippina's first performance, about which there was at one time some uncertainty, has been confirmed by a manuscript newsletter as 26 December 1709.[11] The cast consisted of some of Northern Italy's leading singers of the day, including Antonio Carli in the lead bass role; Margherita Durastanti, who had recently sung the role of Mary Magdalene in Handel's La resurrezione; and Diamante Scarabelli, whose great success at Bologna in the 1697 pasticcio Perseo inspired the publication of a volume of eulogistic verse entitled La miniera del Diamante.[25][26]

Agrippina proved extremely popular, and established Handel's international reputation.[26] Its original run was for 27 performances, extraordinarily long for that time.[25] Handel's biographer John Mainwaring wrote of the first performance: "The theatre at almost every pause resounded with shouts of Viva il caro Sassone! ('Long live the beloved Saxon!') They were thunderstruck with the grandeur and sublimity of his style, for they had never known till then all the powers of harmony and modulation so closely arranged and forcibly combined."[27] Many others recorded overwhelmingly positive responses to the work.[14] Between 1713 and 1724 there were productions of Agrippina in Naples, Hamburg, and Vienna, although Handel himself never revived the opera after its initial run.[28] The Naples production included additional music by Francesco Mancini.[29]

Later performances[edit]

In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, Handel's operas fell into obscurity, and none were staged between 1754 and 1920.[30] However, when interest in Handel's operas awakened in the 20th century, Agrippina received several revivals, beginning with a 1943 production at Handel's birthplace, Halle, under conductor Richard Kraus at the Halle Opera House. In this performance the alto role of Otho, composed for a woman, was changed into a bass accompanied by English horns, "with calamitous effects on the delicate balance and texture of the score".[31] The Radio Audizioni Italiane produced a live radio broadcast of the opera on 25 October 1953, marking the first time that Agrippina was communicated in a medium other than the stage. The cast included Magda László in the title role and Mario Petri as Claudius, and the performance was conducted by Antonio Pedrotti.[32]

A 1958 performance in Leipzig, and several more stagings in Germany, preceded the British première of the opera at Abingdon, Oxfordshire, in 1963.[2][33] In 1965 it was performed at Ledlanet, Scotland. In 1983 the opera returned to Venice, for a performance under Christopher Hogwood at the Teatro Malibran.[33] In the United States a concert performance had been given on 16 February 1972 at the Academy of Music in Philadelphia,[34] but the opera's first fully staged American performance was in Fort Worth, Texas in 1985.[35] That same year it reached New York, with a concert performance at Alice Tully Hall, the opera still being described at that time as a "genuine rarity".[36] The Fort Worth performance was quickly followed by further American stagings in Iowa City and Boston.[33] The so-called "Early Music Movement", which advocates historically accurate performances of Baroque and early works, promoted two major productions of Agrippina in 1985 and 1991 respectively. Both were in Germany, the first was in the Schlosstheater Schwetzingen, the other at the Göttingen International Handel Festival.[9]

Contemporary revivals[edit]

There have been numerous productions in the 21st century, including a 2002 "ultramodern" staging by director Lillian Groag at the New York City Opera. This production, revived in 2007, was described by the New York Times critic as "odd ... presented as broad satire, a Springtime for Hitler version of I, Claudius", although the musical performances were generally praised.[37] In Britain, the English National Opera (ENO) staged an English-language version in February 2007, directed by David McVicar, which received a broadly favourable critical response, although critic Fiona Maddocks identified features of the production that diminished the work: "Music so witty, inventive and humane requires no extra gilding".[38][39] These recent revivals have used countertenors in the roles written for castrati, as did the 1997 Gardiner recording.[37][40]

Roles[edit]

The original casting for Agrippina, as advertised at the time of the first production
Role Voice type Premiere cast, 26 December 1709
(Conductor: unknown)
Agrippina soprano Margherita Durastanti[41]
Nero
(Italian: Nerone)
soprano castrato Valeriano Pellegrini
Pallas
(Pallante)
bass Giuseppe Maria Boschi[42]
Narcissus
(Narciso)
alto castrato Giuliano Albertini
Lesbus
(Lesbo)
bass Nicola Pasini[43]
Otho
(Ottone)
contralto Francesca Vanini-Boschi
Poppaea
(Poppea)
soprano Diamante Maria Scarabelli
Claudius
(Claudio)
bass Antonio Francesco Carli[44]
Juno
(Giunone)
contralto unknown

Synopsis[edit]

Act 1[edit]

On hearing the news that her husband, the Emperor Claudius, has died in a storm at sea, Agrippina plots to secure the throne for Nero, her son by a previous marriage. Nero is unenthusiastic about this project, but assents to his mother's wishes ("Con saggio tuo consiglio"). Agrippina obtains the support of her two freedmen, Pallas and Narcissus, who hail Nero as the new Emperor before the Senate.

A representation of the Emperor Claudius

With the Senate's assent Agrippina and Nero begin to ascend the throne, but the ceremony is interrupted by the entrance of Claudius's servant Lesbus. He announces that his master is alive ("Allegrezza! Claudio giunge!"), saved from death by Otho, the commander of the army. Otho himself confirms the story, and reveals that Claudius has promised him the throne as a mark of gratitude. Agrippina is confounded, until Otho secretly confides to her that he loves the beautiful Poppaea more than he desires the throne. Agrippina, aware that Claudius also loves Poppaea, sees a new opportunity of furthering her ambitions for Nero. She goes to Poppaea and tells her, falsely, that Otho has struck a bargain with Claudius whereby he, Otho, gains the throne but gives Poppaea to Claudius. Agrippina advises Poppaea to turn the tables on Otho by telling the Emperor that Otho has ordered her to refuse Claudius's attentions. This, Agrippina believes, will make Claudius revoke his promise to Otho of the throne.

Poppaea believes Agrippina. When Claudius arrives at Poppaea's house she reveals what she believes is Otho's treachery. Claudius departs in fury, while Agrippina cynically consoles Poppaea by declaring that their friendship will never be broken by deceit ("Non hò cor che per amarti").

Act 2[edit]

Pallas and Narcissus realize that Agrippina has tricked them into supporting Nero, and decide to have no more to do with her. Otho arrives, nervous about his forthcoming coronation ("Coronato il crin d'allore"), followed by Agrippina, Nero and Poppaea, who have come to greet Claudius. All combine in a triumphal chorus ("Di timpani e trombe"), as Claudius enters. Each in turns pays tribute to the Emperor, but Otho is coldly rebuffed as Claudius denounces him as a traitor. Otho is devastated, and appeals to Agrippina, Poppaea, and Nero for support, but they all reject him, leaving him in bewilderment and despair ("Otton, qual portenso fulminare" followed by "Voi che udite il mio lamento").

However, Poppaea is touched by her former beloved's grief, and wonders if he might not be innocent ("Bella pur nel mio diletto"). She devises a plan, which involves pretended sleep and, when Otho approaches her, sleep-talking what Agrippina has told her earlier. Otho, as intended, overhears her and fiercely protests his innocence. He convinces Poppaea that Agrippina has deceived her. Poppaea swears revenge ("Ingannata una sol volta"),[45] but is distracted when Nero comes forward and declares his love for her. Meanwhile Agrippina has lost the support of Pallas and Narcissus, but manages to convince Claudius that Otho is still plotting to take the throne. She advises him that he should end Otho's ambitions once and for all by abdicating in favour of Nero. Claudius, eager to be with Poppaea again, agrees.

Act 3[edit]

Sung by Alyssa Veteto.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Poppaea now plans some deceit of her own, in an effort to divert Claudius's wrath from Otho with whom she is now reconciled. She hides Otho in her bedroom with instructions to listen carefully. Soon Nero arrives to press his love on her ("Coll ardor del tuo bel core"), but she tricks him into hiding as well. Then Claudius enters; Poppaea tells him that he had earlier misunderstood her: it was not Otho but Nero who had ordered her to reject Claudius. To prove her point she asks Claudius to pretend to leave, then she summons Nero who, thinking Claudius has gone, resumes his passionate wooing of Poppaea. Claudius suddenly reappears, and angrily dismisses the crestfallen Nero. After Claudius departs, Poppaea brings Otho out of hiding and the two express their everlasting love in separate arias.[46]

At the palace, Nero tells Agrippina of his troubles, and decides to renounce love for political ambition ("Come nubbe che fugge dal vento"). But Pallas and Narcissus have by now revealed Agrippina's original plot to Claudius, so that when Agrippina urges the Emperor to yield the throne to Nero, he accuses her of treachery. She then claims that her efforts to secure the throne for Nero had all along been a ruse to safeguard the throne for Claudius ("Se vuoi pace"). Claudius believes her; nevertheless, when Poppaea, Otho, and Nero arrive, Claudius announces that Nero and Poppaea will marry, and that Otho shall have the throne. No one is satisfied with this arrangement, as their desires have all changed, so Claudius in a spirit of reconciliation reverses his judgement, giving Poppaea to Otho and the throne to Nero.[47] He then summons the goddess Juno, who descends to pronounce a general blessing ("V'accendano le tede i raggi delle stelle").

List of arias and musical numbers[edit]

The index of Chrysander's edition (see below) lists the following numbers, excluding the secco recitatives. Variants from the libretto are also noted.

Music[edit]

Style[edit]

Stylistically, Agrippina follows the standard pattern of the era by alternating recitative and da capo arias. In accordance with 18th-century opera convention the plot is mainly carried forward in the recitatives, while the musical interest and exploration of character takes place in the arias—although on occasion Handel breaks this mould by using arias to advance the action.[49] With one exception the recitative sections are secco ("dry"), where a simple vocal line is accompanied by continuo only.[50] The anomaly is Otho's "Otton, qual portentoso fulmine", where he finds himself robbed of the throne and deserted by his beloved Poppaea; here the recitative is accompanied by the orchestra, as a means of highlighting the drama. Dean and Knapp describe this, and the Otho's aria which follows, as "the peak of the opera".[51] The 19th-century musical theorist Ebenezer Prout singles out Agrippina's "Non hò che per amarti" for special praise. He points out the range of instruments used for special effects, and writes that "an examination of the score of this air would probably astonish some who think Handel's orchestration is wanting in variety."[52]

Handel made more use than was then usual of orchestral accompaniment in arias, but in other respects Agrippina is more typical of an older operatic tradition. For the most part the arias are brief, there are only two short ensembles, and in the quartet and the trio the voices are not heard together.[49][53] However, Handel's basic style when he had matured would change very little in the next 30 years,[30] a point reflected in the reviews of the Tully Hall performance of Agrippina in 1985, which refer to a "string of melodious aria and ensembles, any of which could be mistaken for the work of his mature London years".[36]

A depiction of Handel receiving a crown of laurels from St Cecilia, patron saint of musicians

Character[edit]

Of the main characters, only Otho is not morally contemptible. Agrippina is an unscrupulous schemer; Nero, while not yet the monster he would become, is pampered and hypocritical; Claudius is pompous, complacent, and something of a buffoon, while Poppaea, the first of Handel's sex kittens, is also a liar and a flirt.[54] The freedmen Pallas and Narcissus are self-serving and salacious.[55] All, however, have some redeeming features, and all have arias that express genuine emotion. The situations in which they find themselves are sometimes comic, but never farcical—like Mozart in the Da Ponte operas, Handel avoids laughing at his characters.[55]

In Agrippina the da capo aria is the musical form used to illustrate character in the context of the opera.[56] The first four arias of the work exemplify this: Nero's "Con raggio", in a minor key and with a descending figure on the key phrase "il trono ascendero" ("I will ascend the throne") characterises him as weak and irresolute.[56] Pallas's first aria "La mia sorte fortunata", with its "wide-leaping melodic phrasing" introduces him as a bold, heroic figure, contrasting with his rival Narcissus whose introspective nature is displayed in his delicate aria "Volo pronto" which immediately follows.[56] Agrippina's introductory aria "L'alma mia" has a mock-military form which reflects her outward power, while subtle musical phrasing establishes her real emotional state.[56] Poppaea's arias are uniformly light and rhythmic, while Claudius's short love song "Vieni O cara" gives a glimpse of his inner feelings, and is considered one of the gems of the score.[57]

Irony[edit]

Grimani's libretto is full of irony, which Handel reflects in the music. His settings sometimes illustrate both the surface meaning, as characters attempt to deceive each other, and the hidden truth. For instance, in her Act I aria "Non hò che per amarti" Agrippina promises Poppaea that deceit will never mar their new friendship, while tricking her into ruining Otho's chances for the throne. Handel's music illuminates her deceit in the melody and minor modal key, while a simple, emphasised rhythmic accompaniment hints at clarity and openness.[58] In Act III, Nero's announcement that his passion is ended and that he will no longer bound by it (in "Come nubbe che fugge dal vento") is set to bitter-sweet music which suggests that he is deceiving himself.[59] In Otho's "Coronato il crin" the agitated nature of the music is the opposite of what the "euphoric" tone of the libretto suggests.[49] Contrasts between the force of the libretto and the emotional colour of the actual music would develop into a constant feature of Handel's later London operas.[49]

Agrippina is considered Handel's first operatic masterpiece;[1] according to Winton Dean it has few rivals for its "sheer freshness of musical invention".[19] Grimani's libretto has also come in for much praise: The New Penguin Opera Guide describes it as one of the best Handel ever set, and praises the "light touch" with which the characters are vividly portrayed.[1] Agrippina as a whole is, in the view of scholar John E. Sawyer, "among the most convincing of all the composer's dramatic works".[13]

Editions[edit]

Handel's autograph score survives, with the Sinfonia and first recitatives missing, but is significantly different from the libretto which reflects changes made for the first performances.[60][61] Handel's performing score is lost. Three early manuscript copies, probably dating from 1710, are held in Vienna; one of these may have been a gift from Grimani to the future Emperor Charles VI.[60] These copies, presumably based on the lost performing score, show further changes from the autograph. A Manuscript from the 1740s known as the Flower score is "a miscellany in haphazard order".[60]

In about 1795 the British composer Samuel Arnold produced an edition that agrees with the early copies; this edition, while it contains errors and inaccuracies, has been called "probably a reasonable reflection of early performances".[61] The Chrysander edition of 1874 has a tendency to "sweep Arnold aside when he is right and follow him when he is wrong."[60] Musicologist Anthony Hicks calls it "an unfortunate attempt to reconcile the autograph text with Arnold and the wordbook, the result being a composite version of no authority."[61] It is widely available online.

In 1950 Barenreiter published Hellmuth Christian Wolff's edition, prepared for the 1943 Halle revival and reflecting the casting of basses for Otto and Narcissus, even when they sing what would otherwise be the alto part in the last chorus.[62] It presents a German adaptation of the recitatives and written out embellishments for the da capo arias as well as numerous cuts. The B flat fugue G 37 appears as an act II overture along with other instrumental music.[63]

The Hallische Händelausgabe volume devoted to Agrippina has not yet appeared.[64]

Recordings[edit]

Year Cast
Claudius, Agrippina,
Nero, Poppaea, Otho
Conductor and Orchestra Label
1992 Lisa Saffer,
Capella Savaria,
Sally Bradshaw,
Wendy Hill,
Drew Minter
Nicholas McGegan,
Capella Savaria
3 CDs: Harmonia Mundi,
Cat. No. 907063/5[65]
1997 Alastair Miles,
Della Jones,
Derek Lee Ragin,
Donna Brown,
Michael Chance
John Eliot Gardiner,
English Baroque Soloists
3 CDs: Philips,
Cat. No. 438 009-2
1991 performance[65]
2000 Gunther Von Kannen,
Margarita Zimmerman,
Martine Dupey,
Carmen Balthrop
Bernadette Manca di Nissa
Christopher Hogwood,
Orchestra Giovanile del Veneto "Pedrollo" di Vicenza
3 CDs: Mondo Musica,
Cat. No. MFOH 10810
1983 performance[65]
2004 Nigel Smith,
Véronique Gens,
Philippe Jaroussky,
Ingrid Perruche,
Thierry Gregoire
Jean-Claude Malgoire,
La Grande Ecurie et la Chambre du Roy
3 CDs: Dynamic,
Cat. No. CDS431
2 DVD: Dynamic,
Cat. No. 33431[65]
2006 Piotr Micinski,
Annemarie Kremer,
Michael Hart-Davis,
Renate Arends,
Quirijn de Lang
Jan Willen de Vriend,
Combattimento Consort Amsterdam
2 DVD: Challenge Records (1994),
Cat. No. CCDVD 72143
2004 performance[66]
2008 Hiroshi Matsui,
Susanne Geb,
Judith Braun,
Elizabeth Wiles,
David Cordier
Konrad Junghänel,
Saarbrücken State Theater Orchestra
2 DVD:Intergroove Classics
Cat:IGC59[67]
2011 Alexandrina Pendatchanska,
Jennifer Rivera
Sunhae Im
Bejun Mehta,
Marcos Fink
Neal Davies
Dominique Visse
Daniel Schmutzhard
René Jacobs,
Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin
3 CDs: Harmonia Mundi,
Cat. No. HMC952088.90>

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c Brown, pp. 357–58
  2. ^ a b c d "Agrippina by George Frideric Handel". Richmond, Va: Virginia Opera. 2006. Retrieved 5 March 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c Grout & Weigel, pp. 184–85
  4. ^ a b c Boyden et al., p. 56
  5. ^ Dean (1980), p. 86
  6. ^ Secco or "dry" recitative is sung without orchestral accompaniment, functioning as dialogue and advancing the action of the drama.
  7. ^ Dean (1997), p. 1 c.2
  8. ^ a b Lang, p. 91
  9. ^ a b c d Neef, pp. 196–97
  10. ^ Bianconi et al., pp. 12–13
  11. ^ a b Dean & Knapp, p. 128
  12. ^ a b c d Dean (1997), p. 2 c.1
  13. ^ a b c Sawyer, p. 531
  14. ^ a b Boyden et al., pp. 57–58
  15. ^ Sawyer, pp. 533–41
  16. ^ Dean (1997), p. 5 c.2
  17. ^ Warrack, p. 336
  18. ^ Hicks (1982)
  19. ^ a b Dean (1997), p. 5 c.1
  20. ^ a b Dean (1997), p. 3 c.2
  21. ^ Sawyer, p. 554
  22. ^ Dean & Knapp, Appendix B
  23. ^ Dean & Knapp, p. 127
  24. ^ Dean p.2 c.2
  25. ^ a b Dean (1997) p. 1 c.1
  26. ^ a b Hicks (Grove Music Online)
  27. ^ Mainwaring, John (1760), Memoirs of the Life of the Late George Frederic Handel London. Quoted in Brown, p. 418
  28. ^ Dean (1997) p. 5
  29. ^ Dean & Knapp, p. 130
  30. ^ a b Dean (1980), p. 110
  31. ^ Dean, Handel Tercentenary Collection, p. 9
  32. ^ Casaglia, Gherardo. "Agrippina". amadeusonline. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  33. ^ a b c Dean & Knapp, Appendix F
  34. ^ Casaglia, Gherardo. "Agrippina". amadeusonline. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  35. ^ Brown, p. 418
  36. ^ a b Menahan, Donal (12 February 1985). "The Opera: Agrippina presented at Tully Hall". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 200. 
  37. ^ a b Kozinn, New York Times 26 October 2007 Retrieved on 3 March 2009
  38. ^ Maddocks, London Evening Standard 6 February 2007 Retrieved on 3 March 2009
  39. ^ Picard, Anna (11 February 2007). "Agrippina, The Coliseum, London". The Independent. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2009. 
  40. ^ "Handel Operas on BBC Radio3". Handel House Museum. Retrieved 4 March 2009. 
  41. ^ According to Hicks, writing in Grove, evidence would suggest that for some performances Durastanti was replaced by Elena Croce, a soprano who had previously sung for Scarlatti and later sang in London, though not for Handel. Hicks, Anthony, "Agrippina" in Grove Music Online Retrieved on 8 March 2009.
  42. ^ In modern terms, Boschi's voice was that of a baritone. Hogwood, p. 96
  43. ^ According to Dean (1997), Pasini was a priest.
  44. ^ Carli evidently was able to utilise an exceptionally wide range; the part descends to C below the stave. Dean (1997), p. 4 c.1
  45. ^ Alternate aria "Pur punir chi m'ha ingannata"
  46. ^ Otho in "Pur ch'io ti stringa" and Poppaea with "Bel piacere"; the final versions of these arias are "No, no, ch'io non apprezzo" and "Sì Sì ch'il mio diletto"
  47. ^ In the printed argument Grimani reminds his audience of Poppaea's later change of affections.
  48. ^ a b c d e f "George Frideric Handel: Agrippina - libretto di Vincenzo Grimani" (PDF). Haendel.it. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  49. ^ a b c d Dean, p. 4 c.2
  50. ^ "Recitative", Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. 9, p 978: "Accompaniment [to secco recitative], usually by continuo (cello and harpsichord), is simple and chordal."
  51. ^ Dean & Knapp, p. 123
  52. ^ Prout, p. 70
  53. ^ Brown, p. 419
  54. ^ Dean & Knapp, pp. 118–19 and p. 124
  55. ^ a b Dean & Knapp, p. 119
  56. ^ a b c d La Rue, pp. 112–13
  57. ^ Dean & Knapp, pp. 122–25
  58. ^ Sawyer, pp. 532–34
  59. ^ Sawyer, p. 534
  60. ^ a b c d Dean & Knapp, pp. 135–39
  61. ^ a b c Hicks, Anthony, "Agrippina" in Grove Music Online Retrieved on 8 March 2009
  62. ^ Wolff, Barenreiter edition, Act III.
  63. ^ Wolff, Barenreiter edition, Act II
  64. ^ Hallische Händelausgabe Retrieved on 22 March 2009
  65. ^ a b c d "George Frideric Handel: Opera Discography" (PDF). Gfhandel.org. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
  66. ^ http://www.operadis-opera-discography.org.uk/CLHAAGRI.HTM#9
  67. ^ "Recordings of Agrippina". Prestoclassical.co.uk. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
Sources
Further reading

External links[edit]