|Family:||Strophariaceae (formerly Bolbitiaceae)|
Mushroom cultivation began with the Romans and Greeks, who grew the small Agrocybe aegerita. The Romans, who wrote that fungi were thought to arise when lightning struck, collected truffles. In Europe, toxic forms are not normally found, but the Agrocybe molesta is easily confused with Agaricus (white mushrooms) or with seriously poisonous forms of Amanita.
The edible southern species Agrocybe aegerita, also called Agrocybe cylindracea or Pholiota aegerita, is commonly known as Poplar mushroom, Chestnut mushroom or Velvet pioppino (Chinese: 茶樹菇). It belongs to the white rot fungi and is a medium-sized agaric having a very open and convex cap, almost flat, of 3 to 10 cm in diameter. Underneath, it has numerous whitish radial plates adherent to the foot, later turning to a brownish-gray color, and light elliptic spores of 8-11 by 5-7 micrometres. The white fiber foot is generally curved, having a membraneous ring on the top part which promptly turns to tobacco color due to the falling spores. When very young, its color may be reddish-brown and later turn to a light brown color, more ocher toward the center and whiter around its border. It grows in tufts on logs and holes in the poplars, and other trees of large leaves It is cultivated and sold in Japan, Korea, Australia and China. It is an important valuable source possessing varieties of bioactive secondary metabolites such as indole derivatives with free radical scavenging activity, cylindan with anticancer activity, and also agrocybenine with antifungal activity.
Agrocybe farinacea of Japan, whose species is closely related to Agrocybe putaminum, has been reported to contain the hallucinogen psilocybin, however there has been no recent chemical analysis carried out on this mushroom, nor any modern reports of psychoactivity.
Selected list of species
- Agrocybe acericola (maple agrocybe)
- Agrocybe aegerita
- Agrocybe amara
- Agrocybe arvalis
- Agrocybe cylindracea
- Agrocybe dura
- Agrocybe erebia
- Agrocybe farinacea (possibly contains psilocybin)
- Agrocybe firma
- Agrocybe molesta
- Agrocybe paludosa
- Agrocybe parasitica
- Agrocybe pediades (common lawn mushroom)
- Agrocybe praecox (common, widespread, and edible)
- Agrocybe putaminum
- Agrocybe retigera
- Agrocybe semiorbicularis
- Agrocybe sororia
- Agrocybe vervacti
- Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. (10th ed.). Wallingford: CABI. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
- Clifford A. Wright, Mediterranean vegetables: a cook's ABC of vegetables and their preparation, pg. 229, Harvard Common Press (2001), ISBN 1-55832-196-9
- Mariano García Rollán, Cultivo de setas y trufas, pg. 167, MUNDI-PRENSA (2007), ISBN 84-8476-316-1 (Spanish)
- Jian-Jiang Zhong, Feng-Wu Bai, Wei Zhang, Biotechnology in China I: From Bioreaction to Bioseparation and Bioremediation, vol. 1, pag. 102, Springer (2009), ISBN 3-540-88414-9
- Rijksherbarium, Blumea: Supplement, vol. 4, pg. 142, Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Geography, Netherlands (1952)
- Jonathan Ott, Albert Hofmann, Pharmacotheon: Entheogenic Drugs, Their Plant Sources and History, pg. 313, Natural Products Company (1993), ISBN 0-9614234-9-8