Agumbe

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Agumbe
ಆಗುಂಬೆ
village
A fog-filled valley, viewed from Sunset Point.
A fog-filled valley, viewed from Sunset Point.
Agumbe is located in Karnataka
Agumbe
Agumbe
Coordinates: 13°30′31″N 75°05′45″E / 13.5087°N 75.0959°E / 13.5087; 75.0959Coordinates: 13°30′31″N 75°05′45″E / 13.5087°N 75.0959°E / 13.5087; 75.0959
Country India
State Karnataka
District Shimoga district
Area
 • Total 3 km2 (1 sq mi)
Elevation[1] 643 m (2,110 ft)
Population
 • Total 500
 • Density 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Kannada
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 577411
Telephone code 08181
Vehicle registration KA-14

Agumbe (Kannada: ಆಗುಂಬೆ) is a small village located in Shimoga district, Thirthahalli taluk in the Malnad region of Karnataka, India. It is sometimes called "The Cherrapunji of the South" after Cherrapunji, in Northeast India.[2] Agumbe is associated with rainforest conservation efforts, documentation of medicinal plants, tourism (trekking and photography), power generation through hydroelectrics and promotion of cottage industry. Naxal communists are active in Agumbe and surrounds.[3]

Location[edit]

Agumbe lies in the West coastal region of South India(Shimoga District), approximately 357 km west-northwest of Bangalore, the state capital of Karnataka in South India. It is approximately 55 km from the Arabian Sea and the coast of India at Udupi city which hosts the nearest big railway station. The elevation of Agumbe is 643m.[1] The Mani reservoir lies to the North. As part of the Western Ghats mountain range, Agumbe lies in a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[4] Agumbe is near the Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kudremukh National Park.

Size[edit]

Agumbe is a small hill village with very limited visitor accommodation. The population is approximately 500 people. The village covers an area of 3 square kilometres (1.2 sq mi).[5]

Economy[edit]

The villagers of Agumbe are subsistence farmers. The Raksha Kavacha Weavers’ Cooperative Society represents the beginnings of cottage industry in the village.[6]

Geography[edit]

Someshwara below Agumbe

Agumbe lies in a hilly, wet region of the Western Ghat mountains. This geography contributes to its scenery, suitability for trekking, leech infestation and motor vehicle accidents. In addition, there are a number of waterfalls in the locality.

Hilly terrain

Waterfalls[edit]

Barkana Falls[edit]

Barkana Falls (Latitude 13.449315, Longitude 75.136015), Northeast of Agumbe, is 850 ft/259 mts in height.[7] It is the tenth highest falls in India.[8] It is a fall in the Seeta River which powers a hydroelectric system. The viewing point for the Barkana Falls is about 4 km from the end of the approaching vehicle track.[9]

Onake Abbi Falls[edit]

View from atop Onake Abbi Falls

Onake Abbi Falls (latitude 13°30'44"N, longitude 75°4'25"E) at 400 feet, is smaller than Barkana Falls.[10] In the Kannada language, "onake" means 'pounding stick', an instrument used by villagers to pound grains to flour. Trekking for 5 km through rainforest is needed in order to reach a view of the falls.

Jogigundi Falls[edit]

Jogigundi is a small water fall near Agumbe.

Koodlu Theertha Falls[edit]

Koodlu Theerthra waterfall is located 20 km from Agumbe.

Koodlu Theertha Falls

Scenery[edit]

Sunset Point[edit]

Sunset View Point rests on one of the highest peaks of the Western Ghats on the Udupi-Agumbe Road. It is ten minutes walk from Agumbe.[11] On a fine evening, the sunset can be seen over the Arabian Sea.[12]

Climate[edit]

Agumbe hosts India's first automatic weather station, founded by Romulus Whitaker b. 1943, New York, NY.[13] Agumbe lies in a rainforest region with a tropical climate, warm and humid. Under the Köppen system of climate classification Agumbe is an 'Am' climate, that is, a tropical monsoon climate.[14] A dense silvery fog forms over the Western Ghats contributing to the natural beauty of Agumbe.[15]

Rainfall[edit]

The driest month in Agumbe is August. The wettest month is July with an average of 2,647 mm. The mean annual rainfall is 7,620 millimetres (300 in).[16] The highest recorded rainfall in a single month was 4,508 millimetres (177.5 in) in August 1946.[17]

Temperature[edit]

Maximum temperatures in Agumbe vary between 24.4 and 31.5 degrees Celsius. Minimum temperatures vary between 16.2 and 21.4 degrees Celsius. Average temperatures vary between 22.2 degrees Celsius and 23.6 degrees Celsius with an annual average temperature of 23.5 degrees Celsius. April is the hottest month of the year and December the coolest. The average annual variation in temperature is 4.1 degrees Celsius.[14] The lowest recorded temperature was 3.2 degrees Celsius in 1975 and the highest, 37 degrees Celsius in 2008-9.[15]

Climate data for Agumbe
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.1
(91.6)
34.5
(94.1)
36
(97)
36.9
(98.4)
37.8
(100)
36.4
(97.5)
33.1
(91.6)
32.4
(90.3)
34.2
(93.6)
33
(91)
32
(90)
31.2
(88.2)
37.8
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 28.6
(83.5)
30.2
(86.4)
32.9
(91.2)
34.1
(93.4)
31.3
(88.3)
23.4
(74.1)
22.1
(71.8)
23.5
(74.3)
26.3
(79.3)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27.2
(81)
27.8
(82.11)
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.3
(70.3)
23.6
(74.5)
26.1
(79)
28
(82)
27.4
(81.3)
24.6
(76.3)
23.9
(75)
23.5
(74.3)
23.9
(75)
23.7
(74.7)
22.2
(72)
13
(55)
23.43
(74.12)
Average low °C (°F) 11.3
(52.3)
13.2
(55.8)
17.6
(63.7)
18.8
(65.8)
19.5
(67.1)
18
(64)
17.8
(64)
17.6
(63.7)
16.8
(62.2)
16.4
(61.5)
14.7
(58.5)
11.5
(52.7)
16.1
(60.94)
Record low °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
6.4
(43.5)
9.9
(49.8)
14.8
(58.6)
15.2
(59.4)
14.4
(57.9)
14
(57)
13.5
(56.3)
12.8
(55)
9
(48)
6.3
(43.3)
4.6
(40.3)
3.2
(37.8)
Rainfall mm (inches) 2
(0.08)
1
(0.04)
10
(0.39)
31
(1.22)
157.6
(6.205)
1,665
(65.55)
2,647
(104.21)
2,104
(82.83)
672
(26.46)
248.7
(9.791)
64
(2.52)
22
(0.87)
7,624.3
(300.166)
Source: IMD Bangalore[18]

Ecology and biodiversity[edit]

Rainforest is a dense, wet, tropical evergreen ecosystem, high in its level of biodiversity. According to the 'Champion and Seth' classification, Agumbe is an area of "Southern tropical wet evergreen forests" (1A/C4). R.S. Troup, an eminent forester of his day, said,

"The tropical evergreen rain forests are characterised by the great luxuriance of their vegetation which consists of several tiers, the highest containing lofty trees...covered by numerous epiphytes" [19]

Agumbe rainforest research station[edit]

The Agumbe Rainforest Research Station (ARRS) was founded in 2005 by Romulus Whitaker, a herpetologist. (Whitaker had been familiar with Agumbe since the 1970s when he began studying the King Cobra.[20] Its purpose is to create a local biodiversity database, encourage individual scientific research, collaborate with India's Department of Forestry and conserve the rainforest of the Western Ghats as well as to educate the residents of the region in the importance of forestry conservation. The King Cobra, an endangered species is the station's "flagship species".[5] The station occupies an area of 8 acres (32,000 m2). Funding for the station came from Whitaker's mother, Doris Norden and from the Whitley Award received by Whitaker in 2005.

Medicinal plants conservation area[edit]

The Agumbe Medicinal Plants Conservation Area (MPCA) was established in 1999 to protect the important medicinal plants of the region. The "Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions" (FRLHT) recorded 371 plant species in the MPCA at Agumbe, of which 182 were medicinal.[19][21]

Flora[edit]

Endangered plant species[edit]

Endangered plant species in the area include [22]

Plant species named for Agumbe[edit]

Other plant species discovered at Agumbe[edit]

A Panorama of Agumbe

Fauna[edit]

Mammals[edit]

Agumbe provides an environment for large and small mammals such as the endangered lion-tailed macaque,[29][30] tiger,[31] leopard, sambar, giant squirrel, Dhole, a wild dog of India, Gaur, the Indian bison and barking deer.

The endangered Lion-tailed macaque found in Western Ghat

Reptiles and amphibians[edit]

In creating funds for conservation of the Agumbe rainforest, the Ophiophagus hannah, King Cobra is a 'flagship' species.[32] An Agumbe based scientific project to radio-locate rescued King Cobras aims to determine whether relocation is helpful to their survival.[33] other reptiles and amphibians of the area include the Cane Turtle and a flying lizard.

Birds[edit]

Agumbe is a popular destination for bird watchers and photographers. Among the endemic birds are the Malabar Trogon, the Yellow-browed Bulbul and Sri Lankan Frogmouths.[34]

Great Hornbil

Insects and marine species[edit]

Agumbe's many insect species include the Atlas moth, Cyclotoma alleni (a beetle discovered in Agumbe),[35] Selenops agumbensis, a spider and Drosophila agumbensis a small fly species. Cremnoconchus agumbensis is a local small fresh water snail.[36]

Malgudi Days[edit]

Malgudi Days (1985) is a television serial directed by Shankar Nag. It was based on novels written by R. K. Narayan. Many episodes were filmed in Agumbe.[37] In 2004, a new set of episodes of Malgudi Days was filmed at Agumbe by Kavitha Lankesh (director).[37][38]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Agumbe Rainforest Research Station". Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  2. ^ "Agumbe awash in monsoon magic" [1] The Hindu. Karnataka, India. 29 July 2005. In English. Accessed 24 October 2013.
  3. ^ Sampalli, J. "Voters ignore Naxal boycott call". [2] The New India Express online. 6 May 2013. Accessed 25 October 2013
  4. ^ "Decisions adopted by the world heritage committee at its 35th session". [3] UNESCO. 7 July 2011. In English and French. Accessed 24 October 2013.
  5. ^ a b ARRS. [4] Karnataka. Accessed 24 October 2013
  6. ^ Veerendra P. M. "Spinning a wheel of change in naxal-hit villages" [5] The Hindu. 15 October 2012. In English. Accessed 25 October 2013
  7. ^ "Barkana Falls." [6] World Waterfall Database.21 May 2011. Accessed 25 October 2013
  8. ^ "Barkana Falls" [7] Tourist Link. Accessed 25 October 2013
  9. ^ Team G Square Blog. [8] Blogger 14 November 2010. Accessed 25 October 2013
  10. ^ "Onake Abbi Falls" [malnadinfo.webs.com/file_oa.html] Thirthahalli Tourist Information. Accessed 25 October 2013
  11. ^ "Sunset point, Agumbe" [9] Holidayiq.com Accessed 25 October 2013.
  12. ^ "Agumbe Sunset Point" [10] Udupi Tourism. Accessed 25 October 2013
  13. ^ Chandra N. S. "New weather station at Agumbe" [11] Deccan Herald, Bangalore. Accessed 24 October 2013
  14. ^ a b "Climate-Agumbe" [12] Climatedata.org. Accessed 24 October 2013
  15. ^ a b Sampalli, Jagadeesh. "The changing face of Agumbe". [13] IBNlive.In.com (CNN). 23 January 2012. In English. Accessed 24 October 2013.
  16. ^ http://www.imdbangalore.gov.in/page2.pdf
  17. ^ "Climate" [14] Western Ghats Biodiversity Information System. Environment Information System (ENVIS) Centre for Ecological Sciences [CES] Indian Institute of Sciences [IISc], Bangalore. Accessed 24 October 2013
  18. ^ "India Meteorological Department, Meteorological Center, Bengaluru". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  19. ^ a b Prabhakaran V. "Agumbe Medicinal Plants Conservation Area – A tribute to Kuvempu" [15] Medplant Network News, Volume 3, September–October 2003. International Development Research Centre (pub), Canada. In English. Accessed 24 October 2013
  20. ^ Opili, P. "Whitaker gets top U.K. conservation prize" [16] The Hindu (Tamil Nadu News) 28 April 2005. In English. Accessed 24 October 2013.
  21. ^ Ved D. K. and Goraya G. S. "Demand and supply of medicinal plants in India" Dehra Dun : Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (publishers), 2008.
  22. ^ "10 per cent of native plant species in Western Ghats on endangered list." [17] The Hindu. 11 November 2011. In English. Accessed 25 October 2013.
  23. ^ "Meliola agumbinensis" [18] International Mycology Association: Fungal databases, nomenclature and species banks. Accessed 24 October 2013
  24. ^ "Tarenna agumbensis" [19] Mongabay.com Accessed 25 October 2013
  25. ^ "Meliola agumbinensis" [20] International Mycology Association: Fungal databases, nomenclature and species banks. Accessed 24 October 2013
  26. ^ "Dactylaria agumbinensis" [21] International Mycology Association: Fungal databases, nomenclature and species banks. Accessed 24 October 2013
  27. ^ Udar et al. The Bryologist Vol. 85, No. 3, Autumn, 1982. "A new Caudalejeunea from India" [22] JStor.org Accessed 25 October 2013
  28. ^ "Notothylas dissecta, A Hornwort new to India" The Bryologist, Vol. 82, No. 4, Winter, 1979. [23] Jstor.org Accessed 25 October 2013.
  29. ^ "Lion-tailed macaque" [24] Friends of the Smithsonian National Zoo. 2005. Accessed 25 October 2013
  30. ^ Karanth K. U. "Conservation prospects for lion-tailed macaques in Karnataka, India." [25] Wiley, publisher. Accessed 25 October 2013
  31. ^ "India's work for tigers" [26] WWF - India. Accessed 25 October 2013
  32. ^ Mohamed bin Zayed Species project number 0925556, King Cobra. [27] Speciesconservation.org. 24 October 2009. Accessed 25 October 2013
  33. ^ "King cobra radio telemetry project – six month report." [28] ARRS. Accessed 25 October 2013
  34. ^ "Rainforest Rendezvous – Photography Tour of Agumbe" [29] Darter Photography Tours. Accessed 25 October 2013
  35. ^ Tomaszewska, K.W. 2003: Cyclotoma alleni, new species from India (Coleoptera: Endomychidae). Annales zoologici, 53: 203-204. ISSN: 0003-4541 [not seen]
  36. ^ Reid et al. "A unique radiation of marine littorinid snails in the freshwater streams of the Western Ghats of India: the genus Cremnoconchus" [30] WoRMS. Accessed 25 October 2013
  37. ^ a b "The Malgudi that is Agumbe" [31] The Hindu. 20 February 2011. In English. Accessed 25 October 2013
  38. ^ "Malgudi Days are back". Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 11 April 2004. 2004, The Printers (Mysore) Private Ltd. Retrieved 16 May 2007.