Ahir Bhairav

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For the Assamese language film, see Ahir Bhairav (film).

Ahir Bhairav is a Hindustani classical raga. It is a mixture of Bhairav and the ancient but now rare raga Ahiri or Abhiri,[1] or perhaps a mixture of Bhairav and Kafi.[2]

Theory[edit]

Arohana and avarohana[edit]

Arohana

S r G m P D n S'

Avarohana

S' n D P m G r S

Key:
S, R, G, m, P, D: shuddha (natural);
r, g, d, n : komal (flat);
M: teevra (sharp)

Pa and Sa are sometimes avoided in ascending [Arohan].. The descend can be direct, but is often expressed as S' n D P m, G m Gr ~ S with a slight oscillation on komal re to express the character of Bhairav [1]

Vadi and samavadi[edit]

Vadi
ma
Samavadi
Sa
But Ga, Pa and Dha

Pakad or Chalan[edit]

S, r G M, G M r, ṇ Ḍ, ṇ r S

| komal Ni, shuddha Dha, komal Ni, komal Re, Sa | is the most characteristic run, where the Ni and Dha belong to the lower octave and the Re and Sa are from the middle octave. There is typically some andolan/oscillation at the flattened second (komal Re).

Organization and relationships[edit]

Also there may be impressions of Kafi, the image of Ahir Bhairav is easily maintained with the characteristic passage ṇ Ḍ ṇ/r~ S [1] Specially the characteristic Bhairav andolan (oscillation) on komal re. Sometimes shuddha Ni is used in the lower octave to emphazise the Bhairav character.[3]

The Carnatic music equivalent to this raga is Chakravakam.

Behavior[edit]

Ahir Bhairav is typical uttarang raga, which means emphasis is on the upper tetrachord.

Samay (Time)[edit]

The second Prahr of the morning, around 6 - 9 AM.

Seasonality[edit]

Certain ragas have seasonal associations.

Rasa[edit]

Historical Information[edit]

Origins[edit]

Important Recordings[edit]

Wasif-ud-din Dagar, Music Today Cassette:A97015, (Alap and Composition in Dhamar); 'Chalo sakhi braj raje'[4]

Ravi Shankar, HMV LP, "Three Classical Ragas" 1957, free improvisation and Gat in Rapuktala.

Film Songs based on Ahir bhairav[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bor 1999
  2. ^ Kaufmann 1968, p.250
  3. ^ Kaufmann 1968, p.251
  4. ^ Bagchee 1998

Literature[edit]

(most) entries due to: Moutal, Patrick (1991), Hindustāni Rāga-s Index, New Dheli: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, ISBN 81-215-0525-7 

  • Bhatkhande, Vishnu Nayaran (1968–73), Hindusthānī Sangīta Paddhaati: Kramika Pustaka Mālikā (6 vols.) 5, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya, pp. 346–351 
  • Bhatkhande, Vishnu Nayaran (1968–75), Hindusthānī Sangīta Paddhaati: Sangīta Śāstra (4 vols) 2, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya, pp. 359–376 
  • Bhatt, Balvantray (1977), Bhāvaranga Lahāri 2, Varanasi: Motilal Barnasidas, pp. 53–61 
  • Gandharva, Kumar (1965), Anūpa rāga vilāsa, Bombay: Mauj Prakashan, pp. 4–5 
  • Jha, Ramashraya (1968–78), Ābhinava Gītānjali (2 vols) 1, Allahabad: Sangeet Sadan Prakashan, pp. 299–319 
  • Khan, Raja Nawab Ali (1924), Māriphunnagamāta 1, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya, pp. 216–217 
  • Khan, Raja Nawab Ali (1924), Māriphunnagamāta 2, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya, pp. 95–97 
  • Patki, J.D (1971–75), Aprakāśita Rāga 3, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya, pp. 85–90 
  • Patwaradan, Narayan Rao (1972), Tarala Prabandhāvalī, Rajasthan: Vanasthali Vidyapith, p. 4 
  • Patwaradan, Vinayak Rao (1961–74), Raga Vijñāna (7 vols) 5, Poona: Sangeet Gaurav Granthamala, pp. 193–198 
  • Phulambrikar, Krishnarao, Rāga Sangraha (7 vols) 6, Poona, pp. 1–4 
  • Ratanjankar, S.N., Abhinava Gīta Manjarī (vols 1,2a,2b) 2a, Bombay: Popular Prakashan, pp. 144–148 
  • Srivastava, Jaisuklai (1969), Malhāra Ke Prakāra 4, Bombay: Jaisuklal Shah, pp. 19–22 
  • Vaze, Ramkrishna Narahar (1938), Sangīta Kala Prakāśa 1, Poona: Ramkrishna Sangeet Vidyalaya, pp. 79–80 
  • Rao, Suvarnalata; Wim, van der Meer; Jane, Harvey (1999), Bor, Joep, ed., The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindustani Ragas, London: Zenith Media 
  • Bagchee, Sandeep (1999), NĀD Understanding Raga Music, Mumbai: Eshwar, ISBN 81-86982-08-6 
  • Kaufmann, Walter (1968), The ragas of North india, Calcutta, New Dheli, Bombay: Oxford & IBH Publishing Company 

External links[edit]