Ahmadiyya in Pakistan

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Pakistani Ahmadis
Total population
2-5 million
Regions with significant populations
Rabwah, Sialkot District, Karachi, Lahore
Languages
Urdu, Pashto, Sindhi, Punjabi
Religion
Islam

Approximately 2–5 million members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community live in Pakistan or were born in Pakistan.[1][2][3][4] Hence Pakistan is the home to the largest population of Ahmadis in the world. The city of Rabwah in Punjab, Pakistan used to be the global headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community before they were moved to England. The Ahmadiyya population in Pakistan has often come under persecution and discrimination by the Muslim majority, who regard the Ahmadiyya as a heretic sect. Nevertheless, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community thrives and there are Ahmadiyya places of worship, as well as Dawah facilities, established throughout the country where Ahmadis practice their faith.

The Ahmadiyya sect has its origins in the Punjab region, in the city of Qadian. Following the independence of Pakistan as a separate nation for Muslims in the Indian subcontinent, the majority of Ahmadis in areas constituting present-day India moved to the newly created state, establishing Pakistan as the central and global hub of the international Ahmadiyya movement. Although a relatively small minority in the country, there have been a number of notable Pakistani people who have belonged to the Ahmadi community, including renowned scientist Abdus Salam, the country's first Nobel Prize laureate.

History[edit]

Pre-independence era[edit]

Supporters of Pakistani movement[edit]

Movement for returning of Jinnah[edit]
Main article: Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad, the second spiritual leader of the community gave command to the cleric of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in England named Maulana Abdul Raheem Dard to talk with Jinnah. He met Jinnah in King Bench Walk London for three hours.[5] Jinnah agreed to it and he returned to India.

Support in AIML in 1946 elections of India[edit]

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, drafted Pakistan Resolution,[6] Ahmad advised the Ahmadis to support All India Muslim League in the elections of 1945–6.[7] Khan also did a speech in London for the freedom of India.

Resignation of Khizat Hayat Tiwanna[edit]

Khan, gave an advise to Khizer Hayat to resign from the ministry and he resigned.[8]

Struggle for Muslim Rights in Boundary Commission[edit]
Main article: Radcliffe Line

Ahmadis proved to be the Muslims and working for the rights of Muslims in the Radcliffe Line.[9]

After the creation of Pakistan and creation of Rabwah[edit]

Main article: Rabwah

After the creation of Pakistan,some Ahmadis with the Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad came to Pakistan and constructed their own city which is considered as Promised Land.

1953 Anti-Ahmadiyya riots[edit]

Main article: 1953 Lahore riots

A massive persecution was launched by Anti-Ahmadiyya to persecute and to finish Ahmadiyya Muslim Community by Islamists including Jamaat-e-Islami. Government of Pakistan putted down the revolution. Ahrar was banned in it.

1974 Anti-Ahmadiyya riots and Second Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan[edit]

More massive persecution and Anti-Ahmadiyya movement called Tehreek-e-Khatme Nabuwwat, Pasban Khatme Nabuwwat launched by all Islamist parties. They forced the Government of Pakistan under Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to pass a constitutionally Second Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan for declaring members of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community as kafirs.

1984 Anti-Ahmadiyya Amendment[edit]

Main article: Ordinance XX

Under president Zia-ul-Haq, another anti-Ahmadiyya amendment was made in the Constitution of Pakistan which restricted the freedom of religion for Ahmadis. According to this law, Ahmadis cannot call themselves Muslim or "pose as Muslims" which is punishable by three years in prison.[10]

Headquarters shifted to London[edit]

After these two amendments which legalized persecution of them. The caliph of the community Mirza Tahir Ahmad shifted and central headquarters were shifted there.

Community issues[edit]

Persecution and anti-Ahmadiyya sentiment[edit]

Qadiani and Mirzai are the deragatory terms used for Ahmadis. Anti-Ahmadiyya's council has suggested the Islamist jihad to the finish the community.[11]

Notable members[edit]

Following are the notable members of the Ahmadiyya community:

Religious leaders[edit]

Except the first Khalīfatul Masīh, Hakeem Noor-ud-Din, all others are from Pakistan and Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad migrated to Pakistan after Partition of India.

  • Mirza Masroor Ahmad-Born in Rabwah on September 15, 1950 and current Khalifatul Masih of the community. Guiding the community through a period of widespread skepticism towards Islam, regularly holds peace conferences. Launched sister channels MTA 2 and MTA3 Al Arabiyya.
  • Mirza Tahir Ahmad, 4th Khalīfatul Masīh,led the community through periods of severe persecution, provisionally changed the Ahmadiyya headquarters from Rabwah to London and launched the first Ahmadiyya satellite TV channel by the name of Muslim Television Ahmadiyya International.
  • Mirza Nasir Ahmad, 3rd Khalīfatul Masīh, spoke himself for the Ahmadiyya community at the National Assembly of Pakistan, laid the foundation of the first mosque in Spain after 750 years. He oversaw the compilation of the dreams, visions, and revelations and the dialogues of the founder, Ghulam Ahmad.
  • Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad, Son of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, was elected as Khalifa at the young age of 25, considered to be the 'promised son'. He established the entire organisational structure of the community, and is known for extensive missionary activity outside the subcontinent of India and Pakistan Movement.
  • Hakeem Noor-ud-Din, 1st Khalīfatul Masīh, safeguarded the religion from the Muslim leaders who did not like the forming of this new movement in Islam.

Military[edit]

Ahmadis, had served in the military of Pakistan and fought in Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts.

Writers[edit]

Diplomats[edit]

  • Muhammad Zafarullah Khan-first Foreign Minister of Pakistan (1947–54), President of the UN General Assembly (1962–64), President of the International Court of Justice (1970–73).
  • Mirza Muzaffar Ahmad- prominent civil servant of Pakistan and former executive director and vice president of the World Bank.
  • Naseer Ahmad Faruqui- served as Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan, the first chairman of the Capital Development Authority, and Principal Secretary to President Ayub Khan.

Education and science[edit]

Artists[edit]

  • Saira Wasim-well known Pakistani artist of international repute.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ over 2 million: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (2008-12-04). "Pakistan: The situation of Ahmadis, including legal status and political, education and employment rights; societal attitudes toward Ahmadis (2006 - Nov. 2008)". Retrieved 2012-06-28. 
  2. ^ 3 million: International Federation for Human Rights: International Fact-Finding Mission. Freedoms of Expression, of Association and of Assembly in Pakistan. Ausgabe 408/2, Januar 2005, S. 61 (PDF)
  3. ^ 3–4 million: Commission on International Religious Freedom: Annual Report of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. 2005, S. 130
  4. ^ 4.910.000: James Minahan: Encyclopedia of the stateless nations. Ethnic and national groups around the world. Greenwood Press . Westport 2002, page 52
  5. ^ "Movement for returning Jinnah to India". Perseuction.org. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  6. ^ Khan, Wali. "Facts are Facts: The Untold Story of India's Partition". pp. 40–42. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Support of AIML in elections by Bashir Ahmad". Persecution.org. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  8. ^ "Resignation of Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana". Persecution.org. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  9. ^ "Struggling for Muslim Rights". Persecution.org. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  10. ^ "ORDINANCE NO. XX OF 1984". The Persecution. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  11. ^ "Anti-Ahmadiyya conferences on the increase in Pakistan". Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat International (Anti-Ahmadiyya conferences on the increase in Pakistan). Anti-Ahmadiyya conferences on the increase in Pakistan. Retrieved 14 November 2011.