Aicardi–Goutières syndrome

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Aicardi–Goutières syndrome
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 G31.8
OMIM 225750
DiseasesDB 31680
GeneReviews

Aicardi–Goutières syndrome (AGS), which is completely distinct from the similarly named Aicardi syndrome, is a rare, usually early onset childhood, inflammatory disorder most typically affecting the brain and the skin (neurodevelopmental disorder).[1][2] The majority of affected individuals experience significant intellectual and physical problems, although this is not always the case. The clinical features of AGS can mimic those of in utero acquired infection, and some characteristics of the condition also overlap with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).[3][4][5] Following an original description of eight cases in 1984,[1] the condition was first referred to as 'Aicardi–Goutières syndrome' (AGS) in 1992,[6] and the first international meeting on AGS was held in Pavia, Italy, in 2001.[7]

AGS can occur due to mutations in any one of a number of different genes, of which seven have been identified to date, namely: TREX1,[8] RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C (which together encode for the Ribonuclease H2 enzyme complex),[9] SAMHD1,[10] ADAR1,[11] and IFIH1 (coding for MDA5).[12] This neurological disease occurs in all populations worldwide, although it is almost certainly under-diagnosed. To date (2014) at least 400 cases of AGS are known.

History[edit]

In 1984, Jean Aicardi and Francoise Goutières described eight children from five families presenting with a severe early onset encephalopathy, which was characterized by calcification of the basal ganglia, abnormalities of the cerebral white matter and diffuse brain atrophy.[1] An excess of white cells, chiefly lymphocytes, was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thus indicating an inflammatory condition. During the first year of life, these children developed microcephaly, spasticity and dystonia. Some of the parents of the children were genetically related to each other, and the children were both male and female, which suggested that the disease was inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait.

In 1988, Pierre Lebon and his colleagues identified the additional feature of raised levels of interferon-alpha in patient CSF in the absence of infection.[13] This observation supported the suggestion that AGS was an inflammatory disease, as did the later finding of increased levels of the inflammatory marker neopterin in CSF,[14][15] and the demonstration that more than 90% of individuals with a genetic diagnosis of AGS, tested at any age, demonstrate an upregulation of interferon-induced gene transcripts - a so-called interferon signature.[16]

All cases of Cree encephalitis (an early-onset progressive encephalopathy in a Cree Indian community in Canada),[17][18] and many cases previously described as pseudo-TORCH syndrome, (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus), initially considered to be separate disorders, were later found to be the same as AGS (although other causes of, genetically distinct, ‘pseudo-TORCH’ phenotypes exist).

Signs and Symptoms[edit]

The initial description of AGS suggested that the disease was always severe, and was associated with unremitting neurological decline, resulting in death in childhood.[1] As more cases have been identified, it has become apparent that this is not necessarily the case, with many patients now considered to demonstrate an apparently stable clinical picture, alive in their 4th decade.[15] Moreover, rare individuals with pathogenic mutations in the AGS-related genes can be minimally affected (perhaps only with chilblains) and are in mainstream education, and even affected siblings within a family can show marked differences in severity.[19][20][21]

In about ten percent of cases, AGS presents at or soon after birth (i.e. in the neonatal period). This presentation of the disease is characterized by microcephaly, neonatal seizures, poor feeding, jitteriness, cerebral calcifications (accumulation of calcium deposits in the brain), white matter abnormalities, and cerebral atrophy; thus indicating that the disease process became active before birth i.e. in utero.[15] These infants can have hepatosplenomegaly and thrombocytopaenia, very much like cases of transplacental viral infection. About one third of such early presenting cases, most frequently in association with mutations in TREX1, die in early childhood.

Otherwise the majority of AGS cases present in early infancy, sometimes after an apparently normal period of development.[15] During the first few months after birth, these children develop features of an encephalopathy with irritability, persistent crying, feeding difficulties, an intermittent fever (without obvious infection), and abnormal neurology with disturbed tone, dystonia, an exaggerated startle response, and sometimes seizures.[15] Glaucoma can be present at birth, or develop later.[22] Many children retain apparently normal vision, although a significant number are cortically blind. Hearing is almost invariably normal. Over time, up to 40% of patients develop so-called chilblain lesions, most typically on the toes and fingers and occasionally also involving the ears.[2][15] They are usually worse in the winter.

Diagnostic Criteria[edit]

Laboratory: normal metabolic and infective screening. An increase in the number of white cells (particularly lymphocytes) in the CSF,[1] and high levels of interferon-alpha activity and neopterin in the CSF[14][15][16] are important clues - however, these features are not always present. More recently, a persistent elevation of mRNA levels of interferon-stimulated gene transcripts have been recorded in the peripheral blood of almost all cases of AGS with mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR1 and IFIH1, and in 75% of patients with mutations in RNASEH2B.[16] These results are irrespective of age. Thus, this interferon signature appears to be a very good marker of disease.

Neuroradiology: The spectrum of neuroradiological features associated with AGS is broad,[23][24] but is most typically characterised by the following:

  • Cerebral calcifications: Calcifications on CT (computed tomography) are seen as areas of abnormal signal, typically bilateral and located in the basal ganglia, but sometimes also extending into the white matter. Calcifications are usually better detected using CT scans (and can be missed completely on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)).
  • White matter abnormalities: These are found in 75-100% of cases, and are best visualised on MRI. Signal changes can be particularly prominent in frontal and temporal regions. White matter abnormalities sometimes include cystic degeneration.
  • Cerebral atrophy: is seen frequently.

Genetics: pathogenic mutations in any of the seven genes known to be involved in AGS.

Genetics[edit]

AGS is a genetically heterogeneous disease resulting from mutations in any of seven genes encoding: TREX1 - a 3-prime repair exonuclease with preferential activity on single stranded DNA (TREX1);[8] the three non-allelic components of the RNase H2 endonuclease complex acting on ribonucleotides in RNA:DNA hybrids (RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C);[9] a Sam domain and HD domain containing protein which functions as a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (SAMHD1);[10] an enzyme catalysing the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (ADAR1);[11] and the cytosolic double-stranded RNA receptor MDA5 (encoded by IFIH1).[12] In most cases, except for IFIH1- and rare cases of TREX1- and ADAR1-related disease, these mutations follow an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern (and thus the parents of an affected child face a 1 in 4 risk of having a further child similarly affected at every conception).

Types include:

Type OMIM Gene Locus
AGS1 225750 TREX1 3p21.31
AGS2 610181 RNASEH2B 13q14.3
AGS3 610329 RNASEH2C 11q13.1
AGS4 610333 RNASEH2A 19p13.2
AGS5 612952 SAMHD1 20q11.23
AGS6 615010 ADAR 1q21.3
AGS7 60695 IFIH1 2q24

Pathology[edit]

Type I interferon activity was originally described over 50 years ago as a soluble factor produced by cells treated with inactivated, non-replicating viruses that blocked subsequent infection with live virus.[25][26] Although the rapid induction and amplification of the type I interferon system is highly adaptive in terms of virus eradication, aberrant stimulation or unregulated control of the system could lead to inappropriate and / or excessive interferon output.[27]

Studies of the AGS-related proteins TREX1, the RNase H2 complex, SAMHD1 and ADAR1, suggest that an inappropriate accumulation of self-derived nucleic acids can induce type I interferon signaling.[28][29][30] The findings of IFIH1 mutations in the similar context implicates the aberrant sensing of nucleic acids as a cause of immune upregulation.[12]

What is the source of the nucleic acid inducing the immune disturbance in AGS? Intriguingly, it has been shown that TREX1 can metabolise reverse-transcribed DNA, and that single-stranded DNA derived from endogenous retroelements accumulates in Trex1-deficient cells.[30] Similarly, another AGS-related gene product SAMHD1 also presents strong potency against activity of multiple non-LTR retroelements, which is independent from SAMHD1's famous dNTPase activity.[31] Retroelements account for close to half of the human genome, and there is evidence to indicate that such elements are more active than previously recognised. These observations suggest that mechanisms must exist to limit such activity, which function might plausibly involve TREX1, the RNASEH2 complex, and ADAR1.

Treatment[edit]

At the moment there are no therapies specifically targeting the underlying cause of AGS. Current treatments address the symptoms, which can be varied both in scope and severity. Many patients benefit from tube-feeding. Drugs can be administered to help with seizures / epilepsy. The treatment of chilblains remains problematic, but particularly involves keeping the feet / hands warm. Physical therapy, including the use of splints can help to prevent contractures, although injections of botulinum toxin (Botox) and surgery are sometimes required. Occupational therapy can help with development, and the use of technology (e.g. Assistive Communication Devises) can facilitate communication. Patients should be regularly screened for treatable conditions, most particularly glaucoma and endocrine problems (especially hypothyroidism).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Aicardi J & Goutieres F (1984). "A progressive familial encephalopathy in infancy with calcifications of the basal ganglia and chronic cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis". Ann Neurol 15: 49–54. 
  2. ^ a b Tolmie JL, Shillito P, Hughes-Benzie R & Stephenson JB. (1995). "The Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (familial, early onset encephalopathy with calcifications of the basal ganglia and chronic cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis)". J Med Genet 32: 881–884. 
  3. ^ Aicardi, J; Goutieres, F (2000). "Systemic lupus erythematosus or Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome?". Neuropediatrics 31: 113. 
  4. ^ Dale RC, Tang SP, Heckmatt JZ & Tatnall FM (2000). "Familial systemic lupus erythematosus and congenital infection-like syndrome". Neuropediatrics 31: 155–158. 
  5. ^ Crow, YJ; Livingston, JH (2008). "Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome: an important Mendelian mimic of congenital infection". Dev Med Child Neurol 50: 410–416. 
  6. ^ Bonnemann, CG; Meinecke, P (1992). "Encephalopathy of infancy with intracerebral calcification and chronic spinal fluid lymphocytosis - another case of the Aicardi-­Goutieres syndrome". Neuropaediatrics 23: 157–61. 
  7. ^ "Proceedings of the International Meeting on Aicardi-­Goutieres Syndrome Pavia, Italy, 28-29 May 2001.". Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 6, Suppl A: A1–86. 2002. 
  8. ^ a b Crow, YJ et al. (2006). "Mutations in the gene encoding the 3'-­5' DNA exonuclease TREX1 cause Aicardi-­Goutieres syndrome at the AGS1 locus.". Nat Genet 38: 917–20. 
  9. ^ a b Crow, YJ et al. (2006). "Mutations in the genes encoding ribonuclease H2 subunits cause Aicardi-­Goutieres syndrome and mimic congenital viral brain infection". Nat Genet 38: 910–6. 
  10. ^ a b Rice, GI et al. (2009). "Mutations involved in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome implicate SAMHD1 as regulator of the innate immune response". Nat Genet 41: 829–32. 
  11. ^ a b Rice, GI et al. (2012). "Mutations in ADAR1 cause Aicardi-­Goutieres syndrome associated with a type 1 interferon signature". Nat Genet 44: 1243–8. 
  12. ^ a b c Rice, GI et al. (2014). "Gain-of-function mutations in IFIH1 cause a spectrum of human disease phenotypes associated with upregulated type 1 interferon signaling.". Nat Genet. 
  13. ^ Lebon, P et al. (1988). "Intrathecal synthesis of interferon-alpha in infants with progressive familial encephalopathy". J Neurol Sci 84: 201–8. 
  14. ^ a b Blau, N et al. (2003). "Cerebrospinal fluid pterins and folates in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome: a new phenotype". Neurology 61: 642–7. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Rice, GI et al. (2007). "Clinical and molecular phenotype of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome". Am J Hum Genet 81: 713–25. 
  16. ^ Black, DN et al. (1988). "Encephalitis among Cree children in northern Quebec". Ann Neurol 24: 483–9. 
  17. ^ Crow, YJ et al. (2003). "Cree encephalitis is allelic with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome: implications for the pathogenesis of disorders of interferon alpha metabolism". J Med Genet 40: 183–7. 
  18. ^ McEntagart, M; Kamel, H; Lebon, P; King, MD (1998). "Aicardi-­Goutieres syndrome: an expanding phenotype". Neuropaediatrics 29: 163–7. 
  19. ^ Ostergaard, JR; Christensen, T; Nehen, AM (1999). "A distinct difference in clinical expression of two siblings with Aicardi-­Goutieres syndrome". Neuropaediatrics 30: 38–41. 
  20. ^ Vogt, J (2013). "Striking intrafamilial phenotypic variability in Aicardi-­Goutieres syndrome associated with the recurrent Asian founder mutation in RNASEH2C". Am J Med Genet 161A: 338–42. 
  21. ^ Crow, YJ et al. (2004). "Congenital glaucoma and brain stem atrophy as features of Aicardi-­Goutieres syndrome". Am J Med Genet 129A: 303–7. 
  22. ^ Uggetti, C et al. (2009). "Aicardi-­Goutieres syndrome: neuroradiologic findings and follow-ups". AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 30: 1971–6. 
  23. ^ Livingston, JH; Stivaros, S; van der Knaap, MS; Crow, YJ (2013). "Recognizable phenotypes associated with intracranial calcification". Dev Med Child Neurol 55: 46–57. 
  24. ^ Isaacs, A; Lindenmann, J (1957). "Virus interference. I. The interferon". Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 147: 258–67. 
  25. ^ Isaacs, A; Lindenmann, J; Valentine, RC (1957). "Virus interference. II. Some properties of interferon". Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 147: 268–73. 
  26. ^ Gresser, I et al. (1980). "Interferon-­‐induced disease in mice and rats". Ann N Y Acad Sci 350: 12–20. 
  27. ^ Stetson, DB; Ko, JS; Heidmann, T; Medzhitov, R (2008). "Trex1 prevents cell-intrinsic initiation of autoimmunity". Cell 134: 587–98. 
  28. ^ Crow, YJ; Rehwinkel, J (2009). "Aicardi-­Goutieres syndrome and related phenotypes: linking nucleic acid metabolism with autoimmunity". Hum Mol Genet 18: R130–6. 
  29. ^ a b Stetson, DB (2012). "Endogenous retroelements and autoimmune disease". Curr Opin Immunol 24: 692–7. 
  30. ^ Zhao, Ke; Juan Du, Xue Han, John L Goodier, Peng Li, Xiaohong Zhou, Wei Wei, Sean L Evans, Linzhang Li, Wenyan Zhang, Ling E Cheung, Guanjun Wang, Haig H Kazazian Jr., and Xiao-Fang Yu (Sep 26, 2013). "Modulation of LINE-1 and Alu/SVA retrotransposition by Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome-related SAMHD1". Cell Reports 4 (6): 1108–1115. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2013.08.019. PMID 24035396. 

External links[edit]