Aida (musical)

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Aida
Aida Broadway logo.jpg
Logo from the Broadway Production
Music Elton John
Lyrics Tim Rice
Book Linda Woolverton
Robert Falls
David Henry Hwang
Basis Aida by Giuseppe Verdi
Productions 1998 Atlanta
1999 Chicago
2001 Broadway
2000 US Tour
2001 Amsterdam, Netherlands
2001 Dutch Tour
2002 US Tour
2003 Mexico
2003 International Tour
2003 Osaka, Japan
2003 Estonia
2003 Canadian Tour
2004 Essen, Germany
2005 Chicago
2005 Israel
2006 Munich, Germany
2006 Switzerland
2006 Fukuoka, Japan
2007 German Tour
2007 Hungary
2007 Nagoya, Japan
2008 São Paulo, Brazil
2008 Seoul, Korea
2009 Tokyo, Japan
2010 Budapest, Hungary
2010 Chicago
2010 Quebec City
2011 Hong Kong(HKUST)
2011 Manila, Philippines
2011 Guadalajara, Mexico
2012 Prague, Czech Republic
International productions
2012 Auburn, Maine
Lewiston/Auburn Community Little Theatre
2013 Hobart, Australia
Awards Tony Award for Best Score
Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album

Aida (also known as Elton John and Tim Rice's Aida) is a musical with music by Elton John, lyrics by Tim Rice, and book by Linda Woolverton, Robert Falls, and David Henry Hwang, and produced by Walt Disney Theatrical.

Aida premiered on Broadway on March 23, 2000, running for 1,852 performances until September 5, 2004 (35th longest-running Broadway musical). The musical also ran from 2002 to 2003 and from 2006 to 2007 during two US national tours, and also ran in international productions which performed in 20 different countries, and is still performed in international productions, regional theatres, colleges and high schools.

Aida was nominated for five Tony Awards and won four in 2000, including Best Musical Score and Best Performance by a Leading Actress. Aida was also named by Time Magazine in 2000 as one of the top ten theatre productions of the year. The First National tour was nominated for nine National Broadway Theatre awards (now "Touring Broadway Awards") and won five awards, including Best Musical, Best Direction, Best Actor, and Best Actress.

The Aida (2000 Original Broadway Cast) Cast recording won the Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album. A song from Aida, "Written in the Stars" (recorded and sung by Elton John and LeAnn Rimes) reached No.2 in the Billboard US adult contemporary music charts, and No.1 in the Canadian contemporary charts.

Background[edit]

The show is performed in two acts based on Giuseppe Verdi's Italian-language opera of the same name, the scenario of which was written by Auguste Mariette. The musical originated from a children's storybook version of Verdi's opera written by the soprano Leontyne Price.[1] The book featured illustrations by Leo and Diane Dillon. The rights were acquired by Disney studios for a proposed animated feature film. Development on the film was shelved, but the source material evolved into the stage version.

Synopsis[edit]

Act I[edit]

In the Egyptian wing of a modern museum, a man and a woman touring the exhibit catch each other's eyes. A statue of Amneris, a female Pharaoh, comes to life ("Every Story Is a Love Story") and transports them to Ancient Egypt, where Radames, captain of the Egyptian army, and his men are returning from an expedition through the land of Egypt's long-time enemy, Nubia ("Fortune Favors the Brave"). When his soldiers capture a group of Nubian women, he is captivated by one of the women, Aida, who tries to free herself by out-dueling one of his soldiers. Radames forces her to wash his back, but she refuses, saying that although the Egyptians took everything from the Nubians, they will never take their spirit ("The Past Is Another Land"). Radames saves Aida's companions from the copper mines (and certain death) by sending them to the palace groundskeeper instead. He also ensures Aida serves as a handmaiden to his betrothed, Princess Amneris. Radames' father, Chief Minister Zoser, greets his son with news that the Pharaoh is dying, and Radames must prepare to become the next ruler of Egypt ("Another Pyramid"). Unbeknownst to Radames, his father is poisoning the Pharaoh in order to accelerate Radames' ascension to the throne.

Radames's Nubian servant, Mereb, is a young man who has learned the tricks of survival in Egypt. While delivering Aida to the princess, Mereb recognizes her as the daughter of the Nubian king under whom he had served during his days in Nubia. She commands him to keep her identity a secret, lest the Egyptians kill her ("How I Know You"). Presented to Amneris, Aida is liked immediately, and she perceives that the Princess' love of fashion only serves as a mask of her insecurities ("My Strongest Suit"). At a banquet, Amneris and Radames learn from the Pharaoh that they are to marry in seven days, leaving the captain distraught that his days as an explorer have ended ("Fortune Favors the Brave (Reprise)"*). Together, he and Aida share their dreams and regrets ("Enchantment Passing Through").

Later that night, Amneris worries about her father's illness, and finds in Aida someone who understands and encourages her ("My Strongest Suit (Reprise)"). Bursting into his fiancée's chamber, Radames steals a moment with Aida to share his growing attraction to her. Aida is taken by Mereb to the Nubian camp, where she reluctantly submits to her people's pleas to lead them ("Dance of the Robe"). When she implores Radames to help the Nubians, he opens his heart by giving his possessions to them ("Not Me") and declaring his love for Aida ("Elaborate Lives"). Unable to fight her feelings any longer, she falls into his embrace. Their bliss is interrupted by news that Radames' armies have captured Amonasro, king of Nubia and also Aida's father. Unable to comfort her, Radames leaves Aida in distress. Rallying her people, Aida assures them that Nubia will never die ("The Gods Love Nubia").

Act II[edit]

Amneris, and Radames, and Aida are entangled in conflicted loyalties and emotions ("A Step Too Far"): Amneris is afraid that Radames's affection for her is waning, Radames worries his love for Aida could end his life as he knows it, and Aida fears she might be a traitor to her people as she loves Radames. Aida and Mereb bribe their way into Amonasro's prison cell, where she is reunited with her father. Mereb hatches a plan to escape with the king during the commotion of Amneris' wedding. To save her father and her nation, Aida must betray the man she loves ("Easy as Life"). Meanwhile, Zoser discovers Radames' affair and warns his son that it could cost him the throne, but Radames no longer shares his father's ambitions ("Like Father, Like Son"). After an emotional bout with his son, Zoser orders his men to find Aida and kill her.

At the Nubian camp, Aida receives a written apology from Radames for the thoughtless way he acted upon hearing of Amonasro's capture ("Radames' Letter") and for his lack of showing affection. When Egyptian soldiers arrive seeking Aida, another Nubian, Nehebka, sacrifices herself so that the princess can live ("Halfway to Heaven"). Now even more determined to leave Radames forever, Aida goes to say good-bye to him over Mereb's objections ("How I Know You (Reprise)"). Radames informs Aida that he is calling off the wedding. Aida knows that this would ruin her father's escape and tells him he must go through with it ("Written in the Stars"). Radames agrees, on condition that she escapes to freedom on a boat he will provide. The heartbroken lovers part, but Amneris has overheard their entire conversation and tries to face the fact that her upcoming marriage is a sham ("I Know the Truth").

News of Amonasro's escape disrupts Amneris' wedding. Radames learns the truth of Aida's identity when he arrives at the docks just as she is about to board his boat with her father. Although he is angry that Aida hid this from him, she says she never lied about loving him. In the ensuing chaos, Mereb is mortally wounded by Zoser, and Radames makes possible Amonasro's escape by cutting the rope tied to the dock, but Aida stays with Radames and a dying Mereb. Zoser flees, and Mereb dies in the arms of his kind master and beloved princess. Radames and Aida are then arrested for treason. At the ensuing trial, Pharaoh announces Zoser's apprehension and sentences both Aida and Radames to be buried alive. Amneris reprises her role as a future Pharaoh by convincing her father to let the lovers die in the same tomb, an act of mercy for two people she has come to love. Facing death, Aida looks to Radames for strength ("Elaborate Lives (Reprise)"). As they are slowly deprived of light and air ("Enchantment Passing Through (Reprise)"), Radames swears he will search through a hundred lifetimes to find her again if he has to.

Back in the contemporary museum, the spirit of Amneris reveals that as she became Pharaoh, "the lovers' deaths gave birth to a reign of peace" between Egypt and Nubia. She watches as the modern man and woman are strangely drawn to each other. They are the reincarnations of Aida and Radames, finding each other in a new beginning ("Every Story is a Love Story (Reprise)").

**"Fortune Favors the Brave (Reprise)", the instrumental "Dance of the Robe (Reprise)", the Overture and the Entr'acte are not featured on the Original Broadway Cast Recording or the International Recordings of the production.

Principal roles[edit]

Aida Daughter of Amonasro and Princess of Ethiopia (also known as Abyssinian) . With her royalty unknown to all except Mereb, who recognizes her as princess, she is taken into slavery with the rest of Nubia, but attracts the attention of Radames. Mezzo/Belter
Radames Captain of the Egyptian army, son of Zoser, and fiancé to Amneris. He is expected to succeed the Egyptian throne after the Pharaoh's death, but finds himself intrigued by an Ethiopian slave, Aida, instead. Dramatic Tenor
Amneris Princess of Egypt, daughter of the Pharaoh, and fiancée to Radames. She is renowned by all for her fashionable ways. Aida is given to her as a gift to be her handmaiden, by whom her true nature is seen: Amneris is merely using this fashion-driven identity to hide her own insecurities. Mezzo
Zoser Chief Minister of Egypt and father of Radames. He highly anticipates his son's succession to the Egyptian throne and does all he can to make it arrive sooner, including poisoning the Pharaoh. Baritone Belt (Vocal Belting Required)
Mereb A Ethiopian servant to Radames, who was taken captive by Egyptians as a youth and has served among them ever since. The first to recognize Aida as Princess of Ethiopia, and the first to tell the other Nubian slaves about it with hopes that she can set them free. Baritone
Nehebka Nubian slave who speaks to Aida as a representative for the Nubian people. Mezzo
Pharaoh Father of Amneris and King of Egypt. One of the arrangers of Amneris and Radames's much-delayed wedding, he is secretly being poisoned by Zoser to speed up Radames's succession to the throne.
Amonasro Father of Aida and King of Ethiopia. He is taken into slavery by Egyptians after Aida and Radames have fallen in love, and commands Aida to break all ties she has to the Egyptians.

Production history[edit]

Pre-Broadway: Origins, Atlanta and Chicago[edit]

Aida was originally conceived for production as an animated musical film by Disney executives, who wanted to do another project with the collaborative team of Sir Elton John and Sir Tim Rice, following the success enjoyed by the animated film The Lion King, Disney wanted to do another animated feature, and it was John's idea to develop the story directly as a musical. A first reading was presented to Disney executives on April 1, 1996. John also recorded multiple demos of the original songs, which were never released but were widely bootlegged. Early readings featured Simone (Aida), Hank Stratton (Radames) and Sherie Rene Scott (Amneris). It took 2 1/2 years from first reading, to first full production presentation in September 1998 in Atlanta. One of the many issues was what to call the musical.[2]

Elaborate Lives: The Legend of Aida had its world premiere at the Alliance Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia with the production running from September 16 to November 8, 1998.[3] The Atlanta production featured Heather Headley (Aida), Hank Stratton (Radames) and Sherie Rene Scott (Amneris). The production featured several songs which were cut from the final production. The original Atlanta staging conceived of the play with a nearly empty set, displaying only a six-ton gold pyramid-shaped set piece in the center. Driven by hydraulic controls, the pyramid's sides and bottom could be turned and rotated to suggest various locations such as a ship stern or a tomb. However, the piece, constructed at a price of nearly $10 million, frequently broke down, and a new production designer was hired for restaging in Chicago. Nothing of the original Atlanta set design remained in the new production.

A new, revised production opened on November 12, 1999 at the Cadillac Palace in Chicago and ran through January 9, 2000.[4][5] Aida producers made substantial changes to its team for the Chicago production. From the Atlanta staging, only Heather Headley, as Aida, and Sherie Rene Scott, as Amneris, remained. Adam Pascal joined the cast as Radames for the Chicago run. Robert Falls took over as director in Chicago, replacing Robert Jess Ross; and set designer Bob Crowley replaced Stanley A. Meyer. Also part of the new Chicago team was choreographer Wayne Cilento. The Chicago production featured one number "Our Nation Holds Sway", originally performed near the beginning of both act 1 and act 2, which was cut from the final Broadway production.

During the Chicago run at the Cadillac Theatre, on November 13, 1999, a set mishap during the final moments of the performance injured stars Headley and Pascal. According to an eyewitness report, while the two actors were being conveyed in a suspended boxlike "tomb" at the climax of the show, the set piece broke from its support and plunged approximately eight feet to the stage. A subsequent press release from the show's publicist stated that Headley and Pascal sustained minor injuries and were taken to Northwestern Memorial Hospital for examination. Both were released from the hospital a few hours later.[6] From then on, the tomb remained on the ground.

Broadway[edit]

The musical, now titled Elton John and Tim Rice's Aida, premiered on Broadway at the Palace Theatre on March 23, 2000 and closed on September 5, 2004 after 30 previews and 1,852 performances. The run ranks it as 35th in the longest runs in Broadway history.[7] Directed by Robert Falls, choreographed by Wayne Cilento, scenery and costumes were designed by Bob Crowley, lighting design by Natasha Katz, and sound design by Steve C. Kennedy. Considered by its producers to be a financial success, Aida on Broadway recovered its investment in 99 weeks, and generated a profit of $12 million.[8]

Heather Headley originated the title role of Aida. Headley won both the Tony Award and the Drama Desk Award for Best Actress in a Musical in 2000 for her performance in this role. Headley also received broad critical acclaim for her performance. Adam Pascal played the role of Radames in both the OBC and closing productions of Aida on Broadway. Sherie René Scott, who was with the project since its first workshop, originated the role of Amneris, and was named the Most Promising Actress in 2000 for her performance (Clarence Derwent Award). The cast also included Tyrees Allen (Amonasro), John Hickok (Zoser), Daniel Oreskes (Pharaoh), Damian Perkins (Mereb), and Schele Williams (Nehebka).

Pop stars, including Deborah Cox, Toni Braxton and Michelle Williams played the title role of Aida during its run on Broadway, as well as Maya Days, Saycon Sengbloh, Simone and Merle Dandridge. Notable replacements for Radames included Will Chase, Patrick Cassidy, Richard H. Blake, William Robert Gaynor, and Matt Bogart. Notable replacements for Amneris included Idina Menzel, Jessica Hendy, Mandy Gonzalez, Felicia Finley, Taylor Dayne and Lisa Brescia. Notable replacements for Zoser were Micky Dolenz and Donnie Kehr.[9]

US National tours[edit]

Elton John and Tim Rice's Aida also had a critically acclaimed US National tour from March 2001 to 2003.[10] The show received eight nominations and won five awards in 2002 including Best Musical, Best Actress (Simone), and Best Actor(Patrick Cassidy) from the National Broadway Theatre Awards (now called "Touring Broadway Awards". The National tour also featured Kelli Fournier (Amneris). Notable replacements included Jeremy Kushnier (Radames) and Lisa Brescia (Amneris).

The musical also had a non-equity US national tour during 2006–2007 featuring Marja Harmon (Aida), Casey Elliott (Radames), and Leah Allers (Amneris). This production had a revised script by David Henry Hwang authorized by Disney. The new script was considered to be more serious and darker, with much of the shticky and comedic elements removed from Amneris' character especially. 'Strongest Suit' was staged as a scene in which Aida helped Amneris choose her outfit for the evening instead of a random fashion show. The scene prior to 'Strongest Suit Reprise' was revised with Aida teaching Amneris how to thread, adding more a sense of bond between the women and also humbling Amneris in wanting to learn something new and not just 'be a princess.' Introduced to the plot was the revelation that Radames' mother was a prostitute and that Zoser treated her as such and fought and schemed for Radames to achieve his position of Captain of Pharaoh's armies.[11]

US regional and local theatre[edit]

Elton John and Tim Rice's Aida has also been performed by numerous professional Regional Theatre companies, including: Barn Theatre (2004), North Shore Music Theatre, Beverly, Massachusetts (2004 featuring Montego Glover as Aida),[12] Music Theatre Of Wichita, Wichita, Kansas (2005 also featuring Montego Glover as Aida),[13] Gateway Playhouse, Bellport, New York (2005),[14] and Bailiwick Chicago (2010).[15]

Aida played at Drury Lane Theatre in Chicago (March–May 2011).[16] Aida is also playing a return production in Osaka, Japan from March 11, 2011 presented by the Shiki Theatre company. There are over a dozen productions of Aida scheduled to be performed by various theatre companies, colleges and high schools in the US during 2011.[17]

Aida has also become a popular choice for plays among school and community theatre groups.

International productions[edit]

The first international production of Aida ran in Scheveningen, Netherlands. The show ran from March 10, 2001 to March 18, 2003 and was performed in Dutch. There have been also productions of Aida in Germany, Switzerland, Japan, South Korea, Uruguay, Australia, Philippines, Mexico, Croatia, Peru, Argentina, Estonia, Canada, Hungary, Brazil, Sweden, Denmark, China, Israel and Czech Republic. Aida was premiered in New Zealand at St Peter's School (Cambridge) (May 2012, at St Peter's College, Auckland (in 2013) and at Saint Kentigern College, Auckland in (2012). The original Japanese production has re-opened and its currently playing in Osaka, Japan.

It has been translated into 15 languages: German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Dutch, Spanish, Estonian, French, Hungarian, Croatian, Portuguese, Swedish, Danish, Hebrew and Czech.

Aida has never been staged professionally in London or elsewhere in the UK – the home country of its composer and lyricist – although it has been released for amateur licensing from 2011. One of its first major amateur performances in the UK was in March 2013 at the ADC Theatre by the Cambridge University Amateur Dramatic Club. Act Now Entertainment will be performing Aida for one week in September 2014 at the world famous open-air Minack Theatre in Cornwall.

Aida premier will play in Jerusalem, Israel in January–February 2014 at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Beit Hillel theatre, directed by Michael Berl.[18]

Music analysis[edit]

Elton John's music for Aida is stylistically eclectic. "Another Pyramid" is a modern reggae number; "My Strongest Suit" draws heavily on Motown, "The Gods Love Nubia" draws on gospel. There are numbers, e.g., "Not Me," "Elaborate Lives," "A Step Too Far," "Written in the Stars," that reflect Elton John's pop style. There is also a strong influence of African music, notably in "Dance of the Robe" and "Easy as Life". These styles are used without much attention to historical authenticity; rather, there is a mix of African (mostly West African), Indian and Middle Eastern influences. Probably the nearest stylistic parallel to the work as a whole is to Elton John's The Lion King, another musical with strong emphasis on ethnically diverse stylistic influences.[19]

Among the songs cut from the production after previews and workshops were two songs that made up the final sequence of the play: a reprise of "Fortune Favors The Brave" entitled "The Two Must Die," and then a final death duet for Aida and Radames, entitled "The Messenger." These songs were replaced with reprises of "Elaborate Lives," "Enchantment Passing Through" and "Every Story Is A Love Story." "The Messenger" can still be heard on Elton John's unreleased (but frequently leaked and bootlegged) demo for the show, as well as on the concept album, performed by Elton John with Lulu

Musical numbers[edit]

Recordings[edit]

A number of recordings are available for Aida:

  • 2000 Elton John and Tim Rice's Aida: Original Broadway Cast Recording was released in 2000, and is a conventional cast recording that includes all twenty-one musical numbers from the Broadway incarnation of the show. The cast recording has sold over 500,000 copies and is a certified Gold Album by RIAA.
  • 2001 Dutch Cast
  • 2004 Essen, Germany Cast
  • 2004 Japanese Cast
  • 2004 Dutch Cast
  • 2007 Hungarian Cast

Potential film version[edit]

Leontyne Price's original storybook version of the opera had first been acquired by Disney with the intention that it should become an animated film, but it was never made. It was believed for a time that concept art [20] existed for this proposed animated feature. However, the artist of that piece Ben Balistreri has stated that "This was nothing more than a class assignment given out by Frank Terry when I was at Cal Arts back in 1996...Frank brought in a newspaper clipping that Disney and Elton John were going to do an animated musical of Aida and our assignment was to create a line up of the main characters and give them all Disney style sidekicks."[21]

Following the success of the stage version, Disney began planning a major live-action motion picture adaptation. As of 2014, Beyoncé Knowles was to star as the title role, alongside Christina Aguilera as Amneris, with a 2014 release date.[22] However, no further reports of the adaptation's production have surfaced since. Disney ultimately replaced this film project with a new adaptation of Into the Woods.

Awards and nominations[edit]

Year Award Ceremony Category Nominee Result
2000 Tony Award Best Original Musical Score Elton John and Tim Rice Won
Best Actress in a Musical Heather Headley Won
Best Scenic Design Bob Crowley Won
Best Costume Design Nominated
Best Lighting Design Natasha Katz Won
Drama Desk Award Outstanding Actress in a Musical Heather Headley Won
Grammy Award Best Musical Show Album Elton John and Tim Rice Won
John Kraaijkamp Musical Award Best Musical Walt Disney Theatrical Won
Best Performance by a Leading Actress Antje Monteiro Nominated
Best Performance by a Leading Actor Bastiaan Ragas Won
Most Promising Male Talent Marlon David Henry Nominated
Award for Best Translation Martine Bijl Won
National Broadway Theatre Awards (now called "Touring Broadway Awards")[23] Best Musical Won
Best Score Elton John and Tim Rice Nominated
Best Song in a Musical "I Know The Truth" Nominated
Best Actor in a Musical Patrick Cassidy Won
Best Actress in a Musical Simone Won
Kelli Fournier Nominated
Best Direction Elton John Won
Best Visual Presentation Bob Crowley (Scenic Design) and Natasha Katz (Lighting) Won
Best Costumes Bob Crowley Nominated
Clarence Derwent Award Most Promising Female Sherie Rene Scott Won
Outer Critics Circle Awards Outstanding Actress In A Musical Heather Headley Nominated

References[edit]

  1. ^ Witchel, Alex."An 'Aida' Born Of Ecstasies And Explosions" The New York Times (requires registration), March 19, 2000
  2. ^ "'Aida' Production History" TimRice.com, accessed August 25, 2011
  3. ^ Elliott, Susan."Disney Offers an 'Aida,' With a Morphing Pyramid"The New York Times, October 9, 1998
  4. ^ Simonson, Robert."After Atlanta and Chicago, 'Aida' Finally Begins in New York, Feb. 25" Playbill.com, February 25, 2000
  5. ^ Shaughnessy, Peter.Disney's "Aida" To Preview In AtlantaBackstage (reprint in allbusiness.com), September 11, 1998
  6. ^ Ku, Andrew and Simonson, Robert."'Aida' Set Mishap Fells Headley and Pascal; Performances Resume Nov. 17 Playbill.com, November 14, 1999
  7. ^ "Long Runs in Theatre" world-theatres.com, accessed August 25, 2011
  8. ^ Jones, Kenneth."Broadway's Smash Musical, 'Aida', Will Close Sept. 5" Playbill.com, May 4, 2004
  9. ^ "'Aida' Internet Broadway Database listing, see "Replacement History Internet Broadway Database.com, accessed August 25, 2011
  10. ^ Simonson, Robert." 'Aida' Begins National Tour in Minneapolis March 27" Playbill.com, March 27, 2001
  11. ^ "'Aida' tour BigLeague.org, retrieved February 26, 2010
  12. ^ Gans, Andrew."Complete Cast and Design Team Announced for North Shore 'Aida' " Playbill.com, October 4, 2004
  13. ^ " 'Elton John and Tim Rice’s Aida' Listing" Music Theatre of Wichita, accessed May 1, 2011
  14. ^ " 'Aida' Listing" Gateway Playhouse, accessed May 1, 2011
  15. ^ Peter, Thomas."Bailiwick Chicago Will Produce Aida, Plus Works by Foley, Heimer, Siegel, Mayes and DiPietro" Playbill.com, March 10, 2010
  16. ^ "Events, 'Aida'" americantowns.com, accessed August 25, 2011
  17. ^ "'Aida' LIsting" mtishowspace.com, accessed August 25, 2011
  18. ^ "The Musical: Aida". Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  19. ^ "Review: Elton John and Tim Rice’s Aida/Bailiwick Chicago". Newcity Stage. 2011-01-15. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  20. ^ Aida ConceptArt jimhillmedia.com, accessed August 25, 2011
  21. ^ Balistreri, Ben. "Wednesday, July 11, 2007: These don't belong to Disney.". Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  22. ^ "Beyoncé to Star in Aida Adaptation?". Coming Soon Media. July 7, 2007. Archived from the original on 11 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-15. 
  23. ^ "Awards for 2002" nationalbroadwaytheatreawards.com, retrieved April 1, 2010[dead link]

External links[edit]