Aigues-Mortes

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Aigues-Mortes
City walls
City walls
Coat of arms of Aigues-Mortes
Coat of arms
Aigues-Mortes is located in France
Aigues-Mortes
Aigues-Mortes
Coordinates: 43°34′03″N 4°11′36″E / 43.5675°N 4.1933°E / 43.5675; 4.1933Coordinates: 43°34′03″N 4°11′36″E / 43.5675°N 4.1933°E / 43.5675; 4.1933
Country France
Region Languedoc-Roussillon
Department Gard
Arrondissement Nîmes
Canton Aigues-Mortes
Intercommunality Terre de Camargue
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014) Cédric Bonato
Area
 • Land1 57.78 km2 (22.31 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Population2 8,341
 • Population2 density 140/km2 (370/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 30003 / 30220
Elevation 0–3 m (0.0–9.8 ft)
(avg. 1 m or 3.3 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Aigues-Mortes (Occitan: Aigas Mòrtas,) is a French commune in the Gard department in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France.

The medieval city walls surrounding the city are well preserved.

Geography[edit]

Aigues-Mortes is located in the Petite Camargue some 90 km (56 miles) north-west of Marseilles. By road, Aigues-Mortes is about 33 km (21 miles) south-west of Nîmes, and 20 km (12 miles) east of Montpellier in a direct line. Access to the commune is by route D979 coming south from Saint-Laurent-d'Aigouze to Aigues-Mortes town. Route D979 continues south-west through the commune to Le Grau-du-Roi. Route D62 also starts from Aigues-Mortes heading south-west parallel to D979 before turning eastwards and forming part of the southern border of the commune. Route D62A continues to Plan d'Eau du Vidourie. The commune is composed of a portion of the wet plains and lakes of the Petite Camargue. It is separated from the Gulf of Lions (and, thus, the Mediterranean) by the town of Le Grau-du-Roi however Aigues-Mortes is connected to the sea through the Canal du Rhône à Sète. There is only one other hamlet in the commune called Mas de Jarras Listel on the western border. The Canal du Rhône à Sète enters the commune from the north-west and the north-east in two branches from the main canal to the north and the branches intersect in the town of Aigues-Mortes before exiting as a single canal alongside route D979 and feeding into the Mediterranean Sea at Le Grau-du-Roi.[1]

A rail branch line from Nîmes passes through Aigues-Mortes from north-east to south-west, with a station in the town of Aigues-Mortes, to its terminus on the coast at Le-Grau-du-Roi. This line also transports sea salt.

The communes of Saint-Laurent-d'Aigouze and Le Grau-du-Roi are adjacent to the town of Aigues-Mortes. Its inhabitants are called Aigues-Mortais or Aigues-Mortise; in Occitan they are aigamortencs.

Aigues-Mortes is one of 79 member communes of the Schéma de cohérence territoriale (SCoT) of the South of Gard and is also one of 34 communes in the Pays Vidourle-Camargue. Aigues-Mortes is one of the four communes of the Loi littoral (fr) of SCoT in the South of Gard.

Neighbouring communes and villages[1][edit]

Toponymy[edit]

Attested in the Latinized form Aquae Mortuae in 1248.

The name comes from the Occitan Aigas Mortas meaning "dead water", or "stagnant water" equivalent to toponymic types in the Morteau Oil dialect cf. Morteau (Doubs): mortua Aqua (1105, VTF521) and Morteaue (Haute-Marne): mortua Aqua (1163, VTF521).

The name comes from the Aigues-Mortes marshes and ponds that stretch around the village and also the fact that there has never been potable water at Aigues-Mortes.

Grau comes from the Occitan grau meaning "pond with extension". Grau du Roy in French means "pond of the King".

History[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

The foundation of the city is said to have been by Gaius Marius, around 102BC but there is no documentary evidence to support this.

A Roman by the name of Peccius fitted out the first salt marsh and gave his name to the Marsh of Peccais.[2] Salt mining started from the Neolithic period and was continued in the Hellenistic period, but the ancient uses of saline have not resulted in any major archaeological discovery. It is likely that any remains were destroyed by modern saline facilities.[3]

Middle Ages[edit]

Louis IX on a ship departing from Aigues-Mortes, for the Seventh Crusade
Map of Aigues-Mortes and its access to the sea
Aigues-Mortes Plan

In 791, Charlemagne erected the Matafère tower[4] amid the swamps for the safety of fishermen and salt workers. Some argue that the signaling and transmission of news was not foreign to the building of this tower which was designed to give warning in case of arrival of a fleet, as for the Magne Tower[5] at Nîmes.

The purpose of this tower was part of the war plan and spiritual plan which Charlemagne granted at the Benedictine abbey, dedicated to Opus Dei (work of God) and whose incessant chanting, day and night, was to designate the convent as Psalmody or Psalmodi. This monastery still existed in 812, as confirmed by an act of endowment made by the Badila from Nîmes at the abbey.[6]

At that time, the people lived in reed huts and made their living from fishing, hunting, and salt production from several small salt marshes along the sea shore. The region was then under the rule of the monks from the Abbey of Psalmody.

In 1240, Louis IX, who wanted to get rid of the influence of the Italian navy for transporting troops to the Crusades, focused on the strategic position of his kingdom. At that time, Marseille belonged to his brother Charles of Anjou, King of Naples, Agde, Count of Toulouse, and Montpellier, and King of Aragon. Louis IX wanted direct access to the Mediterranean Sea. He obtained the town and the surrounding lands by exchange of properties with the monks of the abbey. Residents were exempt from the salt tax which was previously levied so that they can now take the salt unconstrained.[7]

He built a road between the marshes and built the Carbonnière Tower[8] to serve as a watchtower and protect access to the city. Saint-Louis then built the Constance Tower[9] on the site of the old Matafère Tower, to house the garrison. In 1272, his son and successor, Philip the Bold, ordered the continuation of the construction of walls to completely encircle the small town. The work would not be completed for another 30 years.

This was the city from which Louis IX twice departed for the Crusades: the Seventh Crusade in 1248 and again for the Eighth Crusade in 1270 for Tunis where he died of dysentery.

The year 1270 has been established, mistakenly for many historians, as the last step of a process initiated at the end of 11th century. The judgment is hasty because the transfer of crusaders or mercenaries from the harbour of Aigues-Mortes continued after this year. The order given in 1275 to Sir Guillaume de Roussillon by Philip III the Bold and Pope Gregory X after the Council of Lyons in 1274 to reinforce Saint-Jean d'Acre in the East shows that maritime activity continued for a ninth crusade which never took place.[10]

There is a popular belief that the sea reached Aigues-Mortes in 1270. In fact, as confirmed by studies of the engineer Charles Leon Dombre, the whole port of Aigues-Mortes, including the port itself, was in the Marette pond, the Canal-Viel and Grau Louis, the Canal Viel being the access channel to the sea. The Grau-Louis was approximately at the modern location of La Grande-Motte.

At the beginning of 14th century, Philip the Fair used the fortified site to incarcerate the Templars. Between 8 and 11 November 1307, forty-five of them were put to the question, found guilty, and held prisoner in the Tower of Constance.[11]

Modern and contemporary periods[edit]

Aigues-Mortes still retained its privileges granted by the kings.[12] Curiously it was a great Protestant in the person of Jean d'Harambure who said that the one-eyed light horse commander of King Henry IV and former governor of Vendôme should be appointed governor of Aigues-Mortes and the Carbonnière Tower on 4 September 1607. To do this, he took an oath before the Constable of France Henri de Montmorency, Governor of Languedoc. But one Catholic, the Lord of Berichère, supported the rival Adrien de Chanmont. The conflict continued until 1612, and Harambure, supported by the pastors of Lower Languedoc and the inhabitants, finished it by a personal appeal to the Queen.[13] He eventually resigned on 27 February 1615 in favour of his son Jean d'Harambure, but King Louis XIII restored him for six years. On 27 July 1616 he resigned again in favour of Gaspard III de Coligny, but not without obtaining a token of appreciation for the judges and consuls of the city.

At the beginning of the 15th century, important works were being undertaken to facilitate access to Aigues-Mortes from the sea. The old Grau-Louis, dug for the Crusades, was replaced by the Grau-de-la-Croisette and a port was dug at the base of the Tower of Constance. It lost its importance from 1481 when Provence and Marseille were attached to the kingdom of France. Only the exploitation of the Peccais salt marshes encouraged François I, in 1532, to connect the salt industry of Aigues-Mortes to the sea. This channel, said Grau-Henry, silted up in turn. The opening, in 1752, of the Grau-du-Roi solved the problem for a while. A final solution was found in 1806 by connecting the Aigues-Mortes river port through the Canal du Rhône à Sète.[14]

From 1575 to 1622, Aigues-Mortes was one of the eight safe havens granted to the Protestants. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 caused severe repression of Protestantism, which was marked in Languedoc and the Cévennes in the early 18th century by the Camisard War. Like other towers in the town, from 1686 onwards, the Constance Tower was used as a prison for the Huguenots who refused to convert to Roman Catholicism. In 1703, Abraham Mazel, leader of the Camisards, managed to escape with sixteen companions.[citation needed]

During the French Revolution, the city was called Port-Pelletier.[15] At that time the port had almost disappeared due to silting, induced by the intensification of labour in the watershed at the same time as the clearing of woods and forests following the abolition of privileges. The decline of forest cover led to soil erosion and consequently a greater quantity of alluvial deposits in the ports of the region. Thus, in 1804 the prefect "Mr. de Barante père" wrote in a report[16] that: "The coasts of this department are more prone to silting .... The ports of Maguelonne and Aigues Mortes and the old port of Cette no longer exist except in history" he alerted: "An inordinate desire to collect and multiply these forest clearings since 1790 .... Greed has devoured in a few years the resource of the future, the mountains, opened to the plough, show that soon naked and barren rock, each groove becoming a ravine; the topsoil, driven by storms, has been brought into the rivers, and thence into the lower parts, where it serves every day to find the lowest parts and the darkest swamps."

The massacre of Italians (August 1893)[edit]

Massacre of Italian saltworkers at Aigues-Mortes

In the summer of 1893, the Compagnie des Salins du Midi launched a recruiting campaign for workers for the threshing and the lifting of salt. Hiring was reduced due to the economic crisis that hit Europe, so the prospect of finding a seasonal job was attractive in this year and there were a greater number of workers looking for work.

These were divided into three categories nicknamed:

  • "Ardeche" peasants, not necessarily native to Ardèche, who leave their land at this time of the season;
  • "Piedmontese" consisting of Italians from throughout northern Italy and locally recruited by team leaders: the chefs du colle;
  • "tramps" composed mainly of vagabonds.[17]

Because of the recruitment operated by Compagnie des Salins du Midi, the chefs de colle were forced to compose teams including both French and Italians.[18] In the early morning of 16 August 1893 a fight broke out between the two communities that quickly turned into a struggle of honour.[19]

Despite the intervention of the justice of the peace and the police, the situation rapidly degenerated.[20] Some tramps met in Aigues-Mortes and, saying that Italians had killed some Aiguemortais, swelled the ranks of the population and of people who had not managed to find employment.[20]

A group of Italians was then attacked and tried to take refuge in a bakery that rioters wanted to burn. The prefect called for troops at 4am, but they did not arrive on the scene until 18 hours after the drama.[21]

Early in the morning, the situation escalated and the rioters moved to the Peccais saltfields where there were the largest number of Italians. Police Captain Cabley, trying to provide protection, promised the rioters to hunt the Italians and escort them to the Aigues-Mortes Police Station.[22] It was during the journey that the Italians attacked by the rioters were massacred by a crowd that the police were unable to contain. There were seven dead and fifty wounded, some of whom had lifelong consequences.[23][24] This was the largest massacre of immigrants in the modern history of France and also one of the biggest scandals in its judicial history[25] because no condemnation was ever pronounced.

The case became a diplomatic issue and the transalpine (Italian) foreign press took up the cause of the Italians.[26] There were Anti-French riots in Italy.[27] A diplomatic solution was found and the parties were compensated[28] while the nationalist mayor Marius Terras' was forced to resign.[29]

A theatrical play by Serge Valletti called Dirty August is based on the tragic events.

Memorial for the Dead

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Aigues-Mortes

Blazon:
Or, Saint Martin carnation clothed Azure in his right hand a sword argent pointing sinister chief cutting his cloak of gules mounted on a horse the same standing saddled in Or bridled the same with a lame pauper carnation to sinister right arm extended dexter chief half clothed in azure with crutch proper all on a Terrace in base Vert.




Economy[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

The medieval city of Aigues-Mortes, the ramparts and the salt and the sea
  • Viticulture and Asparagus[30]
  • Breeding of Bulls and of Camargue horses. Both are raised almost wild in the surrounding marshes.
The Camargue bull is smaller than the Spanish fighting bulls, stocky, with high horns and head. It measures about 1.40 m at the withers. It is primarily intended for bullfighting which is very popular in the region.
The Camargue horse is the ultimate companion for herdsmen to move into the marshes and herd bulls. According to some discoveries of bones, it seems that the ancestors of the Camargue horse date to the Quaternary period. The Camargue horse is not very large, about 1.50 m tall. It has a huge resistance adapted to the terrain. Its colour is brown at birth gradually turning white after a few years.

Industries[edit]

The saltworks at Aigues-Mortes
  • Production of salt by the operation of the saltworks of the Salins group. Probably used since ancient times, the salt of Aigues-Mortes attracted fishermen and salt workers. The Benedictine monks settled nearby in the 8th century at the Abbey of Psalmodiet to exploit this valuable commodity in the Peccais Ponds. The salt has long been one of the main resources of the city. To achieve "table salt quality", water pumped from the sea travels more than 70 km in "roubines". The concentration of sodium chloride is from 29 to more than 260 gms/kilo. Mechanically harvested salt is piled up in the twinkling "camelles" before being packaged. It is suitable for human consumption.

Tourism[edit]

The medieval heritage from the 13th and 14th centuries of the commune and its proximity to the sea attract many tourists and residents of France.

Transport[edit]

Aerial view of Aigues-Mortes

River[edit]

The city of Aigues-Mortes is a crossroads of canals:

Railway[edit]

The Line Nîmes to Le Grau-du-Roi serves the towns and villages of Costières and the coastline, with a terminus at Le Grau-du-Roi. It is also used for the transport of salt produced by the saltworks of the Salins Group (see link below).

Road[edit]

The development of seaside tourism since the 1960s was marked by the construction of new resorts (La Grande-Motte) and the extension of existing facilities from Le Grau du Roi to Port Camargue. To facilitate access to tourists, a coastal road network has been augmented and connected to the A9 motorway. Aigues-Mortes benefits in these ways:

The bus 106 also connects Montpellier and Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer.

Administration[edit]

Municipal Administration[edit]

The municipal council consists of 29 members including the mayor, 8 deputies, and 20 municipal councilors.

Since the last municipal elections, its composition is as follows:

Group President Effective Statut
"Aigues-Mortes differently"
PS
Cédric Bonato 20 majority
"Act for Aigues-Mortes"
UMP
Pierre Mauméjean 5 opposition
"I Love Aigues-Mortes"
DVD
Didier Charpentier 3 opposition
Independent
EELV
Didier Caire 1 opposition

List of Successive Mayors of Aigues-Mortes

From To Name Party Position
1944 1953 Éric Hubidos
1953 1959 Alexandre Molinier PCF
1959 1965 André Fabre PCF
1965 1977 Maurice Fontaine RI
1977 1989 Sodol Colombini PCF
1989 2008 René Jeannot UDF then DVD
2008 2014 Cédric Bonato PS

(Not all data is known)

Canton[edit]

The town is the capital of the canton of the same name whose general counsel is Leopold Rosso, deputy mayor of Le Grau-du-Roi and president of the Community of Communes Terre de Camargue (UMP). The canton is part of the arrondissement of Nîmes and the second electoral district of Gard where the member is Gilbert Collard (FN ).

Population[edit]

Censuses have been conducted in the town since 1793.

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
2,800 2,605 2,630 2,577 2,897 3,240 3,393 3,968 4,046
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
3,677 3,865 3,932 3,833 4,113 3,564 3,906 3,981 3,897
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
4,511 3,899 3,900 4,348 3,878 4,123 3,839 3,616 3,746
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2007 2008
4,203 4,197 4,531 4,472 4,999 6,012 7,115 7,613 7,891
2009 2010 - - - - - - -
8,116 8,341 - - - - - - -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Aigues-Mortes

Demographic distribution[edit]

The distribution of the population of the municipality by age group is as follows:

  • 47.6% of men (0–14 years = 17.7%, 15–29 years = 17.1%, 30–44 years = 22%, 45 to 59 years = 21.1% over 60 years = 22%)
  • 52.4% of women (0–19 years = 16.9%, 15–29 years = 15.1%, 30–44 years = 23.5%, 45–59 years = 19.9%, more than 60 years = 24.5%)

The female population is over-represented compared to men. The rate of (52.4%) is substantially the same as the national rate (51.8%).

Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Aigues-Mortes and Gard Department in 2007

Aigues-Mortes Aigues-Mortes Gard Gard
Age Range Men Women Men Women
0 to 14 Years 17.7 16.9 19.1 17.0
15 to 29 Years 17.1 15.1 17.7 16.1
30 to 44 Years 22.0 23.5 19.9 19.8
45 to 59 Years 21.1 19.9 21.3 20.9
60 to 74 Years 15.7 15.9 14.6 15.1
75 to 89 Years 6.0 7.4 6.9 9.9
90 Years+ 0.3 1.2 0.4 1.1

Local Culture[edit]

The Aigues-Mortes Fougasse[edit]

Fougasse was one of the first pastries which could rise. It can be sweet (sometimes called "tarte au sucre" or sugar tart) or salty (with or without gratillons).

Traditionally, making sweet fougasse in Aigues-Mortes was reserved for the Christmas period, as part of the Thirteen desserts. Based on a Brioche dough, sugar, butter, and orange blossom, it was made by the baker with ingredients provided by the client. Now Aigues-Mortes fougasse sells all year.

Lou Drapé[edit]

Lou Drapé is an imaginary horse mentioned in local folklore, which was supposed to walk at night around the ramparts of the city and take 50 to 100 children on his back, and disappear to "nowhere".[31]

Historical sites[edit]

The Tower of Constance and the ramparts[edit]

Tower of Constance

The Tower of Constance was built in 1242 by Saint-Louis on the former site of the Matafère Tower which was built by Charlemagne around 790AD to house the king’s garrison. The construction was completed in 1254.

It is 22 metres in diameter with a height of either 33 or 40 metres depending on the source. The thickness of the walls at the base is 6 metres.

On the ground floor, there is a guardroom protected by a portcullis. In the middle of the room, there is a circular opening leading to the cellar which served as a pantry, storage of ammunition as well as for dungeons. These areas were called the “culs de basse fosse”, an old way of saying underground dungeons in French.

On the first floor, there is the knight’s hall. Structurely it is similar to the guardroom. It was in this room that the Protestants were imprisoned during the 18th century, most notably Marie Durand, who engraved the word “résister” (English: resist) into the edge of the well which can be seen to this day. She was imprisoned at the age of 15, and was freed 38 years later, along with political prisoners such as Abraham Mazel, leader of the Camisards.

Between these two rooms, a narrow, covered way was built within the walls to keep watch on the room below.

After the knight’s hall, there is an entrance to the terrace which offers a wide panoramic view of the region, making it an ideal position for surveillance. Sometimes, the prisoners were allowed to go on the terrace to get some fresh air.

The ramparts stretch for a distance of 1650 metres. Spectacular in their height and their state of preservation even though they were not restored in the 19th century, as was Carcassonne for example, they remain in a well preserved state. Along with the Tower of Constance, they are a testimony to Western European military architecture in the marshlands during the 13th and 14th centuries.

Panoramic view of the Ramparts from the south-east at the coast

The Carbonnière Tower[edit]

The Carbonnière Tower

Located in the commune of Saint-Laurent-d’Aigouze, the Carbonnière Tower was first referred to in an old text from 1346 specifying the function of the structure. It said, “this fortress is the key to the kingdom in this region.” Surrounded by salt marshes, the fortress was the only passageway into Aigues-Mortes. It was guarded by a garrison made up of a châtelain and several guards. From the terrace, which could support up to four cannons, there is a panoramic view of Petite Camargue.

The Church of Notre-Dame-des-Sablons[edit]

This Gothic-style church was probably built before the ramparts in the mid-13th century, during the time of Saint-Louis. In 1537 it served as a Collegiate church but was later vandalized by Protestants in 1575. After the reconstruction of the bell tower in 1634 it later served as a Temple of Reason during the French Revolution, a barracks, grain merchant, and a salt warehouse. It was re-established as a place of worship in 1804 and the building was restored in the neo classical-baroque style. Between 1964 and 1967 all of the 19th century decor was removed, notably the coffered ceilings, resulting in the much more basic and medieval style church we see today. Since 1991, the stained-glass windows by Claude Viallat, a contemporary artist belonging to the "Supports/Surfaces" art movement, add extraordinary light and colour to the building. With the exception of a few statues, the rest of the 18th and 19th century furniture disappeared during this period. The façade is crowned by a simple bell-gable housing 3 bells. The largest of the three is 1.07 metres in diameter. It was dated to 1740, cast by master smelter Jean Poutingon, and has been designated a historical monument of France. The church also houses a statue of Saint-Louis.

The Chapel of the Gray Penitents[edit]

Located to the east of the Place de la Viguerie, it is the property of the Brotherhood of Grey Penitents established in 1400. The facade is in the style of Louis XIV. The entrance door is from the 17th century and is decorated with a wooden statue. The altarpiece was carved in 1687 by Sabatier.

Inside, an altarpiece represents the passion of Christ. It was built of gray stucco plaster in 1687 by the sculptor Sabatier from Montpellier. This altar, on which are the arms of the brotherhood, occupies the back of the choir.

The Chapel of the White Penitents[edit]

Located at the corner of the Rue de la République and Rue Louis Blanc, it belongs to the Brotherhood of the White Penitents created in 1622.

Above the choir, on the roof, there is a copy of the Retable of Jerusalem where Christ celebrated the Passover and Holy Thursday with his apostles. Around the high altar, a painting on canvas traces the descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. It is attributed to Xavier Sigalon a painter born in Uzès in 1778 . On each side of the choir stand two statues: on the left Saint Felix for the redemption of captives, on the right James, son of Alphaeus, first Bishop of Jerusalem.

Saint-Louis Square[edit]

Statue of Saint-Louis

This is the touristic heart of the city. In the centre, opposite the main entrance of the Porte de la Gardette, stands the statue of Saint-Louis, the work of James Pradier in 1849.

Theatre Plans[edit]

The Plan of Theatres[32] are arenas for the Camargue bullfights. They were listed in 1993 on the inventory of the list of Historic Monuments (MH)[33] for their ethnological and cultural interest. They can accommodate more than 600 people.[34]

Aerial Views[edit]

Literary references[edit]

Notable People linked to the Commune[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Google Maps
  2. ^ Gérard Noiriel, The massacre of the Italians of Aigues-Mortes, Fayard, 2010, p. 13 (French)
  3. ^ History of research in the commune of Aigues-Mortes (French)
  4. ^ See "tour Matafère" in the French Wikipedia (French)
  5. ^ See "Tour Magne" in the French Wikipedia (French)
  6. ^ Aigues-mortes, The salt of Life
  7. ^ Gérard Noiriel, op. cit., p. 18
  8. ^ See "Tour Carbonnière" in the French Wikipedia
  9. ^ See "Tour Constance" in the French Wikipedia
  10. ^ Order of Guillaume de Roussillon in 1275 - (Roger, La noblesse de France aux croisades, [Édition ? Date ?] p. 158; C. Rollat, The case of Guillaume de Roussillon in the Templar Tragedy of Pilat at Aigues Mortes) 1274-1312 (French)
  11. ^ Michel Melot, Guide to the Mysterious Sea, Éd. Tchou et Éditions Maritimes et d'Outre-Mer, Paris, 1970, p. 714. (French)
  12. ^ Letters Patent from Louis XI, Tours, 5 June 1470 (French)
  13. ^ BN L. K7 50
  14. ^ Aigues-Mortes on the Dimeli and Co website (French)
  15. ^ Cassini
  16. ^ Report cited by Antoine César Becquerel in 1865 in: Becquerel (Antoine César, M.), Memoire on the Forests and the Climatic influence (Numbered by Google), 1865, see page 54
  17. ^ Gérard Noiriel, op. cit., p. 33-43
  18. ^ Gérard Noiriel, The Massacre of the Italians at Aigues-Mortes, Fayard, 2010, p. 51 (French)
  19. ^ Gérard Noiriel, op. cit., p. 53 (French)
  20. ^ a b Gérard Noiriel The Massacre of the Italians, Fayard 2010, p. 55
  21. ^ Gérard Noiriel The Massacre of the Italians Fayard 2010, p. 56
  22. ^ Gérard Noiriel, op. cit., p. 58
  23. ^ An eighth victim died of Tetanus a month later
  24. ^ Gérard Noiriel, op. cit., p. 58-63 (French)
  25. ^ Gérard Noiriel, op. cit., p. 121
  26. ^ Gérard Noiriel, op. cit., p. 134-136
  27. ^ Gérard Noiriel, op. cit., p. 139
  28. ^ , the Italian workers on one side, France for the riots in front of the Palazzo Farnese - the French Embassy in Rome.
  29. ^ Gérard Noiriel, op. cit., p. 149
  30. ^ See "Sable-de-camargue" in the French Wikipedia (French)
  31. ^ See "Drapé (légende)" in the French Wikipedia
  32. ^ See "Plan des Théâtres (Aigues-Mortes)" in the French Wikipedia (French)
  33. ^ see the page on Historical Monuments (French)
  34. ^ Jean-Baptiste Maudet, Terres de taureaux - Les jeux taurins de l'Europe à l'Amérique, Madrid, Casa de Velasquez, 2010, 512 p. (ISBN 84-96820-37-1), p. Annexe 112 pages p. 84 (French)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Frédéric Simien, Aigues-Mortes, éditions Alan Sutton, 2006. ISBN 2-84910-389-6
  • Frédéric Simien, Aigues-Mortes, tome II, éditions Alan Sutton, 2007. ISBN 2-84910-561-0
  • Frédéric Simien, Aigues-Mortes, tome III, éditions Alan Sutton, 2011. ISBN 978-2-8138-0345-0
  • Frédéric Simien, Camargue, fille du Rhône et de la mer, éditions Alan Sutton, 2010.
  • Sur les événements de 1893, Enzo Barnabà, Le sang des marais, Marseille, 1993
  • Gérard Noiriel, Le massacre des Italiens d'Aigues-Mortes, Fayard, 2010 ISBN 978-2-213-63685-6
  • Christian Rollat, L'Affaire Roussillon dans la Tragédie Templière , Rollat 2006. ISBN 9-782952-704908
  • Luc Martin, L'été de la Colère - la tragédie d'Aigues-Mortes - Août 1893 [éditions Grau-Mots 2012] ISBN 978-2-919155-08-8
  • Jean-Baptiste Maudet, Terres de taureaux - Les jeux taurins de l'Europe à l'Amérique Editor: Casa de Velasquez, Madrid, 2010, 512 pages, Annexe CD-Rom 112 pages, ISBN 84-96820-37-1
  • Pierre Racine, Mission impossible ? L'aménagement touristique du littoral du Languedoc-Roussillon, éditions Midi-Libre, collection Témoignages, Montpellier, 1980, 293 p.

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