Aiki (martial arts principle)
||The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. (May 2010)|
Aiki is a Japanese martial arts principle or tactic in which the defender blends (without clashing) with the attacker, then goes on to dominate the assailant through the strength of their application of internal dynamics or Ki energy to affect techniques. Blending with an attacker's movements allows the Aiki practitioner to control the actions of the attacker with minimal effort. One applies aiki by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique.
The kanji for "ai" is made of three radicals, "join", "one" and "mouth". Hence, "ai" symbolizes things coming together, merging. Aiki should not be confused with "wa" which refers to harmony. The kanji for "ki" represents a pot filled with steaming rice and a lid on it. Hence, "ki" symbolizes energy (in the body). (See the qi main article for further information).
Thus aiki's meaning is to fit, join or combine energy. However, care must be taken about the absolute meanings of words when discussing concepts derived from other cultures and expressed in different languages. This is particularly true when the words we use today have been derived from symbols, in this case Chinese and Japanese kanji, which represent ideas rather than literal translations of the components. Historical use of a term can influence meanings and be passed down by those wishing to illustrate ideas with the best word or phrase available to them. In this way, there may be a divergence of the meaning between arts or schools within the same art. The characters "ai" and "ki" have translations to many different English words.
The use of the term would be passed on orally, as such teachings were often a closely guarded secret. In some schools, concepts like aiki are described in logical, tangible, terms based on physics, while in other definitions of aiki tend to be vague and open-ended, or more concerned with spiritual aspects. The use of the term aiki can often be ambiguous.
Aiki martial arts
Aiki lends its name to various Japanese martial arts most notably aikido and its parent art, Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu. These arts tend to use the principle of aiki as a core element underpining the bulk of their techniques. Aiki is an important principle in several other arts such as Kito-ryu and various forms of kenjutsu. It is found as a concept in arts as diverse as karate and judo. Aiki arts are generally classed as soft martial arts. The aiki arts place great emphasis on the use of qi energy. Techniques accomplished with aiki are subtle and require little mechanical force.
The concept of Aiki
Aiki is a complex concept, and three aspects of it are as follows:
1) Blending not clashing
- Aiki typically describes an idea of oneness or blending in the midst of combat. In aikido it generally describes the more elevated notion of blending rather than clashing. "Blending" is often described even within aikido as "awase". Many definitions for "aiki" seem to be based around "awase". Emphasis is upon joining with the rhythm and intent of the opponent in order to find the optimal position and timing with which to apply force. To blend with an attack, it is usually necessary to yield to incoming forces, so aiki is closely related to the principle of ju. Aiki is about engaging an attack, not retreating from one.
2) Leading the assailant
- The aiki practitioner is able to lead the attack, and thus the attacker, into precarious positions. The influence over an assailant grows as the assailant's balance deteriorates. Body movements (tai sabaki) used for this may be large and obvious or small and subtle. Subtle weight shifting and the application of physical pressure to the assailant enable one to lead an assailant, keep him static, or keep him unbalanced (kuzushi) in order to employ one’s own technique. In the same manner, through deceptive movements, the aiki practitioner may negate a defence response from the assailant or create a defence response from the assailant that puts him even further into peril. There is a strong degree of intent, will or psychology to this aspect of domination. Mind and body are coordinated.
3) Use of internal strength - Ki energy
- Kiai and aiki use the same kanji (transposed) and can be thought of as the inner and the outer aspect of the same principle. Kiai relates to the manifestation, emission or projection of ones own energy (internal strength), while Aiki relates to the merging of one's energy with the energy emitted from an external source (blending). Thus kiai is union with our own, internal energy while aiki is union with an attacker's energy. Kiai consists of all parts of the body being unified and directed to one intent. Aiki, ultimately has to do with a very good ability to manipulate kiai upon contact so that the practitioner blends his ki with the attacker’s ki instantaneously. This use of ki will involve the use of kokyu power, i.e. breathing is coordinated with movement. Kokyu Ryoku is the natural power that can be produced when body and consciousness (mind) are unified. The term "kokyu" can also be used to describe a situation in which two opponent's are moving with appropriate timing.
Thoughts on aiki
The oldest book to discuss aiki was the 1899 Budo Hiketsu-Aiki no Jutsu. On the subject of aiki it was written:
|“||The most profound and mysterious art in the world is the art of aiki. This is the secret principle of all the martial arts in Japan. One who masters it can be an unparalleled martial genius.||”|
The Textbook of Jujutsu (Jujutsu Kyoju-sho Ryu no Maki) from 1913 wrote:
|“||Aiki is an impassive state of mind without a blind side, slackness, evil intention, or fear. There is no difference between aiki and ki-ai; however, if compared, when expressed dynamically aiki is called kiai, and when expressed statically, it is aiki.||”|
|“||The secret of aiki is to overpower the opponent mentally at a glance and to win without fighting.||”|
His son Tokimune Takeda had the following to say on the same:
|“||Aiki is to pull when you are pushed, and to push when you are pulled. It is the spirit of slowness and speed, of harmonizing your movement with your opponent's ki. Its opposite, kiai, is to push to the limit, while aiki never resists.
The term aiki has been used since ancient times and is not unique to Daito-ryu. The ki in aiki is go no sen, meaning to respond to an attack.
... Daito-ryu is all go no sen — you first evade your opponent's attack and then strike or control him. Likewise, Itto-ryu is primarily go no sen. You attack because an opponent attacks you. This implies not cutting your opponent. This is called katsujinken (life-giving sword). Its opposite is called setsuninken (death-dealing sword). 
A detailed scientific investigation, by Dr Alun Harris, into the Principle of Aiki gave the following conclusion:-
That Aiki was a method of unbalancing an attacker by only partially balancing the reaction force the attacker depends upon to retain his balance as he attacks, i.e. applies force/momentum to his body using his propulsion foot. The reaction force can either be due to the contact made with the target/defender or with the ground using his recovery foot to slow his momentum. When applying Aiki the attacker's reaction force is effectively divided into two perpendicular components where only one component is balanced whilst the perpendicular component is not balanced, i.e. not resisted. This causes the attacker to become unbalanced in the unresisted direction. It is only possible to achieve this condition when the Point of Application of the reaction force is rotated about a centre point in the unresisted direction. The component of the reaction force that is balanced is along the radial direction, i.e. towards or away from the centre. Natural centres of rotation include body joints, e.g. the hips, shoulder, elbow and the feet. Virtual centres of rotation can be created by moving the Point of Application of the reaction force in a circular path with its curvature defining the location of the centre point. Achieving the conditions necessary to apply Aiki forms the art of an Aiki technique. This will include inducing the attacker to apply the necessary pull or push/strike at the desired moment and/or direction that can be unbalanced using the intended rotation of the Point of Application of the reaction force. 
- Secret transmission
- Aiki in karate
- Aiki in judo
- Engaging an attack
- Kiai vs aiki
- Kokyu power
- Kokyu ryoku
- Draeger, Donn F. Modern Bujutsu & Budo: Martial arts And Ways Of Japan, Vol III. Weatherhill, Tokyo 1974, 1996.
- Pranin, Stanley. Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu; Conversations with Daito-ryu Masters. Interview with Tokimune Takeda from 1985 to 1987. Aiki News Tokyo 1996.
- Dr Alun James Harris. "The Principle of Aiki." Aikido Journal Blog, 8 February 2014 and http://alunharris.simpl.com