Air-gap flash

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Spark between anode and cathode, triggered by the third electrode inside the inner quartz tube. The inner tube serves as a guide for the spark and to cool it even faster. The outer tube muffles the explosive sound that the spark produces.
A photo of a revolver firing, taken with the flash above. The photo was taken in a darkened room, with camera's shutter open and the flash was triggered by the sound of the shot using a microphone.
Ultra-high-speed photo of a bullet travelling at about 2,850 feet per second (870 m/s).
Air-gap flash spectrum generated with a grating.
Upper half shows the air-gap in daylight. Lower half shows the phosphorescence of the quartz ignition tube in blue in a darkened environment after a flash has occurred.

An air-gap flash is a photographic light source capable of producing sub-microsecond light flashes, allowing for (ultra) high-speed photography. This is achieved by a high-voltage (20 kV typically) electric discharge between two electrodes over a quartz (or glass) tube's surface. The distance between the electrodes is such that a spontaneous discharge does not occur. To start the discharge a high-voltage pulse is applied on an electrode inside the quartz tube.

The discharge can be triggered electronically using a microphone or an interrupted laser beam to illuminate a fast event. A sub-microsecond flash is fast enough to photographically stop even a supersonic bullet in flight without noticeable motion blur.

The person credited with popularising the flash is Harold Eugene Edgerton, though earlier scientists such as Ernst Mach also used a spark gap as a fast photographic lighting system. William Henry Fox Talbot is said to have created the first spark-based flash photo, using a Leyden jar, the original form of the capacitor. Edgerton was one of the founders of EG&G company who sold an air-gap flash under the name Microflash 549.[1] There are several commercial flashes available today.

Design parameters[edit]

The aim of a high-speed flash is to be fast and bright enough. A flash system typically consists of a capacitor that is discharged through a gas (air in this case). The speed of a flash is mainly determined by the time it takes to discharge the capacitor through the gas. This time is proportional to

t_{discharge} \propto {\sqrt{LC}},

in which L is the inductance and C the capacitance of the system. To be fast, both L and C must be kept small. The brightness of the flash is proportional to the energy stored in the capacitor:

E = {{CV^2} \over 2},

where V is the voltage over the capacitor. This calls for a large capacitor and a high voltage. However, a large C makes the flash slow, so the only solution to make a sufficiently fast and bright flash is to use a very high voltage on a relatively small capacitor, with a very low inductance. Typical values are 0.05 µF capacity, 0.02 µH inductance, 10 J energy, 0.5 µs duration and about 20 MW power.[2]

Air (mainly nitrogen) is preferred as a gas because it is fast. Xenon has a much higher efficiency in turning energy into light, but is limited in speed to about 10 microseconds, caused by its own afterglow.

The spark is guided over a quartz surface to improve the light output and benefit from the cooling capacity, making the flash faster.[3][4] This has a negative effect in form of quartz erosion because of high energy discharge.

Spectral properties[edit]

Since the spark gap discharges in air generating a plasma, the spectrum shows both a continuum and spectral lines, mainly of nitrogen since air is 79% nitrogen. The spectrum is rich in UV but covers the entire visible range down to infra-red. When a quartz tube is used as ignition tube, it shows a clear phosphorescence in blue after the flash, induced by the UV.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://people.rit.edu/andpph/text-microflash-549-manual.pdf
  2. ^ Edgerton, Harold E. (19706). Electronic flash, strobe, Chapter 7, Mc Graw Hill, New-York. ISBN 007018965x / 0-07-018965-x.
  3. ^ Topler, M, Ann Physik, vol. 4, no. 27, pp 1043-1050, 1908
  4. ^ Edgerton, H.E.K, K. Cooper and J. tredwell, Submicrosecond Flash Source, J. SMTPE, vol. 70,p. 117, March, 1961

External links[edit]