Air Defense Artillery Branch (United States)
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2011)|
|Air Defense Artillery branch|
|Motto||"First to Fire!"|
|Colors||Red and Gold|
|Anniversaries||17 November 1775- The Continental Congress elected Henry Knox "Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery"|
Air Defense Artillery refers to a combat arm that specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface to air missiles). In the US Army, these groups are composed of mainly air defense systems such as the Patriot Missile System, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and the Avenger Air Defense system which fires the FIM-92 Stinger missile. The Air Defense Artillery branch descended from the Anti-Aircraft Artillery (part of the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps) into a separate branch on 20 June 1968. On 1 December 1968, the ADA branch was authorized to wear modified Artillery insignia, crossed field guns with missile.
According to the Army's Field Manual 44-100, the mission of Air Defense Artillery is "to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack, and surveillance."
On 10 October 1917 an Antiaircraft Service in the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was created at Arnouville-Les-Gonesse where an antiaircraft school was established. The antiaircraft units were organized as serially numbered battalions during the war, as follows:
- 1st Antiaircraft Battalion through the 10th Antiaircraft Battalion
- 1st AA Machine Gun Battalion through the 6th AA Machine Gun Battalion. These units were organized by Col. James A. Shipton but were disbanded in May 1918.
- The National Defense Act of 1920 formally assigned the air defense mission to the Coast Artillery Corps, and 4 battalions were organized in 1921. In 1924 under a major reorganization of the Coast Artillery the battalions were reorganized as regiments.
- (5) Anti-aircraft regiments
- (13) National Guard
- 197th Coast Artillery (AA) N.H.
- 198th Coast Artillery (AA) DE.
- 200th Coast Artillery (AA) N.M.
- 202nd Coast Artillery (AA) IL.
- 203rd Coast Artillery (AA) MO.
- 206th Coast Artillery (AA) AR.
- 207th Coast Artillery (AA) N.Y. ?
- 211th Coast Artillery (AA) MA.
- 212th Coast Artillery (AA) N.Y.
- 213th Coast Artillery (AA) PA.
- 214th Coast Artillery (AA) GA. ?
- 251st Coast Artillery (AA) CA.
- 369th Coast Artillery (AA) N.Y.
In 1938 there were only 5 Regular Army and thirteen National Guard regiments, but by 1941 this had been expanded to 37 total regiments. In November 1942, 781 battalions were authorized. However, this number was pared down to 331 battalions by the end of the war. On 9 March 1942 Antiaircraft Command was established in Washington D.C. and in 1944 the AAA school was moved to Fort Bliss. Army Anti-Aircraft Command (ARAACOM) was created July 1950, and in 1957, ARAACOM was renamed to US Army Air Defense Command (USARADCOM).
The serially numbered battalions bore the following titles
- Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion
- Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion
- Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion
- Antiaircraft Artillery Searchlight Battalion
- Barrage balloon Battalions
- Antiaircraft Artillery Missile Battalion.
In 1957 the Combat Arms Regimental System organized the battalions under regiments again. In 1968 the Air Defense Artillery Branch was created. In 2010 the United States Army Air Defense Artillery School was moved from Fort Bliss to Fort Sill.
corps or army
|32nd Army Air & Missile Defense Command||Fort Bliss, TX||FORSCOM|
|94th Army Air & Missile Defense Command||Fort Shafter, HI||United States Army Pacific|
|10th Army Air & Missile Defense Command||Kaiserslautern, Germany||United States Army Europe|
|263d Army Air & Missile Defense Command||Anderson, SC||South Carolina Army National Guard|
Brigade size units
|Brigade||SSI||Subordinate to/ garrison||Component|
|6th ADA Brigade (ADA School)||Fort Sill||Training and Doctrine Command|
|11th ADA Brigade||Fort Bliss||32nd Army Air & Missile Defense Command|
|31st ADA Brigade||Fort Sill||32nd Army Air & Missile Defense Command|
|35th ADA Brigade||South Korea||Eighth United States Army / 94th Army Air & Missile Defense Command|
|108th ADA Brigade||Fort Bragg
|32nd Army Air & Missile Defense Command|
|164th ADA Brigade||Florida ARNG|
|174th ADA Brigade||Ohio ARNG|
|Unit||DUI||Subordinate to/ garrison||Component|
|35th ADA Brigade||Regular Army|
|A Battery, 2nd ADA
|11th ADA Brigade (A Battery, 2nd ADA)
31st ADA Brigade, Fort Sill (3-2 ADA)
|4-3 ADA||31st ADA Brigade, Fort Sill||Regular Army|
|A Battery, 4th ADA
|11th ADA Brigade (A Battery, 4th ADA)
108th ADA Brigade (3–4 ADA)
|69th ADA Brigade (4–5 AMD)
31st ADA Brigade (5–5 ADA)
|6th ADA Brigade (ADA School), Fort Sill||Regular Army|
|1-7 ADA (P)
5-7 ADA (P)
|108th ADA Brigade (1–7 ADA)
Kaiserslautern, Germany (5–7 ADA)
|11th ADA Brigade||Regular Army|
|69th ADA Brigade (1–44th ADA) Fort Hood
108th ADA Brigade (2–44 ADA)
|11th ADA Brigade (5–52)
35th ADA Brigade (6–52)
|1–56 ADA||6th ADA Brigade (ADA School), Fort Sill||Regular Army|
|1–204 ADA||1–204 ADA||Mississippi ARNG|
The Shipton Award is named for Brigadier General James A. Shipton, who is acknowledged as the Air Defense Artillery Branch's founding father. Shipton felt that the mission of antiaircraft defense was not to down enemy aircraft, but instead to protect maneuver forces on the ground: "The purpose of anti-aviation defense is to protect our own forces and establishments from hostile attack and observation from the air by keeping enemy aeroplanes [sic] at a distance." The Shipton Award recognizes an Air Defense Artillery professional for outstanding performance individual thought, innovation and contributions that results in significant contributions or enhances Air Defense Artillery's warfighting capabilities, morale, readiness and maintenance.
- Coats of arms of U.S. Air Defense Artillery Regiments
- Fort Bliss
- Fort Sill
- M163 VADS
- M167 Vulcan
- MIM-104 Patriot
- Saint Barbara
- Nike Hercules
- MIM-23 Hawk
- TIOH Air Defense Artillery branch page
- FM 44-100
- Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y.
- Bob MacDonald. "We Aim to Hit". California State Military Museum. California State Military Department. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
- [dead link]
- Stiller, Jesse H. (2010). "ADA Branch: A Proud Heritage". Air Defense Artillery Online.
- Antiaircraft Artillery Battalions of the U.S. Army (Volumes 1,2) 1991 by James A. Sawicki ISBN 0-9602404-7-0