T 6 Gold Start passing the finish pylon at the 2014 Reno Air Races
Air racing is a motorsport that involves airplanes competing over a fixed course, with the winner either returning the shortest time, the one to complete it with the most points, or to come closest to a previously estimated time.
The first heavier-than-air air race was held on May 23, 1909 - the Prix de Lagatinerie, at the Port-Aviation airport south of Paris, France. Four pilots entered the race, two started and nobody completed the full race distance though this was not unexpected as the rules specified that whoever travelled furthest would be the winner if no-one completed the race. Léon Delagrange who covered slightly more than half of the ten 1.2-kilometre laps was declared the winner.
Some other minor events were held before the Grande Semaine d'Aviation de la Champagne in August 22–29, 1909 at Reims, France. This was the first major international flying event, drawing the most important aircraft makers and pilots of the era, as well as celebrities and royalty. The premier event — the first Gordon Bennett Trophy competition — was won by Glenn Curtiss, who beat second place finisher Louis Blériot by five seconds. Curtiss was named "Champion Air Racer of the World".
The first air race, in the United States was in Los Angeles California in 1910. Pilot's Roy Knabenshue, and Charles Willard the very first men Curtiss taught to fly picked Southern California for there winter aerial demonstrations base and persuaded railroad magnate Henry Huntington to pledge $50,000 for the event.
William Randolph Hearst, who published the Los Angeles Examiner, hired a hot air balloon with a promotional parse touting his newspaper. Dominguez Field, just south of Los Angeles, was loaned to the race organizers, from January 10 to 20, 1910.
43 flying machines entered, 16 showed up, and not all flew. It was at this event that then 13-year-old Jimmy Doolittle saw his first airplane. The star of the show was Frenchman, Louis Paulhan, who brought two Farman biplanes and two Blériot XI monoplanes. Paulhan was guaranteed $25,000 to appear.
In the years before the First World War popular interest in aviation led to a large number of air races in Europe, including the 1911 Circuit of Europe race, the Daily Mail Circuit of Britain Air Race and the Aerial Derby.
In 1913 the first Schneider Trophy seaplane race was held. When the competition was resumed after the war it was significant in advancing aeroplane design, particularly in the fields of aerodynamics and engine design, and would show its results in the best fighters of World War II.
On October 19, 1919, the Army Transcontinental Air Race began along a 2700 mile route from Long Island, New York to San Francisco, California and back which would see widespread carnage including 7 fatalities (2 en route to the race) and of the 48 aircraft that started, 33 would complete the double crossing of the continent.
In 1921, the United States instituted the National Air Meets, which became the National Air Races in 1924. In 1929, the Women's Air Derby became a part of the National Air Races circuit. The National Air Races lasted until 1949. The Cleveland Air Races was another important event. In 1947, an All-Woman Transcontinental Air Race dubbed the "Powder Puff Derby" was established, running until 1977.
In 1964, Bill Stead, a Nevada rancher, pilot, and unlimited hydroplane racing champion, organized the first Reno Air Races at a small dirt strip called the Sky Ranch, located between Sparks, Nevada, and Pyramid Lake. The National Championship Air Races were soon moved to the Reno Stead Airport and have been held there every September since 1966. The five-day event attracts around 200,000 people, and includes racing around courses marked out by pylons for six classes of aircraft: Unlimited, Formula One, Sport Biplane, AT-6, Sport and Jet. It also features civil airshow acts, military flight demonstrations, and a large static aircraft display. Other promoters have run pylon racing events across the USA and Canada, including races in Las Vegas, NV in 1965, Lancaster, CA in 1965 and 1966, Mojave, California in 1970-71, and 1973–79; at Cape May, NJ in 1971, San Diego, CA in 1971, Miami, FL in 1973 and 1979, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan in 1984; Hamilton Field, California, in 1988; at Dallas, TX in 1990, in Denver, CO in 1990 and 1992, in Kansas City in 1993, in Phoenix, Arizona in 1994 and 1995; and in Tunica, Mississippi in 2005. Numerous other venues across the United States, Canada, and Mexico have also hosted events featuring the smaller Formula One and Biplane classes.
In 1970, American Formula One racing was exported to Europe (Great Britain, and then to France), where almost as many races have been held as in the U.S.A. Also in 1970, the California 1000 Air Race started at the Mojave Airport with a 66 lap unlimited air race that featured a Douglas DC-7 with one aircraft completing the circuit.
Red Bull has created a series called the Red Bull Air Race World Championship in which competitors fly individually between pairs of pylons, while performing prescribed maneuvers. Usually held over water near large cities, the sport has attracted large crowds and renewed media interest in air racing.
Aero GP has multiple aircraft racing together pik around pylons, and is based in Europe where it has held an air race each year since 2005.
Powered paragliding or Paramotor races have been organized with the first occurring on 4 September 2010 in an airfield in Montauban, Southern France. These are parasails powered by small two-stroke engines and allow a much smaller race where the audience can see the pilots as they carry out their maneuvers.
|Competition||1st Race||Primary Description||Course||Field||Sanctioning Body|
|Gordon Bennett Trophy||1909||Time trials||Pilon, rally (1920)||Open|
|Daily Mail aviation prizes||1910||Various events to encourage aviation||Point to point & circuit||Open||Daily Mail|
|Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe||1912||Encourage aviation||Cross-country circuit||Open||Aéro-Club de France|
|Schneider Trophy||1913||Encourage seaplane development||Triangle||Seaplanes||FAI|
|Pulitzer & National Air Races||1920||Unlimited||Pylon||Open|
|King's Cup Race||1922||Handicapped race for light aircraft||Cross-country (UK)||British pilots||King George V|
|Dole Derby||1927||California to Hawaii||Point to point||Open||NAA|
|Challenge International de Tourisme||1929||Encourage light aircraft development||Technical trials & rally||Light aircraft||FAI|
|Women's Air Derby||1929||Unlimited||Transcontinental (US)||Female pilots|
|Bendix Trophy||1931||Unlimited||Transcontinental (US)||Open|
|MacRobertson Air Race||1934||Commemorate 1934 Melbourne Centennial||Intercontinental (UK to Australia)||Open||RAC|
|Formula V Air Racing||1977||Provide affordable racing||Circuit||Formula aircraft||Formula V Air Racing Association|
Active air races
|Aero GP||2005||Pylon races plus additional disciplines|
|British Air Racing Championship||1952||Handicapped air races run by Royal Aero Club Records Racing and Rally Association|
|European Air Racing Championship||2000||Handicapped air races run by Royal Aero Club Records Racing and Rally Association|
|Parabatix Sky Racers||2010||Paramotor precision air races, Pylon racing, interactive ground obstacles, one & two aircraft at a time|
|Red Bull Championships||2003||Pylon races, one plane at a time|
|Reno Air Races||1964||Only remaining Unlimited Class Pylon race.|
|Schneider Trophy||1981||Landplanes, revived commemoration of original races, run by Royal Aero Club Records Racing and Rally Association|
Restricting aircraft to a specific type or design creates a competition that focuses on pilot skill. Air racing events such as the Reno air races, incorporate multiple classes or aircraft. These may be defined by the race organizer, or by a sanctioned group. Some air races are limited to a single class. Classes used at the Reno races are as follows:
|Class||First Race||Primary Description||Course||Sanctioned|
|T-6 Air Racing||1946||T-6/Harvard/SNJ with a P&W R-1340-AN-1 engine||Pylon|
|Biplane Air Racing||1964||360 cubic inch engines, mostly Pitts Specials||Pylon|
|Formula One Air Racing||1970||200 cubic inch engines||Pylon||International Aeronautics Federation|
|Formula V Air Racing||1972||1600cc Volkswagen engines||Pylon||(Defunct)|
|Sport Class Racing||1998||Experimental piston powered aircraft.||Pylon|
Notable racing pilots
- Pancho Barnes
- André Beaumont
- Peter Besenyei
- Louis Bleriot
- Alan Cobham
- Jacqueline Cochran
- Glenn Curtiss
- Geoffrey de Havilland
- Geoffrey de Havilland, Jr.
- Jimmy Doolittle
- Amelia Earhart
- Roland Garros
- Eugene Gilbert
- Claude Grahame-White
- Gustav Hamel
- Harry Hawker
- Frank Hawks
- Alex Henshaw
- Steve Hinton
- Skip Holm
- Benny Howard
- Amy Johnson
- Hubert Latham
- Jimmy Leeward
- Tony LeVier
- Paul Mantz
- Jim Mollison
- John Moisant
- Blanche Noyes
- Adolphe Pégoud
- John Cyril Porte
- C. W. A. Scott
- Jon Sharp (pilot)
- Lyle Shelton
- Thomas Sopwith
- Louise Thaden
- Bobbi Trout
- Roscoe Turner
- Jules Védrines
- Jimmy Wedell
- Charles Terres Weymann
- Set in the 1930s, the movie Porco Rosso briefly touches on the early days of air racing.
- "The Rocketeer" comic books feature air racing prominently as the story is set during the 1930s.
- The 1965 film Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines depicts a £10,000-prize air race between London and Paris. The film takes place in 1910 and utilizes many authentic reproductions of airplanes from that era.
- The May–June 1909 "Port Aviation" Meetings – The World's First Air Races by Anders Bruun accessdate 22 August 2012
- http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/the-big-race-of-1910-9075126/ How the first U.S. air race launched an aviation tradition.
- Billy Mitchell and the Great Transcontinental Air Race of 1919 by Dr. William M. Leary, Air University Review, May–June 1984
- "Air Racing News". Sport Aviation. January 1970.
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nRMGgnFusEg California 1000 Unlimited Class Air Race video
- Parabatix Sky Racers
- Philip Handleman. Air Racing Today: Heavy Iron at Reno.
- Royal Aero Club Records Racing and Rally Association
- 100 Years Of Air Racing
- Red Bull Air Race
- Parabatix Sky Racers
- Aero GP
- Reno Air Races
- Sport Air Racing League