Aix-Marseille University

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Aix-Marseille University
Aix-Marseille Université
Aix-Marseille University logo.png
Established 1409 (University of Provence)[1]
1896 (University of Aix-Marseille)
1970 (University of Provence)
1970 (University of the Mediterranean)
1973 (Paul Cézanne University)
2012 (Aix-Marseille University)
Type Public
Endowment 650 million[2]
President Yvon Berland[3]
Academic staff 4,273
Admin. staff 4,107
Students 70,221
Doctoral students 2,448
Location Aix-en-Provence and Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur,  France
43°17′37″N 5°21′28″E / 43.29361°N 5.35778°E / 43.29361; 5.35778Coordinates: 43°17′37″N 5°21′28″E / 43.29361°N 5.35778°E / 43.29361; 5.35778
Affiliations Mediterranean Universities Union (UNIMED), Association of MBAs (AMBA), European University Association (EUA), European Quality Improvement System (EQUIS)
Website www.univ-amu.fr

Aix-Marseille University (AMU) (French: Aix-Marseille Université) is a public research university located in Provence, southern France. With roots dating back to 1409,[4][5] the University was formed by the merger of the University of Provence, the University of the Mediterranean and Paul Cézanne University.[6][7][8] The merger became effective on 1 January 2012, resulting in the creation of the largest university in France and the French-speaking world, with about 70,000 students.[9][10] AMU has the largest financial endowment of any academic institution in the Francophone world, standing at €650 million.[11][12][13]

The University is organized around five main campuses situated in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille.[14] Apart from its major campuses, AMU owns and operates facilities in Arles, Aubagne, Avignon, Digne-les-Bains, Gap, La Ciotat, Lambesc and Salon-de-Provence.[15] The University is headquartered at the Pharo, Marseille.

AMU has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, politics, business, economics and literature. To date, there have been 4 Nobel Laureates amongst its alumni and faculty,[16][17][18][19] as well as a two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize,[20] several heads of state, parliamentary speakers, government ministers, ambassadors and members of the Institut de France.

AMU has dozens of research and teaching partnerships, including an alliance with the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and a collaboration with the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA).[21] AMU is a member of numerous academic organisations including the European University Association (EUA) and the Mediterranean Universities Union (UNIMED).


History[edit]

Early history (1409–1800)[edit]

The headquarters for AMU is located at the Pharo, Marseille
Count of Provence Louis II of Anjou, the University's founder, as painted by Barthélemy d'Eyck and now on display at the National Library of France

The institution developed out of the original University of Provence, founded on 9 December 1409 as a Studium Generale by Count of Provence Louis II of Anjou and recognized by Papal Bull issued by Pope Alexander V.[22][23][24] However, there is evidence that teaching in Aix existed in some form from the beginning of the 12th century, since there were a doctor of theology in 1100, a doctor of law in 1200 and a professor of law in 1320 on the books.[25] The decision to establish the university was, in part, a response to the already-thriving University of Paris.[26] As a result, in order to be sure of the viability of the new institution, Louis II compelled his Provençal students to study in Aix only.[27] Thus, the letters patent for the university were granted, and the government of the university was created. The Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence Thomas de Puppio was appointed as the first chancellor of the university for the rest of his life. After his death in 1420, a new chancellor was elected by the rector, masters, and licentiates – an uncommon arrangement not repeated at any other French university. The rector had to be an “ordinary student”, who had unrestricted civil and criminal jurisdiction in all cases where one party was a doctor or scholar of the university. Those displeased with the rector’s decisions could appeal to a doctor legens. Eleven consiliarii provided assistance to the rector, being elected yearly by their predecessors. These individuals represented all faculties, but were elected from among the students. The constitution was of a student-university, and the instructors did not have great authority except in granting degrees. Mention should be made that a resident doctor or student who married was required to pay "charivari" to the university, the amount varying with the degree or status of the man, and being increased if the bride was a widow. Refusal to submit to this statutable extortion was punished by the assemblage of students at the summons of the rector with frying-pans, bassoons, and horns at the house of the newly married couple. Continued recusancy was followed by the piling up of dirt in front of their door upon every Feast-day. These injunctions were justified on the ground that the money extorted was devoted to divine service.[28]

In 1486 Provence passed to the French crown.[29][30] The University's continued existence was approved by Louis XII of France, and Aix-en-Provence continued to be a significant provincial centre. It was, for instance, the seat of the Parliament of Aix-en-Provence from 1501 to 1789,[31][32] no doubt aided by the presence of the law faculty.

In 1603 Henry IV of France established the Collège Royal de Bourbon in Aix-en-Provence for the study of belles-lettres and philosophy,[33][34] supplementing the traditional faculties of the University, but not formally a part of it. This college de plain exercice became a significant seat of learning, under the control of the Jesuit order. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the college frequently served as a preparatory, but unaffiliated, school for the University. Only the University was entitled to award degrees in the theology, law, and medicine; but candidates for degrees had first to pass an examination in philosophy, which was only provided by the college. Universities basically accepted candidates who had studied in colleges formally affiliated with them, which in reality required both college and university to be situated in the same city. In 1762 the Jesuits were forced to leave France,[35] and in 1763 the Collège Royal de Bourbon was officially affiliated with the University as a faculty of arts.[36]

The addition of the Collège Royal de Bourbon essentially widened the scope of courses provided at the University of Provence. Formal instruction in French was initially provided at the college, with texts and a structured course of study. Subsequently physics became a part of the curriculum at the college as a part of the philosophy course in the 18th century. Equipment for carrying out experiments was obtained and the first course in experimental physics was provided at Aix-en-Provence in 1741. Classical mechanics, nevertheless, was merely taught after 1755, when the physicist Paulian offered his first class and Isaac Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica and commentaries were obtained for the library.

The French Revolution, with its focus on the individual and an end to inherited privilege, saw the suppression of the universities. To the revolutionaries, universities embodied bastions of corporatism and established interests. Moreover, lands owned by the universities and utilized for their support, represented a source of wealth to be tapped by the revolutionary government, just as property possessed by the Church had been confiscated. In 1792, the University of Provence, along with twenty-one other universities, was dissolved.[37] Specialized ecoles, with rigorous entrance examinations and open to anyone with talent, were eventually created in order to offer professional training in specialized areas. Nonetheless, the government found it necessary to allow the faculties of law and medicine to continue in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille in the early 19th century.[38]

Modern era (1800–1973)[edit]

During the 19th century, additional faculties were created in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille to serve the changing needs of French society. For instance, Hippolyte Fortoul, later Minister of National Education and Public Worship of France, was the first dean and professor of a new faculty in French literature established in Aix-en-Provence in the 1840s.[39][40] In 1896, the departmental council of the Bouches-du-Rhône founded a chair in the faculty of letters at Aix-en-Provence in the language and literature of Mediterranean Europe; their aim was to assist the commercial exploitation of the region by French business. A new science faculty was created in Marseille to support the growing industrialization of the region. At about the same time, a special training program was created in the faculty of medicine in order to train doctors in colonial medicine for France’s expanding colonial empire.

The most significant development for the university in the 19th century, nevertheless, was the recreation of French universities in 1896.[41] Facing acute competition from prestigious German universities following the Franco-Prussian War, French legislators were anxious to have their own universities. In 1896 a law was passed creating seventeen autonomous regional universities financed mainly by the state.[42] The various faculties in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille were grouped into the new University of Aix-Marseille.[43]

Through two world wars and a depression, the University of Aix-Marseille continued to develop. Increasing numbers of women and foreign students joined the student body, and an overwhelming majority of students majored in the science, medicine, and law. Individual faculties were almost autonomous from university administration and the Ministry of Education frequently intervened directly among the faculties.

Following riots among university students in May 1968,[44] a reform of French education occurred. The Orientation Act (Loi d’Orientation de l’Enseignement Superieur) of 1968 divided the old faculties into smaller subject departments, decreased the power of the Ministry of Education, and created smaller universities, with strengthened administrations.[45] Subsequently, the University of Aix-Marseille was divided into two institutions. Each university had different areas of concentration of study and the faculties were divided as follows:

In 1973, conservative faculty members led by Charles Debbasch, demanded and obtained the creation of the University of Aix-Marseille III, grouping law, political science, applied economics, earth science, ecology and technological studies.

Nearly 40 years later, in June 2007, the three universities of Aix-Marseille expressed their intention to merge in order to form one university. The merger was gradually prepared, respecting a schedule which allowed for long discussions at each stage, after which it was approved by vote of the Board of Directors of each university. Thus, Aix-Marseille University was established by decree No. 2011-1010 of 24 August 2011 and officially opened its doors on 1 January 2012.[46]

Activities[edit]

Aix-Marseille University enrolls almost 71,000 students, including more than 10,000 international students from 128 different countries. The University, with its wide range of general and vocational courses including over 590 degree courses, offers teaching in fields as varied as the Arts, Social Sciences, Health, Sport and Economics, Law and Political Sciences, Applied Economics and Management, and Exact Sciences such as Mathematics, Data-processing, Physical Sciences, Astrophysical Sciences, Chemistry and Biology.[47] Its 132 recognized research units and 21 faculties make it a centre of international excellence in social and natural sciences.[48] With more than 500 international agreements, the University participates in the creation of European area of education and research and in the development of mobility. A policy in the direction of Asian countries has led to increase its enrollments of excellent international students.[49] Programmes in French and/or English have been organized in order to favour the welcome and the integration of international students, in particular thanks to the presence within the University of the Institute of French Studies for Foreign Students (Institut d'Etudes Françaises Pour Etudiants Etrangers (IEFEE)). The IEFEE was founded in 1953 and is regarded as one of the best French-language teaching centres in the country.[50][51] About a thousand students from 65 countries attend the institute throughout the academic year. The institute is also a notable centre for teachers of French as a foreign language, and its function is to provide training and perfecting of linguistic abilities in French as a scientific and cultural means of communication. Furthermore, the University is "one of the most distinguished in France, second only to the University of Paris in the areas of French literature, history, and linguistics", according to Harvard University's website.[52][53][54]

The University’s library system comprises 59 libraries, with 662,000 volumes, 20,000 online periodical titles, and thousands of digital resources, making it one of the largest and most diverse academic library systems in France. The overall area occupied by the libraries is equal to 37,056 m², including 19,703 m² public access space. The libraries offer 49.2 kilometers of open-stacks shelving and 4,219 seats for student study. In addition, there are 487 computer workstations, which are available to the public for research purposes.[55]

Political Science[edit]

The main entrance to Sciences Po Aix
Sciences Po Aix is housed in the Palais de l'université, a monument historique designed by architect Georges Vallon in 1734

Many prominent government leaders have studied at the University's Institute of Political Studies (Institut d'études politiques d'Aix-en-Provence),[56] also known as Sciences Po Aix. The institute is housed in the Palais de l'université, a monument historique designed by architect Georges Vallon in 1734.[57] Established in 1956, it is one of a network of 9 world-famous IEPs (Instituts d’Etudes Politiques) in France, including those in Bordeaux, Grenoble, Lille, Lyon, Paris, Rennes, Strasbourg and Toulouse.[58][59] The IEP is a Grande école in political science and its primary aim is to train senior executives for the public, semi-public, and private sectors.[60][61] Although the IEP offers a multitude of disciplines, its main focus is on politics, including related subjects such as history, law, economics, languages, international relations, and media studies. Its admissions process is among the toughest and most selective in the country. It should be noted that by means of a partnership with the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, Sciences Po Aix offers a French-German bilingual degree, awarding students with a double diploma. In addition, Sciences Po Aix and the UCLA School of Law, the law school of the University of California, Los Angeles, signed an agreement for academic cooperation in order to promote exchanges for research and study.[62][63] Thus, the IEP now has numerous exchange programs through partnerships with close to 100 different universities in the world: the school therefore welcomes 120 foreign students a year. On top of these academic exchanges, students have the opportunity to do internships abroad in large international firms.[64]

Among the best-known people who graduated from Sciences Po Aix are the current Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Christine Lagarde,[65][66] the current Minister of Labour, Employment and Immigration of Luxembourg, Nicolas Schmit,[67] former Minister of Justice of France, Élisabeth Guigou,[68] former Presidents of the National Assembly of France, Philippe Séguin[69] and Patrick Ollier.[70]

Law[edit]

Faculty of Law and Political Science
Paul Cézanne attended the law school from 1858 to 1861

The law school at AMU dates back to the University's foundation in 1409.[71] The school had far-reaching influence, since written law, which in France originated in Aix-en-Provence, spread from there, eventually replacing the common law practiced throughout the rest of Northern Gaul.[72] The law school has a long tradition of self-management, with a strongly institutionalized culture and practices enrooted in the social and economic realities of the region.[73] Today, it is one of the largest law schools in France, and is considered to be one of the nation's leading centres for legal research and teaching.[74][75][76] As of 2013 the law school was ranked 3rd nationally by SMBG, following Panthéon-Assas and Panthéon-Sorbonne universities.[77] The school is unique among French law schools for the breadth of courses offered and the extent of research undertaken in a wide range of fields. Other than Panthéon-Assas, the school "has attracted the most prestigious law faculty in France", according to the University of Connecticut's website.[78] The teaching faculty comprises 155 professors and 172 adjunct lecturers, the latter drawn from private practice, the civil service, the judiciary and other organizations. Much of the legal research at the University is done under the auspices of its many research institutes – there is one in almost every field of law. Research activity is buttressed by a network of libraries, which holds an impressive collection of monographs and periodicals, including an important collection of 16th-century manuscripts. Moreover, the libraries have several specialized rooms dedicated to specific fields of law, in particular in International and European Law and Legal Theory.[79]

The law school, in conjunction with the UCL Faculty of Laws, operates a joint LLB programme. This four-year programme includes a year at AMU and leads to the award of a Bachelor of Laws degree from University College London (UCL) together with a Diploma/Certificate in French Law.[80][81][82]

The school has produced a large number of luminaries in law and politics including the 2nd President of France, Adolphe Thiers,[83] former President of the National Assembly of France, Félix Gouin,[84] former Minister of Justice of France, Adolphe Crémieux,[85] and former Prime Minister of France, Édouard Balladur.[86][87] The school has also educated two Nobel Laureates: René Cassin, winner of the 1968 Nobel Peace Prize,[88] and Frédéric Mistral, winner of the 1904 Nobel Prize in Literature.[89] Alumni also include the 3rd President of Lebanon, Émile Eddé,[90][91] former Prime Minister of Bulgaria, Vasil Kolarov,[92] former Prime Minister of Angola, Fernando José de França Dias Van-Dúnem,[93] and former Prime Minister of Cambodia, Prince Norodom Ranariddh.[94] In addition, from 1858 to 1861, complying with his father's wishes, a prominent French artist and Post-Impressionist painter Paul Cézanne attended the school, while also receiving drawing lessons.[95][96]

Business and Management Studies[edit]

The Aix-Marseille Graduate School of Management, commonly known as IAE Aix-en-Provence, was the first Graduate School of Management in the French public university system.[97][98] IAE Aix is “a prestigious, double-accredited institution, with an international approach to business combining both classic and innovative teaching methods”, according to The Independent.[99] It is the only French public university entity to receive dual international accreditation: the European standard of excellence EQUIS in 1999, and the AMBA accreditation in 2004 for its MBA Change & Innovation, in 2005 for its Master’s programmes and in 2007 for its Executive Part-time MBA.[100] The school is composed of 40 permanent faculty members, and invites more than 30 international professors and 150 business speakers each year to conduct lectures and courses within the various programmes.[101] IAE Aix offers graduate level programmes in general management, international management, internal audit of organisations, service management, internal and external communications management, management and information technologies, international financial management and applied marketing. In 2011, the M.Sc. in General Management was ranked 2nd in France[102] along with the M.Sc. in Services Management and Marketing being ranked 3rd[103] and the M.Sc. in Audit and Corporate Governance also being ranked 3rd in the country by SMBG.[104]

In 1990, IAE Aix and ESSEC Business School (École supérieure des sciences économiques et commerciales) signed an agreement to unite and offer a joint Doctorate Programme, allowing ESSEC professors to teach in the Research Oriented Master programme in Aix-en-Provence. Furthermore, after Research Oriented Master graduation, students can attend the ESSEC Doctorate seminars and have an ESSEC Research Advisor (Directeur de Recherche). In the same way, ESSEC students can enroll in the IAE Aix's Research Oriented Master and Doctorate programmes. In both cases, the members of the thesis juries come from both IAE Aix and ESSEC. The Doctorate title is awarded by Aix-Marseille University.[105][106][107]

Economics[edit]

Aix-Marseille School of Economics (AMSE) is a gathering of three big laboratories in economics, part of AMU: GREQAM (Groupement de Recherche en Economie Quantitative d’Aix Marseille), SESSTIM (Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l’Information Médicale), and IDEP (Institut D’Economie Publique).[108] GREQAM is a research center which specializes in all areas of economics, with strong concentrations in macroeconomics, econometrics, game theory, economic philosophy and public economics. It counts two Fellows of the Econometric Society among its members, and is consistently ranked as one of the top five research centers in economics in France.[109] SESSTIM consists of three teams in social and economic sciences, as well as social epidemiology, focusing on applications in the following fields: cancer, infectious and transmissible diseases, and aging.[110] IDEP aims at federating competences in the field of Public Economics broadly defined as the part of economics that studies the causes and the consequences of public intervention in the economic sphere.[111]

AMSE has a triple aim in terms of research development about “Globalization and public action”, education regarding Master and PhD degrees and valorization toward local authorities, administrations and corporations, and of information aiming at all public. The AMSE Master is a two-year Master programme in Economics jointly organized with Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales and Ecole Centrale de Marseille. It aims to provide high-level courses and training in the main fields of specialization of AMSE: Development Economics, Econometrics, Public Economics, Environmental Economics, Finance/Insurance, Macroeconomics, Economic Philosophy, and Health Economics.[112] The doctoral programme of AMSE brings together more than seventy PhD students. Ten to fifteen new PhD students join the programme each year. These PhD students cover all the research topics available at AMSE. The PhD programme is a member of the European Doctoral Group in Economics (EDGE) with University of Cambridge, University of Copenhagen, University College Dublin, Bocconi University, and Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.[113][114]

Medicine[edit]

The Faculty of Medicine at AMU can trace its origins to a college of medicine established in 1645 and recognized by a decree issued by the Council of State of France in 1683. During the revolution, although a faculty of medicine was created in Montpellier, Marseille was left aside, probably because of its close proximity. In 1818, École Secondaire de Médecine et de Pharmacie opened in Marseille and this later became an École de Plein Exercice in 1841. Consequently, it was not until 1930 that a faculty of medicine was formally organiesed in Marseille.[115][116] However, the town’s geographical position meant that it was able to exert a strong influence upon the Mediterranean. The most significant example of this was Antoine Clot, known as Clot Bey, who with the help of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, founded a school of medicine in Cairo in 1827. This enabled Egyptian students to travel to France and encouraged exchanges between western and eastern medicine. In Marseille, medical practices adapted to tropical diseases developed under the influence of the military department of medicine. Physiology at the faculty dates back to Charles Livon, who was named professeur suppléant (deputy professor) and then professeur agrégé (associate professor) of anatomy and physiology having presented his thesis in Paris. He conducted research on hypophysis and pneumogastric physiology, which earned him the Monthyon Prize at the French Academy of Sciences. Following his work with Louis Pasteur, he opened an anti-rabies clinic and became Mayor of Marseille in 1895. The first dean of the faculty was Leon Imbert, who arrived in Marseille in 1904 as a former interne des hôpitaux and professeur agrégé at the Montpellier faculty. Originally a surgeon, he established one of the first centers for maxillofacial prosthetics for the gueules cassées (broken faces) of the Great War. An anti-cancer center was developed by Lucien Cornill, who was originally from Vichy and studied in Paris. During the First World War, he worked at the neurological center in the 7th Military region of Besancon under the supervision of Gustave Roussy. After the war, he became a professeur agrégé of pathological anatomy. He became dean of the faculty in 1937 and held this position until 1952. His main work related to clinical neurology and medullary pathology.[117]

The Faculty of Pharmacy started its independent activity after being separated from the faculty in 1970. Subsequently, the Faculty of Odontology also became independent from the Faculty of Medicine. Thus, these three faculties form the Division of Health of the University.[118]

Earth Sciences and Astronomy[edit]

The University's Astronomy Observatory of Marseille-Provence (OAMP) is one of the French National observatories under the auspices of the National Institute of Astronomy (INSU) of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), with a large financial participation by the National Centre for Space Studies (CNES). Basic research at the OAMP is organized around three priority themes: cosmology and research on dark matter and dark energy, galaxy formation and evolution, stellar and planetary system formation and exploration of the solar system. The OAMP also contributes to the area of environmental sciences and especially the study of the climatic system. The OAMP is very active in technological research and development, mainly in optics and opto-mechanics, for the development of the main observational instruments that will be deployed on the ground and in space in the coming decades. For many years OAMP research teams have had close ties with the French and European space and optical industry. The OAMP takes part in university education in astrophysics, physics and mathematics, as well as in instrumentation and signal processing from the first year of university to the doctorate level. These programs lead to openings in the fields of research and high-tech industry. The OAMP organizes many astronomy outreach activities in order to share important discoveries with the public. The OAMP consists of two establishments: the Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille (LAM) and the Observatory of Haute-Provence (OHP), along with the Département Gassendi, which is a common administrative and technical support unit. With over 50 researchers, 160 engineers, technical and administrative personnel, plus some 20 graduate students and post-docs, the OAMP is one of the most important research institutes in the region.[119][120]

Engineering[edit]

Polytech Marseille is a Grande Ecole d’Ingénieurs (Graduate School of Science and Engineering), part of AMU. The School offers 8 specialist courses in New Technologies which lead to an engineering degree after 5 years of studies. Polytech Marseille is also a member of the Polytech Group which comprises 13 engineering schools of French leading universities.[121] Polytech Marseille's advanced level courses have a strong professional focus. They include compulsory work placements in a professional organisation. These programs also benefit from a top rank scientific environment, with teaching staff drawn from laboratories attached to major French research organisations that are among the leaders in their field. Students are recruited on the basis of a selective admissions process which goes via one of two nationwide competitive admissions examinations (concours): either after the baccalauréat (national secondary school graduation examination) for admission to a five-year course or after two years of higher education for admission to a three-year course. The courses are approved by the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur (CTI), the French authority that authorizes recognised engineering schools to deliver the Diplôme d'Ingénieur (a state-recognised title, recognised equivalent to a “Master in Engineering” by AACRAO)[122] and thus guarantees the quality of the courses. The courses are also accredited by EUR-ACE.[123]

Organization[edit]

Hôtel Boyer de Fonscolombe, home to the Institute of Public Management and Territorial Governance

Aix-Marseille University is organized into five sectors:

  • Law and Political Science
    • Faculty of Law and Political Science
    • Institute of Public Management and Territorial Governance
  • Economics and Management
  • Arts, Literature, Languages and Human Sciences
    • Faculty of Arts, Literature, Languages and Human Sciences
    • Training Centre for Musicians
    • The Mediterranean House of Human Sciences (Maison méditerranéenne des sciences de l'homme)
  • Health
    • Faculty of Medicine
    • Faculty of Odontology
    • Faculty of Pharmacy
    • Midwives' University School Marseille Méditerranée
  • Sciences and Technology
    • Faculty of Sciences
    • Faculty of Sports
    • Observatory of Universe Sciences – Pytheas Institute
    • Polytech Marseille

In addition, three University Institutes of Technology and University Institute for Teachers Training are part of the University.[124]

Governance[edit]

Fort Saint-Jean & the Pharo

Aix-Marseille University is governed by three councils: two of them (the council of studies and student life for the teaching side and the scientific council for research matters) have an advisory role, the third one (the administrative council) is the decision body under the direction of the President of the University. The President is elected for a 5-year period by the assembly of the three councils. The members of the councils are representatives of the students, the administrative staff, the faculty, or external personalities. The University statutes define the division into different schools or institutes. Each one of those, headed by a dean or a director, has its administrative council that decides on policy issues.

If the President of the University is the most important actor in defining the mission and the strategies of the University, he also has the necessary power to impulse or to sustain the projects that relate to these strategies. Before implementing these projects, they have to be accepted by the University Council and if necessary they have to be included in the planning processes.

There are two main planning processes in the definition of projects in the University that have to be followed in order to be financed or even authorised and accredited by the public (national and local) authorities.

The first process takes place every six years and involves the central government, the region as well as the University. It is devoted to major investment projects, for instance building a new school, a new campus, a new library, etc. It is a catalogue of projects and for each of them it defines the financial burden accepted by each partner in the contract.

The second process covers four years and has to be approved by the French Ministry of Education. In this process, the University sets its objectives at the pedagogical and research levels (new degrees, research projects).

This planning process is very important because the University is free to define its own strategy, to be approved by the decision makers. Each process generates an important brainstorming period at all levels of the University in order to identify and build new ideas, new needs, and opportunities, to prioritise them, after an analysis of strengths and weaknesses. Other choices can be made after each process is closed, but they are more difficult to implement because other sources of funding and other ways of authorisation must be found.[125]

Alumni[edit]

Nobel laureates[edit]

René Cassin, President of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) from 1965 to 1968 & the Nobel Peace Prize Laureate

Politics and government[edit]

Heads of state and government

State/Government Leader Office
 Angola Fernando José de França Dias Van-Dúnem Prime Minister: 1991–1992; 1996–1999
 Bulgaria Dimitar Grekov Prime Minister: Jan–Oct 1899
 Bulgaria Vasil Kolarov Chairman of the Provisional Government: 1946–1947; Prime Minister: 1949–1950
 Bulgaria Nikola Mushanov Prime Minister: 1931–1934
 Cambodia Prince Norodom Ranariddh Prime Minister: 1993–1997
 Cameroon Simon Achidi Achu Prime Minister: 1992–1996
 Egypt Yehia El-Gamal Deputy Prime Minister: Feb–Jul 2011
 France Édouard Balladur Minister of State: 1986–1988; Prime Minister: 1993–1995
 France Gaston Defferre Minister of State: 1981–1986
 France Félix Gouin Chairman of the Provisional Government: Jan–Jun 1946; Minister of State: 1946–1947
 France Maurice Rouvier Prime Minister: May–Dec 1887; 1905–1906
 France Adolphe Thiers Prime Minister: Feb–Sep 1836; Mar–Oct 1840; President: 1871–1873
 Lebanon Émile Eddé Prime Minister: 1929–1930; President: 1936–1941
 Mali Modibo Sidibé Prime Minister: 2007–2011
 Mauritius Pravind Jugnauth Deputy Prime Minister: 2003–2005; Vice Prime Minister: 2010–2011
 Senegal Aminata Touré Prime Minister: 2013–present
 Sri Lanka Chandrika Kumaratunga President: 1994–2005

Foreign politicians

French politicians

Members of the National Assembly of France

Members of the Senate of France

Members of the European Parliament

Diplomatic service[edit]

Law[edit]

Arts, literature, humanities, and entertainment[edit]

Entertainment

Fanny Ardant, winner of the 1997 César Award for Best Actress
Bradley Cooper, two-time Academy Award nominee

Historians

Journalism

Literature

Music

Visual arts

Scientists and academics[edit]

Business and economics[edit]

Miscellaneous[edit]

Notable faculty and staff[edit]

Nobel laureate[edit]

Politics and government[edit]

Foreign politicians

French politicians

Members of the National Assembly of France

Members of the Senate of France

Diplomatic service[edit]

Law[edit]

Arts, literature, humanities, and entertainment[edit]

Historians

Journalism

Literature

Music

Scientists and academics[edit]

David E. Bloom, Chair of Harvard University's Department of Global Health and Population

Business and economics[edit]

Mathematics[edit]

Miscellaneous[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Norman Davies, “Europe: A History”, Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 1248
  2. ^ Aix-Marseille University strives for excellence with A*MIDEX
  3. ^ Aix-Marseille University in facts and figures
  4. ^ Université de Provence – King's College London
  5. ^ M.A. Course Agreement with Université de Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille 3 – Seinan Gakuin University
  6. ^ MOVEONNET – Higher Education Worldwide
  7. ^ University of Provence
  8. ^ Two “champion universities” are created in a series of mergers in France
  9. ^ Aix-Marseille University – INCUBATEUR IMPULSE
  10. ^ Marseille, a new Mediterranean hotspot for innovation? – Onclaude
  11. ^ A university with international ambition – Aix-Marseille University
  12. ^ Preliminary selection stage - Aix-Marseille
  13. ^ AIX-MARSEILLE UNIVERSITÉ
  14. ^ VENIR ÉTUDIER EN FRANCE – Réunion interministérielle sur Marseille: cinq propositions pour les étudiants
  15. ^ Agenda de l’étudiant 2012-2013
  16. ^ Frédéric Mistral – Biography
  17. ^ René Cassin – Biography
  18. ^ Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio – Biography
  19. ^ Sheldon Lee Glashow – Autobiography
  20. ^ Jim Hoagland - Biography
  21. ^ Partners – Aix-Marseille University
  22. ^ Universities of Aix-Marseille I, II, and III – Encyclopædia Britannica
  23. ^ "9 décembre 1409: il était une fois l'université à Aix". Laprovence.com. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  24. ^ 1409–2009 "Une Université, une ville, une histoire"
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  26. ^ Darwin Porter, “Frommer's Provence & the Riviera”, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2010, p. 20
  27. ^ Walter Rüegg, Hilde de Ridder-Symoens, “A History of the University in Europe”, Volume 1, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 105
  28. ^ Hastings Rashdall, “The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages”, Volume 2 – Part 2, Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 648
  29. ^ Aix-en-Provence – Encyclopædia Britannica
  30. ^ M. Malte-Brun, “A system of universal geography, or a description of all the parts of the world, on a new plan, according to the great natural divisions of the globe”, Boston, 1834, Vol. III, p. 1022
  31. ^ "The Encyclopedia Americana", Volume 1, Grolier Incorporated, 2001, p. 432
  32. ^ Martin Garrett, “Provence: A Cultural History”, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 103
  33. ^ William Darrach Halsey, Emanuel Friedman, “Collier's Encyclopedia”, Macmillan Educational Co., 1983, p. 412
  34. ^ Aix-Marseille University: 1409-2009
  35. ^ THE JESUITS – Saints and Martyrs
  36. ^ Walter Rüegg, Hilde De Ridder-Symoens, “A History of the University in Europe”, Volume 2, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 87
  37. ^ Thomas Neville Bonner, “Becoming a Physician: Medical Education in Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, 1750-1945”, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000, p. 94
  38. ^ Recovering the History of the French University – Studium
  39. ^ Michael Glencross, “Reconstructing Camelot: French Romantic Medievalism and the Arthurian Tradition”, St Edmundsbury Press Ltd, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, 1995, p. 85
  40. ^ Joseph N. Moody, “French Education since Napoleon”, Syracuse University Press, 1978, p. 59
  41. ^ Fritz Ringer, “Toward a Social History of Knowledge: Collected Essays”, Berghahn Books, 2000, p. 84
  42. ^ Keith Kostecka, “Morris William Travers: A Lifetime of Achievement”, Xlibris Corporation, 2011, p. 66
  43. ^ Paul Monroe, “A Cyclopedia of Education”, A-CHR, Vol. 1 of 4, Forgotten Books, 2012, p. 70
  44. ^ Guardian – From the archive: Paris
  45. ^ Projet de loi relatif aux libertés des universités
  46. ^ A university with international ambition - Aix-Marseille University
  47. ^ GUIDE: International Student Handbook – Aix-Marseille University
  48. ^ “A new proposal for education, comprehensible and consistent”, Yvon Berland, chancellor of the University of Aix-Marseille
  49. ^ French Universities
  50. ^ Northeastern University (NU) – Office of International Study Programs
  51. ^ "CEA Global Education – The University Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille III". Gowithcea.com. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  52. ^ STUDY ABROAD FOR CONCENTRATORS IN LITERATURE – Harvard University
  53. ^ Office of Global Programs – Columbia University
  54. ^ Cornell ABROAD – FRANCE & FRENCH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES (Cornell University)
  55. ^ Documentation – Le service commun de la documentation (AMU)
  56. ^ "CEA - Aix-en-Provence Academic Institution". ceastudyabroad.com. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  57. ^ French Ministry of Culture: Monument historique
  58. ^ "Study Abroad in Aix en Provence, France". IIEPassport. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  59. ^ "France to the United States, Consulate General of France in Houston – Fulbright". Consulfrance-houston.org. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  60. ^ "Loyola University Chicago – Institut d'Etudes Politiques, Loyola Exchange Program". Luc.edu. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  61. ^ SCIENCES PO AIX – Wellesley College
  62. ^ Institut d’Etudes Politiques d’Aix en Provence – The UCLA School of Law (Academic Programs & Courses)
  63. ^ Agreement for Cooperation and Exchange between l’Institut d’Etudes Politiques d’Aix en Provence and the UCLA School of Law
  64. ^ Sciences Po Aix, a ‘Grande Ecole’ in Provence
  65. ^ "Christine Lagarde – Biographical Information". Imf.org. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  66. ^ Christine Lagarde - Forbes
  67. ^ "Biography of Nicolas Schmit". Gouvernement.lu. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  68. ^ Me connaitre – ÉLISABETH GUIGOU
  69. ^ "Philippe Séguin – Politics Obituaries". The Daily Telegraph (UK). 7 January 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  70. ^ "Portrait de". Patrick Ollier. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  71. ^ The vice-president of Université Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille III Visited Our School – Tongji University
  72. ^ Ferne Arfin, “Adventure Guide to Provence & the Côte d'Azur”, Hunter Publishing Inc, 2009, p. 149
  73. ^ Francesco Longo, Daniela Cristofoli, “Strategic Change Management in the Public Sector”, John Wiley & Sons, 2007, p. 83
  74. ^ SMBG – Master Fiscalité et Droit Fiscal
  75. ^ SMBG – Master Droit des Affaires
  76. ^ SMBG – Droit du Numérique et des Communications Électroniques
  77. ^ TOP 10 2013-2014 - Droit – SMBG
  78. ^ USA. "University of Connecticut – European and Civil Law in Aix-en-Provence, France". Law.uconn.edu. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  79. ^ "University of Ottawa – About l'Université Paul-Cézanne (Aix-Marseille III)". Llmphd.uottawa.ca. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  80. ^ UCL Laws: Undergraduate Programmes
  81. ^ FACULTY OF LAWS/UCL
  82. ^ Law with French Law LLB
  83. ^ "Louis Adolphe Thiers". Web-books.com. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  84. ^ Félix, Jean GOUIN
  85. ^ CRÉMIEUX, ISAAC ADOLPHE
  86. ^ Édouard BALLADUR – Biography
  87. ^ "Quand la fac accueillait Balladur et Trintignant". Laprovence.com. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  88. ^ "René Cassin – Biography". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  89. ^ "Frédéric Mistral". Britannica.com. 25 March 1914. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  90. ^ Kais M. Firro, “Inventing Lebanon: Nationalism and the State under the Mandate”, I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd, 2003, p. 108
  91. ^ Raghid El-Solh, “Lebanon and Arabism: National Identity and State Formation”, The Centre for Lebanese Studies, Oxford, 2004, p. 14
  92. ^ Capitalism in Bulgaria: Bulgarian Economic Thought in Years of Depression 1929-1939
  93. ^ Fernando José de França Dias Van-Dúnem – Biography
  94. ^ Norodom Ranariddh – Biography
  95. ^ "Paul Cézanne". Biography. 22 October 1906. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  96. ^ John Powell, “Biographical Dictionary of Literary Influences: The Nineteenth Century, 1800-1914”, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 2001, p. 81
  97. ^ "QS Top Universities – IAE Aix-en-Provence Graduate School of Management". Topuniversities.com. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  98. ^ "BI Norwegian Business School – IAE Aix-en-Provence Graduate School of Management". Bi.no. 21 December 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  99. ^ The Independent – IAE Aix-en-Provence Graduate School of Management, Université Paul Cezanne Aix-Marseille III
  100. ^ Université Paul Cézanne; Marseille – Tilburg University
  101. ^ About IAE Aix
  102. ^ SMBG – M.Sc. in General Management
  103. ^ SMBG – M.Sc. in Services Management and Marketing
  104. ^ SMBG – M.Sc. in Audit and Corporate Governance
  105. ^ PhD in Business Administration – ESSEC Business School
  106. ^ "Doctoral Programme – IAE AIX". .viadeo.com. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  107. ^ "IAE AIX Graduate School of Management". Mbapursuit.com. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  108. ^ AMSE Project - Birth of Aix-Marseille School of Economics
  109. ^ Groupement de Recherche en Economie Quantitative d’Aix Marseille (GREQAM) - AMSE
  110. ^ Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l’Information Médicale (SESSTIM) - AMSE
  111. ^ Institut D’Economie Publique (IDEP) - AMSE
  112. ^ Master – Introduction (AMSE)
  113. ^ PhD (AMSE)
  114. ^ What is EDGE? - European Doctoral Group in Economics (EDGE)
  115. ^ C. D. O'Malley, “The History of Medical Education: UCLA Forum in Medical Sciences”, University of California Press, 1970, p. 152
  116. ^ Colonial science, contagion and the imaginarium of Marseille – RFIEA
  117. ^ Julien Bogousslavsky, “Following Charcot: A Forgotten History of Neurology and Psychiatry”, Karger Publishers, 2011, p. 179
  118. ^ History - Faculty of Medicine of Marseille
  119. ^ Observatoire Astronomique de Marseille-Provence
  120. ^ Quatre grandes missions-OAMP
  121. ^ Polytech Group
  122. ^ Accord historique pour les ingénieurs français aux Etats-Unisc
  123. ^ Polytech Marseille
  124. ^ Les composantes – Aix-Marseille Université
  125. ^ "University of Aix-Marseille Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE)" (PDF). Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  126. ^ Mohamed Abbou - Biography
  127. ^ Nizar Baraka - World Economic Forum
  128. ^ Adolfo Costa du Rels - Biography
  129. ^ Thomas Galloway Dunlop du Roy de Blicquy Galbraith, 2nd Baron Strathclyde
  130. ^ Thomas Galbraith (Peer)
  131. ^ Hermann Höcherl - Biography
  132. ^ History of the CDU - Hermann Höcherl
  133. ^ Mamadou Koulibaly – Biography
  134. ^ NOTICE BIOGRAPHIQUE DE SON EXCELLENCE MONSIEUR LE MINISTRE DE LA JUSTICE ET DE DROITS HUMAINS, LE PROFESSEUR LUZOLO BAMBI LESSA EMMANUEL-JANVIER
  135. ^ Penda Mbow - Maître-Assistante - Histoire Médiévale
  136. ^ Federica Mogherini – Ministro Affari Esteri
  137. ^ Benoît Pelletier – University of Ottawa
  138. ^ Biographical Note - Benoît Pelletier
  139. ^ Iain Sproat obituary
  140. ^ Ciudad: Jorge Telerman/Diego Kravetz
  141. ^ Roland Theis, stv. Fraktionsvorsitzender
  142. ^ Erik Ullenhag - CV
  143. ^ Matinale avec Jacques BARROT - Les Entrepreneurs et Dirigeants Chrétiens en Rhône-Alpes
  144. ^ Blaise Diagne – Biography
  145. ^ Liste des ministres de l'Instruction publique depuis 1802 jusqu'à nos jours (2008)
  146. ^ Le dicteur de cabinet – arte
  147. ^ J. G. Reinis, “The Portrait Medallions of David d'Angers”, Polymath Press, New York, 1999, p. 350
  148. ^ Poinso-Chapuis, Germaine
  149. ^ Portalis (1745-1807)
  150. ^ Valérie Boyer, une députée qui mise sur l'image – Libération
  151. ^ Biographie de Valérie Boyer – Le Point
  152. ^ Maryse JOISSAINS MASINI – Biography
  153. ^ Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau – Histoire de l'Europe
  154. ^ Marie-Arlette Carlotti – Biography
  155. ^ Alphonse Berns – Biography
  156. ^ His Excellency Mr Alphonse Berns
  157. ^ Jürgen Chrobog - BMW Stiftung
  158. ^ Jürgen Chrobog: Profile of a Gifted Crisis Manager - DW
  159. ^ Biography of Ambassador Kenneth Merten
  160. ^ Federal Court Judicial Appointment Announced - Department of Justice
  161. ^ Prof. Iulia Motoc – Biography
  162. ^ The Hon. Lord Tyre Colin Tyre – The University of Edinburgh
  163. ^ Judge and sheriff appointments - The Scottish Government
  164. ^ Fanny Ardant - Canal+
  165. ^ Treading the red carpet with Ariane Ascaride – The Oxford Student
  166. ^ Multilingual Celebrities – Global Lingo
  167. ^ Jean-Louis Trintignant – Biography
  168. ^ Jean-Louis Trintignant – Acteur français
  169. ^ Keith Waldrop – Biography
  170. ^ An Interview with Rosmarie Waldrop
  171. ^ Nicholas Rodney Drake – Biography
  172. ^ Gilles Barbier - Biography
  173. ^ Catherine Walker – Biography
  174. ^ Philippe Baumard - Biography
  175. ^ Association française de science politique, Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, “Revue française de science politique”, Presses Universitaires de France, 1977, Volume 27, Issues 1-3, p. 508
  176. ^ Professor Tony Downes – Biography
  177. ^ “Memorial Tributes”, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D. C., 1979, Vol. 1, p. 71
  178. ^ Adam Roberts, “Fredric Jameson”, Routledge Critical Thinkers, 2000, p. 2
  179. ^ Nicola Padfield - Profile
  180. ^ Philip M. Parker – Biography
  181. ^ Elisabeth Paté-Cornell – Stanford University
  182. ^ Elisabeth Paté-Cornell – Bloomberg Businessweek
  183. ^ Teaching and Curriculum Studies – The University of Sydney
  184. ^ Sunil Dutt Benimadhu – The Stock Exchange of Mauritius
  185. ^ Philippe E. M. Bourguignon – Executive Profile
  186. ^ Peter Hambro: The rise of a dedicated gold bull
  187. ^ Motorcycle Diaries - Beating off the oligarchs
  188. ^ Jens Weidmann - Deutsche Bundesbank
  189. ^ Dr. Chris Fomunyoh – Biography
  190. ^ Renato Balduzzi – Biography
  191. ^ Curriculum vitae e sua lectio brevis inglese e italiana – Tullio De Mauro
  192. ^ Kunio Mikuriya – Biography
  193. ^ Nikolaos Sokrates Politis – Biography
  194. ^ Michel van den Abeele – Biography
  195. ^ Réalité historique – Joseph Barthélemy
  196. ^ Liste des ministres de l'Instruction publique depuis 1802 jusqu'à nos jours (2008)
  197. ^ Renée C. Fox, Judith P. Swazey, “Observing Bioethics”, Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 240
  198. ^ SIMEON Joseph Jérôme, comte (1749-1842)
  199. ^ Princess Bajrakitiyabha of Thailand – Biography
  200. ^ Robert S. Hirschfield, “The Selection and Election of Presidents”, Transaction Publishers, 2009, p. xi
  201. ^ Sami Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh en bref
  202. ^ Harold Andrew Blackmun – Biography
  203. ^ Mr. Justice Blackmun: Reflections from the Cours Mirabeau - Louisiana Law Review
  204. ^ Curriculum Vitae - JAY S. BYBEE
  205. ^ Curricula vitae of candidates nominated by national groups – General Assembly Security Council (UN)
  206. ^ Geoffrey Cornell Hazard, Jr. – Biography
  207. ^ Composition of the Court – The European Court of Human Rights
  208. ^ Peter Lindseth – Biography
  209. ^ Current Judges of the Supreme Court
  210. ^ Judge Raymond Ranjeva – International Court of Justice
  211. ^ Michel Rosenfeld – Curriculum Vitae
  212. ^ Ralph A. Rossum, “Federalism, the Supreme Court, and the Seventeenth Amendment: The Irony of Constitutional Democracy”, Lexington Books, 2001, p. ix
  213. ^ NC State Lecture to Address Presidential War Power and Constitution
  214. ^ Alec Stone Sweet – Department of Political Science (Yale University)
  215. ^ Symeon C. Symeonides - Willamette University College of Law
  216. ^ Une Ville, une Université une histoire
  217. ^ Mazarine Pingeot – The New York Times (NYT)
  218. ^ Jean-Claude Abric – London School of Economics (LSE)
  219. ^ TONY ATKINSON – AMSE Research Council composition
  220. ^ Patrick Baert – Biography
  221. ^ DAVID BLOOM – AMSE Research Council composition
  222. ^ Christie Davies – Curriculum Vitae
  223. ^ Charles Fabry – Biography
  224. ^ John Forester – Biography
  225. ^ Gene Michael Grossman – Princeton University
  226. ^ Bernard E. Harcourt – Biography
  227. ^ Prof John Loughlin – Biography
  228. ^ William H. Starbuck – NYU
  229. ^ John Waterbury - Princeton University
  230. ^ Richard Gilmore – Biography
  231. ^ Mark Taylor – Biography

See also[edit]

External links[edit]