Akhund Abdul Ghaffur
Akhund Abdul Ghaffur (Pashto: اخوند عبدالغفور), commonly known as Saidu Baba (Pashto: سيدو بابا 1878-1793), was from the Yusufzai Pashtun tribe, and a prominent religious Mullah or sage, from Bar Swat. Akhund Ghaffur was a supporter of the Afghan Emir Dost Mohammad Khan, and opposed the Sikh and British forces.
Akhund Ghaffur was an influential mullah and his residence in Swat was the destination for numerous pilgrimages by his disciples to consult him. Akhund Ghaffur was succeeded by a notable line of other mullahs and theologians.
Battles against Sikh and British forces
In 1831, when the Muslim activist Syed Ahmad Barelvi was killed by the Sikhs along with hundreds of Barelvi's mujahideen in the battle of Balakot, many of his mujahideen stayed in Buner under the protection of Akhund Ghaffur. They started a new uprising against the British Empire under Akhund Ghaffur's leadership in 1862.:42
In 1834, Akhund Ghaffur cooperated with the Afghan Emir Dost Mohammad Khan in the battle against the Sikh Empire and brought a number of Ghazis and Talib al-'Ilm to the battle of Peshawar. In return, the Afghan Emir awarded Akhund Ghaffur with lands in Swat, Lundkhwar and Mardan among the Yusufzai. Eventually, when Akhund Ghaffur was about 43 years old, he permanently settled in Saidu Sharif and gradually turned it into a thriving city.
Establishment of a united Islamic state of Swat
Akhund Ghaffur conferred a scheme for a united throne of Swat. In 1849, he nominated Sayyid Akbar Shah, a descendant of Pir Baba, as the emir of the Islamic state of Swat. After Akbar Shah's death in 1857, Akhund Ghaffur assumed control of the state himself till his own death in 1878.:40
Akhund Ghaffur's greatest conflict was with Sayyid Maruf Bey Kotah Mullah, a supporter of the British-sponsored Emir Shah Shujah who had opposed Emir Dost Mohammad Khan in the battle against the Sikhs. Akhund Ghaffur referred to Kotah Mullah as a disciple of Pir Roshan and practitioner of heretical rituals, and managed to convince the Yusufzai of Buner to push Kotah Mullah out of the village where he was being hosted.:45
- Edward Lear's "The Akond of Swat"
- George T. Lanigan (1846–1886) wrote "The Ahkoond of Swat" on hearing of the Akhund's death in 1878.
- Ken Nordine's rendition of the Lear piece in his 'Word Jazz' radio show.
- Haroon, Sana (2011). Frontier of Faith: Islam, in the Indo-Afghan Borderland. Hurst Publishers. ISBN 1849041830. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- Sabir, Muhammad Shafee (2005). "Akhund Sahib Swat". Khyber.ORG. Retrieved 16 February 2013.[dead link]
- Anon, "The (British Raj) Indian Frontier", The Times, Issue 29100, (15 November 1877); p. 4; col D.
- Our own Correspondent, "India", (Article contains the text: "The death of the Akhoond of Swat is announced"), The Times, No.29157, (Monday 21 January 1878), p. 5; col A.