|City of Akron|
|Nickname(s): Rubber City, City of Invention, Rubber Capital of the World (historical)|
Location in Summit County, Ohio, United States
|• Mayor||Don Plusquellic (D)|
|• City||62.37 sq mi (161.54 km2)|
|• Land||62.03 sq mi (160.66 km2)|
|• Water||0.34 sq mi (0.88 km2) 0.55%|
|Elevation||1,004 ft (306 m)|
|• Estimate (2013)||198,100|
|• Rank||US: 116th|
|• Density||3,209.9/sq mi (1,239.3/km2)|
|• Urban||569,499 (US: 71st)|
|• Metro||705,686 (US: 77th)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP code||44301-44321, 44325, 44326, 44328, 44333, 44334, 44372, 44396, 44398|
|Area code(s)||330, 234|
|GNIS feature ID||1064305|
Akron // is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the seat of Summit County. It is in the Great Lakes region approximately 39 miles (63 km) south of Lake Erie along the Little Cuyahoga River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 199,110. The Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) covers Summit and Portage counties, and in 2010 had a population of 703,200. Akron is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area, which in 2010 had a population of 3,515,646.
Akron was co-founded in 1825 when suggested by Paul Williams to Simon Perkins. In 1833, "South" was temporarily added to the name when Eliakim Crosby settled a bordering North Akron. After Summit County formed from portions of Portage, Medina, and Stark counties in 1840, Akron succeeded Cuyahoga Falls as county seat a year later. The Akron School Law of 1847 created the K-12 system. In 1851, Sojourner Truth attended a convention and extemporaneously delivered the original "Ain't I a Woman?" speech. During the Civil War, Ferdinand Schumacher supplied the Union Army with oats produced by his mill along the Ohio Canal. Between the 1870s and World War I, numerous churches across the nation were built using the Akron Plan.
With a population increase of 201.8% during the 1910s, it became the nation's fastest-growing city due to industries such as stoneware, sanitary sewer, fishing tackle, farming equipment, match, toy, and rubber. The companies General Tire, Goodrich, Firestone, and Goodyear built headquarters, though only the latter remains. Airships, blimps, dirigibles, and zeppelins have been manufactured at the Goodyear Airdock since World War II. The Goodyear Polymer and National Polymer Innovation Centers are on the University of Akron campus, which anchors the Polymer Valley and is home to the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Akron also headquartered the National Marble Tournament, Professional Bowlers Association, and Women's Professional Mud Wrestling. Home to employers such as Summa, GOJO Industries, FirstMerit Bank, and FirstEnergy, it is listed by Newsweek as one of ten Information Age high tech havens. Awarded by the National Civic League and National Arbor Day Foundation, it was named one of the world's most livable cities. The All-American Soapbox Derby, WGC-Bridgestone Invitational, National Hamburger Festival, Founders Day (Alcoholics Anonymous), and Road Runner Akron Marathon are annually hosted by the city, which was a venue for some events of the 2014 Gay Games. Tourist attractions include Stan Hywet Hall & Gardens and Lock 3 Park, where the American Marble & Toy Manufacturing Company once stood.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Cityscape
- 4 Culture
- 5 Sports
- 6 Parks and recreation
- 7 Media
- 8 Economy
- 9 Government and politics
- 10 Demographics
- 11 Education
- 12 Transportation
- 13 Crime
- 14 Notable people
- 15 Twin towns – Sister cities
- 16 References
- 17 Further reading
- 18 External links
In 1811, Paul Williams settled near the corner of what is now Buchtel Avenue and Broadway and suggested to surveyor of the Connecticut Western Reserve General Simon Perkins, the co-founding of a town at the summit of the developing Ohio and Erie Canal. The name derived from the Greek word ἄκρον signifying a summit or high point. Laid out in December 1825, where the South Akron neighborhood now is; Irish laborers working on the Ohio Canal built approximately 100 cabins nearby in autumn. Due to Eliakim Crosby founding "North Akron" (Cascade) in 1833, "South" was added to Akron's name up until the two merged and became an incorporated village in 1836. In 1840 Summit County formed from portions of Portage, Medina, and Stark counties. Akron replaced Cuyahoga Falls as its county seat a year later and opened a canal connecting to Beaver, Pennsylvania, helping give birth to the stoneware, sewer pipe, fishing tackle, and farming equipment industries. In 1844, abolitionist John Brown moved into the John Brown House across the street from business partner Colonel Simon Perkins who lived in the Perkins Stone Mansion. The Akron School Law of 1847 began the K-12 grade school system, which currently is used in every U.S. state.
1850s–1890s: Summit City
When the Ohio Women's Rights Convention came to Akron in 1851, Sojourner Truth extemporaneously delivered her speech named Ain't I A Woman?, at the Universalist Old Stone Church. Associated with the church, John R. Buchtel founded Buchtel College in 1870, renamed the University of Akron in 1913. Purchasing a mill in 1856, Ferdinand Schumacher mass-produced oat bars which the Union Army were supplied with during the American Civil War, becoming high in demand afterward. Akron incorporated as a city in 1865. Philanthropist Lewis Miller, Walter Blythe, and architect Jacob Snyder designed the widely used Akron Plan, debuting it on Akron's First Methodist Episcopal Church in 1872. Numerous Congregational, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches built between the 1870s and World War I use it. In 1883, local journalist began the modern toy industry by founding the Akron Toy Company. A year later, the first popular toy was mass-produced clay marbles made by Samuel C. Dyke at his shop where Lock 3 Park is now. Others popular inventions include rubber balloons; ducks; dolls; balls, Baby Buggy Bumper, and Little Brown Jug. In 1895, the first long distance electric railway, the Akron, Bedford and Cleveland Railroad, began service. On August 25, 1889, the Boston Daily Globe referred to Akron with the nickname "Summit City." To assist local police, the city deployed the first police car in the U.S. running on electricity.
1900s–1990s: Rubber Capital of the World
The Riot of 1900 resulted in city officials being assaulted, two deaths, plus Columbia Hall and The Downtown Fire station (now the City Building since 1925) burning to the ground. The American trucking industry was birthed through Akron's Rubber Capital of the World era when the four major tire companies Goodrich Corporation (1869), Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (1898), Firestone Tire and Rubber Company (1900), and General Tire (1915) were headquartered in the city. The numerous jobs the rubber factories provided for deaf people led to Akron being nicknamed the "Crossroads of the Deaf." On Easter Sunday 1913, Akron's total rainfall was recorded at 9.55 inches resulting in a flood which killed five citizens and destroyed the Ohio and Erie Canal system. From 1916–1920 10,000 school girls took part in the successful Akron Experiment, testing iodized salt to prevent goiter in what was known as the "Goiter Belt".
Rubber companies responded to housing crunches by building affordable housing for workers. Goodyear's president, Frank Seiberling, built the Goodyear Heights neighborhood for employees. Likewise, Harvey Firestone built the Firestone Park neighborhood for his employees. During the 1910–1920 decade Akron became a boom town being America's fastest growing city with a 201.8% increase in population. Of the 208,000 citizens, almost one-third were immigrants (also Clark Gable) and their children from places including Europe and West Virginia. In 1925 Goodyear's subsidiary Zeppelin Company began manufacturing airships used in World War II and eventually blimps for advertising purposes. Akron again grew when Kenmore was annexed by voter approval on November 6, 1928. Found hiding under a bed at one of his hideouts in the city, notorious bank robber Charles Arthur "Pretty Boy" Floyd was arrested under the name "Frank Mitchell" in March 1930. Goodyear became America's top tire manufacturer after merging with The Kelly-Springfield Tire Company in 1935. Lasting five weeks and consisting of roughly 5,000 strikers including union sympathizers from other factories and neighboring states, the Akron Rubber Strike of 1936 successfully used "sit-down" tactic being organized by the United Rubber Workers. During the 1950s–60s Akron surged as use of the automobile did. The historic Rubber Bowl was used by the National Guard of the United States as a base during the racial Wooster Avenue Riots of 1968. Like many other industries of the Rust Belt, both the tire and rubber experienced major decline resulting from multiple labor union strikes occurring from the 70s–80s. By the early 1990s, Goodyear was the last major tire manufacturer based in Akron.
2000s: City of Invention
Despite the number of rubber workers decreasing by approximately half from 2000–07, Akron's research in polymers gained an international reputation. It now centers the Polymer Valley which consist of 400 polymer-related companies, of which 94 were located in the city itself. Research is focused at the University of Akron which is home to the Goodyear Polymer Center and National Polymer Innovation Center, and first College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering. Due to its contributions to the Information Age, Newsweek's listed Akron fifth of ten high tech havens in 2001. In 2008 "City of Invention" was added to the seal when the All-America City Award was received for the third time. Some events of the 2014 Gay Games used the city as a venue.
Akron is located in the Great Lakes region approximately 39 miles (63 km) south of Lake Erie, on the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau. It is bordered by Cuyahoga Falls on the north, and Barberton in the southwest. It is the center of the Akron Metropolitan Statistical Area which covers Summit and Portage counties, and the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area. Located on the western end of the plateau, the topography of Akron includes rolling hills and varied terrain. The Ohio and Erie Canal passes through the city, separating the east from west. Akron has the only biogas facility in the United States that produces methane through the decomposition process of sludge to create electricity. According to the 2010 census, the city has a total area of 62.37 square miles (161.5 km2), of which 62.03 square miles (160.7 km2) (or 99.45%) is land and 0.34 square miles (0.88 km2) (or 0.55%) is water.
Akron has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), with cold but changeable winters; wet, cool springs; warm (sometimes hot) and humid summers (with somewhat common thunderstorms); and cool, rather dry autumns. Precipitation is fairly well distributed through the year, but summer tends to have the most rainfall, though also the most sunshine, and autumn the least. The mid-autumn through early spring months tend to be quite cloudy, with sometimes less than 30% possible sunshine. The cloudiest month is December, and the sunniest month is usually July, which is also the wettest month because most of the precipitation occurs with brief, intense thunderstorms. Snowfall averages 47 in (120 cm) per season, lighter than in the snowbelt areas to the north, but the area is still influenced by bands of snow from Lake Erie. Precipitation averages 39.56 in (1,005 mm) annually.
The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 26.1 °F (−3.3 °C) in January to 72.0 °F (22.2 °C) in July. The temperature reaches 90 °F (32 °C) on 8 days and 0 °F (−18 °C) on 3.8 days annually, although in some years, such as 1988, there may be as many as 30 days with 90 °F+ highs, and, such as in 2000, no days above 90 °F (32 °C). Temperatures over 100 °F (38 °C) are rare (about once per decade on average), most recently occurring on July 7, 2012. Extreme temperatures range from −25 °F (−32 °C) on January 19, 1994 up to 104 °F (40 °C) on August 6, 1918.
|Climate data for Akron, Ohio (Akron-Canton Airport), 1981–2010 normals|
|Record high °F (°C)||73
|Average high °F (°C)||33.6
|Average low °F (°C)||19.3
|Record low °F (°C)||−25
|Precipitation inches (mm)||2.60
|Snowfall inches (cm)||12.6
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||17.1||14.1||14.0||14.3||14.0||12.1||11.3||9.6||10.2||10.9||13.8||16.2||157.6|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||13.1||9.4||6.6||2.5||0||0||0||0||0||.5||3.4||10.3||45.8|
|Source: NOAA (extremes 1887–present)|
As a result of multiple towns merging, and industry boom, Akron's architecture is diverse.
Originally a canal town, the city is divided into two parts by the Ohio and Erie Canal, with downtown being centered on it. Along the locks, the city has a path paved with rubber.
Akron was awarded with the City Livability Award in 2008 for its efforts to co-purpose new school buildings as community learning centers. In 2009, the National Arbor Day Foundation designated Akron as a Tree City USA for the 14th time.
Completed in 1931, Akron's tallest building, the FirstMerit Tower, features the art deco style and is covered in glazed architectural terra-cotta. Standing 330 feet (100 m), it is built on top of the Hamilton Building, completed in 1900 in the neo-gothic style. Near the turn of the millennium the tower was given a $2.5 million facelift, including a $1.8 million restoration of the tower's terra-cotta, brick and limestone. The top of the building has a television broadcast tower, formerly used by WAKR-TV (now WVPX-TV) and WAKR-AM. The antenna reaches 134.7 metres (442 ft).Located on the University of Akron campus, the Goodyear Polymer Center, is glass twin towers connected by walkways. The university also utilizes the former Quaker Oats factory as a hotel shopping centers called Quaker Square.
The Akron Art Museum commissioned Coop Himmelblau to design an expansion in in 2007. The new building connects to the old building and is divided into three parts known as the “Crystal”, “Gallery Box”, and the “Roof Cloud”.
The contrasting neighborhoods of Goodyear Heights and Firestone Park were built during the rubber industry to house workers and their families.
Akron consists of 21 neighborhoods, with an additional three that are unincorporated but recognized within the city. The neighborhoods of the city differ in design largely due to expansions such as town merging, annexation, housing construction in various time periods, and rubber era.
Maple Valley covers the west end of Copley Road, before reaching I-77. Along this strip are several businesses using the name, as well as the Maple Valley Branch of the Akron-Summit County Public Library. Spicertown falls under the blanket of University Park, this term is used frequently to describe the student-centered retail and residential area around East Exchange and Spicer streets, near the University of Akron. West Hill is roughly bounded by West Market Street on the north, West Exchange Street on the south, Downtown on the East, and Rhodes Avenue on the west. It features many stately older homes, particularly in the recently recognized Oakdale Historic District.
Akron's suburbs include Fairlawn, Barberton, Cuyahoga Falls, Norton, Stow, Tallmadge, Silver Lake, Green, and Mogadore. Akron formed Joint Economic Development Districts with Springfield, Coventry, Copley, and Bath (in conjunction with Fairlawn) townships.
Akron is home to E. J. Thomas Hall, the largest of three Akron performance halls. Regular acts include the Akron Symphony Orchestra, Tuesday Musical Club, and Children's Concert Society. World-class performances events include Broadway musicals, ballets, comedies, lectures, entertainers, attracting 400,000 visitors annually. The hall seats 2955, divided among three tiers. To maintain top-notch acoustic sound, the counter-weighted ceiling is adjustable, altering the physical dimensions of the hall. Located downtown is the Akron Civic Theater, which opened in 1929 as the Loewe's Theater. This atmospheric-style theater was designed by John Eberson and contains many Moorish features including arches and decorative tiles. It originally featured elaborate wood carvings, alabaster statuary, and European antiques. Behind it on the canal is the Lock 3 Park amphitheater, which annually host the First Night in Akron. The Akron Art Museum also downtown, features art produced since 1850 along with national and international exhibitions. It opened in 1922 as the Akron Art Institute located in the basement of the Akron-Summit County Public Library. It moved to its current location at the renovated 1899 old post office building in 1981. In 2007, the museum more than tripled in size with the addition of the John S. and James L. Knight Building, which received the 2005 American Architecture Award from the Chicago Athenaeum while still under construction.
Built between 1912 and 1915 for Frank Seiberling, Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens ranks seventh on the list of Largest Historic Homes in the United States. Located within the Sand Run Metro Park, the 104 acres (0.42 km2) F.A. Seiberling Nature Realm features a visitor center, hiking trails, three ponds, gardens, and an array of special programs throughout the year. The Akron Police Museum displays mementos including items from Pretty Boy Floyd, whose gang frequented the city. The city is home to several other galleries and museums include American Marble and Toy Museum and the Don Drumm Studios & Gallery.
Film and television
Akron has served as the setting for several major studio and independent films. Inducted into the National Film Registry, Dance, Girl, Dance (1940), tells the story of two dancers from Akron who go to New York City. My Name is Bill W. (1989) tells the true story of Bill Wilson who co-founded Alcoholics Anonymous, which held its first meetings at the Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens and has over two million members today. The program's connection to the Saint Thomas Hospital is referenced in an episode of the television series Prison Break (2005), where Michael Scofield talks to Sara Tancredi on the phone while there. The Akron Armory is used as a venue for a female wrestling team in ...All the Marbles (1981). More Than a Game (2009) documents National Basketball Association player LeBron James and his St. Vincent – St. Mary High School high school basketball team's journey. In Drake's music video to Forever (2009) off the More Than a Game Soundtrack (2009), the iconic Goodyear's logo on top the company's theater is shown. The city has been the subject of many portrayals in media, from "Hell on Earth" in the television series I'm In Hell (2007), to the whereabouts of a holy woman in The Virgin of Akron, Ohio (2007). Henry Spivey of My Own Worst Enemy (2008), travels to Akron through the series many times. George Costanza in an episode of Seinfeld (1989), flies to the city. M.Y.O.B. (2008) is centered on an Akron runaway girl named Riley Veatch. Jake Foley of Jake 2.0 (2003), Pickles family of the Rugrats (1991), and J.Reid of In Too Deep (1999) are also from the city. Akron was also in the spotlight on the television show Criminal Minds "Compromising Positions" (2010) Season 6, Episode 4.
In popular culture
In the musical comedy Glee, Vocal Adrenaline, the New Directions rivals, are from the fictional Carmel High School in Akron.
Thomas and Beulah, a book of poetry written by native and former Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, Rita Dove, tells the story of her grandmother and grandfather, who separately moved from the South to the city, where they lived through the Great Depression and the rest of their lives. The city is also the setting for the novel The Coast of Akron, by former editor of Esquire, Adrienne Miller. To reflect Akron's decline during the 80s, Native Chrissie Hynde wrote the Pretenders song "My City Was Gone". The Black Keys album title Rubber Factory refers to the former Goodrich Corporation rubber factory in which it was recorded. Akron serves as a setting in the first-person-shooter PC platform video game, No One Lives Forever 2: A Spy In H.A.R.M.'s Way.
There are numerous attractions and points of interest in the Akron area. The Akron Art Museum has been operating since 1922 and is currently located downtown, showcasing over 20,000 square feet of art produced since 1850. Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens is the estate of F.A. Seiberling, founder of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The manor hosts various attractions and public events throughout the year. In the heart of downtown, the Akron Civic Theatre has provided the community with a venue for quality entertainment and live performances for over eighty years. Lock 3, a historic Ohio and Erie Canalway landmark, has been transformed into an entertainment amphitheater that hosts festivals, concerts, and community events all year long. The Akron Zoo is located just outside downtown and was an initial gift of property from the city's founding family. In Highland Square, Akron hosts a convergence of art, music, and community annually called Art in the Square, a festival featuring local artists and musicians.
National events that are hosted annually in Akron cover a wide variety of hobbies and interests. The PGA World Golf Championships travel to Akron each year for the Bridgestone Invitational at Firestone Country Club. The All-American Soap Box Derby is a youth racing program which has its World Championship finals at Derby Downs. In mid July, the National Hamburger Festival consists of different vendors serving original recipe hamburgers and has a Miss Hamburger contest. Lock 3 Park annually hosts the First Night Akron celebration on New Year's Eve. The park also annually hosts the Italian Festival and the "Rib, White & Blue" food festival in July. Founders Day is celebrated annually due to the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous within the city.
Several residents of Akron have played a role in defining American cuisine. Ferdinand Schumacher created the first American oatmeal and is a pioneer of breakfast cereal. He also founded the Empire Barley Mill and German Mills American Oatmeal Company, which would later merge several times with other companies, with the result being the Quaker Oats Company. The Menches Brothers, are the disputed inventors of the waffle ice cream cone, caramel corn, and hamburger. The beer, BORIS The Crusher Oatmeal-Imperial Stout, brewed by the Hoppin' Frog Brewing Company located in the city, won 1st place in the Imperial Stout category of the 2008 Great American Beer Festival, and the company was named the 24th best brewer in the world for 2010 by RateBeer.com Notable eateries in Akron are Luigi's Pizzeria (established in 1949) and The Diamond Grille. Other places include Crave, Bricco, Cilantro, Diamond Deli, Urban Eats, Mary Coyle Ice Cream, Swenson's, Ken Stewart's, Tangier, Louie's, Duffy's, New Era, The Office Bistro, Strickland's Frozen Custard, and Hamburger Station. The rivalry between Swenson's and Skyway, aired on Iron Chef Michael Symon's Food Feuds, which Swenson's won.
Although Akron is in northern Ohio, where the Inland North dialect is expected, its settlement history, puts it in the North Midland dialect area. Some localisms that have developed include devilstrip, which refers to the grass strip between a sidewalk and street.
Akron's professional sports teams include the Akron RubberDucks (Minor League Baseball), Akron Racers (National Pro Fastpitch), and Rubber City Rollergirls (Roller Derby) (Women's Flat Track Derby Association). Local sporting facilities include Canal Park, Firestone Stadium, InfoCision Stadium – Summa Field, James A. Rhodes Arena, and the Lee Jackson Field.
The RubberDucks have won the Eastern League Championship fout times, the last being in 2012. Nearly growing 87% that year, the Akron Road Runner Marathon has consecutively gained participants since beginning. It was announced that Akron will host some of the events of the 2014 Gay Games including the marathon, the men's and women's golf tournaments at Firestone Country Club, and softball at Firestone Stadium. The All-American Soap Box Derby taken place each year at the Derby Downs since 1936. The Firestone Country Club, annually host the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational and in the past hosted tournaments including the PGA Championship, American Golf Classic, and Rubber City Open Invitational. The Akron & National Marble Tournament was created in 1923, by Roy W. Howard, being owned by the Akron District Marbles Tournament and the Akron Beacon Journal sometime before it ended permanently in the 1960s. On January 7, 1938, Akron became the birthplace of women's professional Mud Wrestling, in a match including Professional Wrestling and Wrestling Observer Hall of Famer, Mildred Burke. The Professional Bowlers Association started in the city during 1958. LeBron James' King for Kids bike-a-thon feature James riding with kids through the city each June. In November, the city host the Home Run for the Homeless marathon.
Past sports teams
Former teams of Akron include the Akron Professionals (National Football League), Goodyear Silents (deaf semi-professional football), Akron Black Tyrites (Negro League), Akron Americans (International Hockey League), Akron Lightning (International Basketball League), the Akron Summit Assault USL Premier Development League (PDL), the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, and the Akron Wingfoots (National Basketball League), who won the first NBL Championship and the International Cup three times. The Akron Firestone Non-Skids (National Basketball League), later won the title consecutively, in 1939 and 1940.
As home to the University of Akron, the city is also home to the Akron Zips, who compete in the NCAA and the Mid-American Conference (MAC) in a variety of sports at the Division I level. Before completion of the InfoCision Stadium – Summa Field, the football team played at the historic Rubber Bowl, former home of the 1920 National Football League Championship winners, the Akron Professionals. The men's basketball team appeared in the NCAA Tournament in 1986, 2009, and 2011. In 2009, the Zips men's soccer team completed the regular-season undefeated, then won the NCAA Men's Division I Soccer Championship in 2010. Zippy, one of the eight female NCAA mascots, won the Capital One National Mascot of the Year contest in 2007.
Parks and recreation
Major parks in Akron include Lock 3, Firestone, Goodyear Heights, the F.A. Seiberling Nature Realm (or Naturealm), and part of the Cuyahoga Valley National Park. Several of the parks along on the locks of the canal. Lock 3 Park in downtown Akron is the city's hub for entertainment. It is commonly used as an outdoor amphitheater hosting live musical entertainment, festivals, and special events year-round. The park was created in the early 21st century to provide green space within the city of Akron. The Ohio and Erie Canal can still be seen flowing behind the stage where there was once a boat yard and dry dock. Later, a pottery factory stood there until the parking deck of the M. O’Neil Co. department store was built in the current location. More than 65,000 guests use the park for recreation annually. During Lock 3 Live, it holds concerts for almost every musical genre, including alternative, R&B, reggae, gospel, country, pop, jazz, and classic rock. Some festivals the park hosts throughout the year include Soap Box Derby opening ceremonies, firefighter competitions, charity events, tournaments, and animal events. From November through February, Lock 3 Park is transformed into an outdoor ice-skating rink. Adjacent to the Derby Downs race hill is a 19,000-square-foot (1,800 m2) outdoor skatepark. The park features concrete ramps, including two bowls going as deep as 7 feet (2.1 m), a snake run, two hips, a stair set with handrail, many smaller quarter pipes and a variety of grind boxes. Positioned just a few feet from the Akron Skatepark is a Pro BMX course where organized races are often held in the warmer months.
The Ohio and Erie Canal towpath is a regional bike and hike trail that follows the canal. A bridge was completed in 2008, crossing Route 59/The Innerbelt, which connects the towpath proper with bike routes painted onto streets downtown, thus completing another step toward the connection of Cleveland and East Liverpool with a hike and bike trail. The State of Ohio plans to reconstruct the trail which once ran completely through Ohio, to New Philadelphia from Cleveland. The trail features a floating observation deck section over Summit Lake. It is a popular tourist attraction, as it attracts over 2 million visits annually. The Portage Hike and Bike Trail, when fully complete, will connect with the hike and bike trails in the county.
Akron is served in print by the daily Akron Beacon Journal, formerly the flagship newspaper of the Knight Newspapers chain; the weekly "The Akron Reporter"; and the weekly West Side Leader newspapers and the monthly magazine Akron Life. The Buchtelite newspaper is published by the University of Akron.
Akron is less than 40 miles (64 km) from Cleveland and forms part of the Cleveland-Akron (Canton) media market, the 18th largest market in the U.S. However, WAOH-LP, WEAO (PBS), WVPX (ION), and WBNX-TV (CW) are licensed to Akron. WAOH and WEAO serve the city of Akron specifically, while WBNX and WVPX identify themselves as Akron/Cleveland, serving the entire Northeast Ohio market. Akron has no native news broadcast, having lost its only news station when the former WAKC became WVPX in 1996. WVPX and Cleveland's WKYC later provided a joint news program, which was cancelled in 2005.
On the radio side, Akron is served by WZIP 88.1 (Top 40 / College – University of Akron), WAPS 91.3 (Varied formats: local artists, modern rock, blues, jazz and public radio), WAKR 1590 (Oldies), WKDD 98.1 (Adult contemporary), WHLO 640 (News/talk), WJMP 1520 (News/Talk), WKSU 89.7 (National Public Radio, operated from the campus of Kent State University), WONE 97.5 (Classic rock), WNIR-FM 100.1 (News/talk), WSTB 88.9 (Alternative), WARF 1350 (Fox Sports Ohio), WQMX 94.9 (Country), WRQK 106.9 (Rock), and WHOF 101.7 (AC).
Many industries in the United States either began or were influenced by the city. After beginning the tire and rubber industry during the 20th century with the founding of Goodrich, Firestone, General Tire, also the Goodyear merger with The Kelly-Springfield Tire Company gained the status of, "Rubber Capital of the World". Akron has won economic awards such as for City Livability and All-American City, and deemed a high tech haven greatly contributing to the Information Age. Current Fortune 500 companies headquartered in the city include the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and FirstEnergy. In addition, the city is the headquarters to a number of other notable companies such as GOJO, Advanced Elastomer Systems, FirstMerit Bank, Myers Industries, Acme Fresh Market and Sterling Jewelers. Goodyear, America's biggest tire manufacturer and the fifth-largest private employer in Summit County, recently built a new world headquarters in the city. The project, Akron Riverwalk, will feature a large retail and commercial development area. The project began in 2007, but was put on hold due to the financial crisis of 2007–2010, and is now continuing. Bridgestone built a new technical center with state-of-the-art R&D labs, and relocated its product development operations to the new facility in early 2012. The Eastern Ohio Division of KeyBank, which has six branches in the city, built a regional headquarters downtown. The city has a free WiFi corridor centered in downtown. Neighborhoods in range include Goodyear Heights, East Akron, North Hill, Firestone Park, Kenmore, and West Akron. Some frequented locations in the area include, Akron-Summit County Public Library, John S. Knight Center, and the Robert K. Pfaff Transit Center.
Northeast Ohio's Polymer Valley is centered in Akron. The area holds forty-five percent of the state's polymer industries, with the oldest starting the 19th century. It is considered[by whom?] the polymer manufacturing center of the country, due to the educational, mineral, and transportation resources of the area. During the 1980s and 1990s, an influx of new polymer companies came to the region. In 2001, more than 400 companies manufactured polymer-based materials in the region. Many University of Akron scientists became world renowned for their research done at the Goodyear Polymer Center. The first College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering was begun by the university. In 2010, the National Polymer Innovation Center opened on campus.
Akron has designated an area called the Biomedical Corridor, aimed at luring health-related ventures to the region. It encompasses 1,240 acres (5.0 km2) of private and publicly owned land, bounded by Akron General on the west and Akron City on the east, and also includes Akron Children’s near the district’s center with Saint Thomas Hospital to the north of its northern boundaries. Since its start in 2006, the corridor added the headquarters of companies such as Akron Polymer Systems.
Akron's adult hospitals are owned by two health systems, Summa Health System and Akron General Health System. Summa Health System operates Akron City Hospital and St. Thomas Hospital, which in 2008 were recognized for the 11th consecutive year as one of “America’s Best Hospitals” by U.S. News & World Report. Summa is recognized as having one of the best orthopaedics programs in the nation with a ranking of 28th. Akron General Health System operates Akron General Medical Center, which in 2009, was recognized as one of “America’s Best Hospitals” by U.S. News & World Report. Akron Children's Hospital is an independent entity that specializes in pediatric care and burn care. In 1974, Dr. Howard Igel and Dr. Aaron Freeman successfully grew human skin in a lab to treat burn victims, making Akron Children's Hospital the first hospital in the world to achieve such a feat. Akron City and Akron General hospitals are designated Level I Trauma Centers.
According to the City's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the principal employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Summa Health System||10,000|
|2||Akron General Health System||4,150|
|3||County of Summit||3,094|
|4||Akron Public Schools||3,094|
|5||Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company||3,000|
|6||The University of Akron||2,845|
|8||Akron Children's Hospital||2,681|
|10||Time Warner Cable||2,440|
Government and politics
The mayor of Akron is elected in a citywide vote, the city has reached its 59th mayor. The city is divided into 10 wards, each elect a member to the Akron City Council, while an additional 3 are elected at large. The mayor's cabinent currently consist of directors and deputy directors of administration, communications, community relations, economic development, intergovernmental relations, labor relations, law, planning & urban development, planning director – deputy, public safety, and public service. The city adopted a new charter of the commissioner manager type in 1920, but reverted to its old form in 1924.
The current mayor is Don Plusquellic, who is currently serving his fifth term and was president of the United States Conference of Mayors in 2004. Plusquellic is also a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group dedicated to making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets. In 2008, he was selected along with other mayors, by President Barack Obama to work on solving the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009 at the local level. He defeated a recall attempt in 2009.
Aside from city founder, Simon Perkins, negotiating a treaty with Native Americans to establish a mail route from the Connecticut Western Reserve to Detroit in 1807, others partook in historic humanitarian affairs in Akron. Aside from being part of the Underground Railroad, when active, John Brown was a resident, today having two landmarks (John Brown House) (John Brown Monument) dedicated to him. During the 1851 Women's Rights Convention, Sojourner Truth delivered her speech entitled "Ain't I A Woman?". In 1905, a statue of an Indian named Unk was erected on Portage Path, which was part of the effective western boundary of the White and Native American lands from 1785 to 1805. The Summit County chapter of the Ku Klux Klan reported having 50,000 members, making it the largest local chapter in the country during the 20th century. In 1905, the sheriff, county officials, mayor of Akron, judges, county commissioners, and most members of Akron's school board were members. The Klan's influence in the city's politics eventually ended after Wendell Willkie, arrived and challenged them. Race took part in two of Akron's major riots, the Riot of 1900 and the Wooster Ave. Riots of 1968. Others giving speeches on race, in the city include Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois (1920) and President Bill Clinton (1997). In 1971, Alpha Phi Alpha Homes Inc. was founded in Akron by the Eta Tau Lambda chapter, with James R. Williams as chairman. The centerpiece, Henry Arthur Callis Tower, is located in the Channelwood Village area of the city. In 2008, 91 year old Akron native, Addie Polk, became the poster child of the financial crisis of 2007–2010, after shooting herself.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,835, and the median income for a family was $39,381. Males had a median income of $31,898 versus $24,121 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,596. About 14.0% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.7% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over.
Akron has a metropolitan population of 694,960 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Akron is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area, which was the 14th largest in the country with a population of over 2.9 million according to the 2000 Census.
As of the census of 2010, there were 199,110 people, 83,712 households, and 47,084 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,209.9 inhabitants per square mile (1,239.3/km2). There were 96,288 housing units at an average density of 1,552.3 per square mile (599.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 62.2% White, 31.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.8% from other races, and 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 61.2% of the population, down from 81.0% in 1970.
There were 83,712 households, of which 28.8% had children under age 18 living with them, 31.3% were married couples living together, 19.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.8% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.98.
The median age in the city was 35.7 years. 22.9% of residents were under age 18; 12.4% were between 18 and 24; 25.9% were from 25 to 44; 25.9% were from 45 to 64; and 12.6% were 65 or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female.
Preschool, elementary, and secondary education is mainly provided by the Akron City School District. Planning of the district began in 1840, when Ansel Miller suggested to build free public schools for all children in the city, paid for by property taxes. After enduring much opposition by citizens, in 1843 Miller joined with Rev. Isaac Jennings. Three years later, Jennings became the chairman of a committee of citizens who discussed how to improve the school system. On November 21, 1846, their plan was approved unanimously by the citizens. The Ohio Legislature adopted the plan, called "An act for the support and better regulation of the Common Schools of the Town of Akron" on February 8, 1847. Akron’s first public schools were established in the fall of 1847 and were led by Mortimer Leggett. The first annual report showed that it cost less than $2 a year to educate a child. In 1857 the cost of running the schools for a year was $4,200. The primary schools were taught by young women, which the Akron Board of Education justified because they could be paid less and were under the supervision of a male superintendent. From 1877 to 1952, Akron graduated students semi-annually instead of annually. 9% of the city’s school-aged population were born in other countries in 1888. In the 1920s, an Americanization program was designed to help the many Akron students who were first-generation Americans. Classes were in the rubber companies and some of the schools. A “continuation school” began for working boys and girls who were required by law to have at least four hours of schooling a week. In 1924, Akron's platoon schools attracted visitors from all over the country. Being a stronghold for the Ku Klux Klan during the decade, the majority of school board and government officials were members. Their influence ended with the arrival of Wendell Willkie. During the city's 1950s boom town phase, Akron schools grew eight times faster than the city’s population. In 1967, Kenmore launched the Air Force JROTC. In 1971, Jennings piloted the middle school model, which moved ninth-graders to the senior high school. In 1984, all-day kindergarten was piloted at Seiberling, Rankin and Hatton schools, and Ellet, East and Garfield high schools piloted the in-school suspension program. The district received an A+ evaluation from the state in 1987.
The city is home to the University of Akron, which the Princeton Review listed among the Best in the Midwest, in 2008. Originally Buchtel College, the school is home of the Goodyear Polymer Center and the National Polymer Innovation Center. All Akron Public Schools are currently going through a 15-year, $800 million rebuilding process. In recent times the city’s schools have been moved from “Academic Watch” to “Continuous Improvement” by the Ohio Department of Education. Akron also has many private, parochial and charter schools. Akron Public Schools made headlines in 2004 when a freshman student of Akron Digital Academy, the district’s own online charter school, was not allowed to participate in extracurricular activities, an event later covered and satirized by The Daily Show. National Basketball Association player LeBron James, attended St. Vincent - St. Mary High School.
The primary terminal that airline passengers traveling to or from Akron use is the Akron-Canton Regional Airport, serving nearly 2 million passengers a year. The Akron-Canton Airport is a commercial Class C airport located in the city of Green, roughly 10 mi (16 km) southeast of Akron operated jointly by Stark and Summit counties. It serves as an alternative for travelers to or from the Cleveland area as well. Akron Fulton International Airport is a general aviation airport located in and owned by the City of Akron that serves private planes. It first opened in 1929 and has operated in several different capacities since then. The airport had commercial scheduled airline service until the 1950s and it is now used for both cargo and private planes. It is home of the Lockheed Martin Airdock, where the Goodyear airships, dirigibles, and blimps were originally stored and maintained. The Goodyear blimps are now housed outside of Akron in a facility on the shores of Wingfoot Lake in nearby Suffield Township.
Railroads operating through Akron have included the Akron Canton and Youngstown Railroad, Northern Ohio Railroad, Akron Barberton Belt Railroad, Akron Barberton Cluster Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,Valley Railroad, Chessie System Railroad, CSX Corporation, Erie Railroad, Erie Lackawana Railroad Pennsylvania Railroad, Penn Central Railroad and Conrail.
Bus and public transportation
Public transportation is available through the METRO Regional Transit Authority system, which has a fleet of over two hundred buses and trolleys and operates local routes as well as running commuter buses into downtown Cleveland. Stark Area Regional Transit Authority (SARTA) also has a bus line running between Canton and Akron and the Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority (PARTA) runs an express route connecting the University of Akron with Kent State University. Metro RTA operates out of the Intermodal Transit Center on South Broadway Street. This facility, which opened in 2009, also houses inter-city bus transportation available through Greyhound Lines.
Akron is served by two major interstate highways that bisect the city. Unlike other cities, the bisection does not occur in the Central Business District, nor do the interstates serve downtown; rather, the Akron Innerbelt and to a lesser extent Ohio State Route 8 serve these functions.
- Interstate 77 connects Marietta, Ohio to Cleveland, Ohio. In Akron, it features 15 interchanges, four of which permit freeway-to-freeway movements. It runs north-south in the southern part of the city to its intersection with I-76, where it takes a westerly turn as a concurrency with Interstate 76.
- Interstate 76 connects Interstate 71 to Youngstown, Ohio and farther environs. It runs east-west and has 18 interchanges in Akron, four of which are freeway-to-freeway. The East Leg was rebuilt in the 1990s to feature six lanes and longer merge lanes. The concurrency with Interstate 77 is eight lanes. The Kenmore Leg is a four-lane leg that is slightly less than two miles (3 km) long and connects to Interstate 277.
- Interstate 277 is an east-west spur that it forms with US 224 after I-76 splits to the north to form the Kenmore Leg. It is six lanes and cosigned with U.S. 224.
- The Akron Innerbelt is a six-lane, 2.24-mile (3.60 km) spur from the I-76/I-77 concurrency and serves the urban core of the city. Its ramps are directional from the interstates, so it only serves west side drivers. ODOT is considering changing this design to attract more traffic to the route. The freeway comes to an abrupt end near the northern boundary of downtown where it becomes Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. The freeway itself is officially known as "The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Freeway." The freeway was originally designed to connect directly to State Route 8, but plans were laid to rest in the mid-1970s due to financial troubles.
- Ohio State Route 8 is an original state highway that is a limited access route that connects Akron's northern suburbs with Interstates 76 and 77. State Route 8's southern terminus is at the central interchange, where it meets I-76 and I-77. The second freeway in Akron to be completed, it went through a major overhaul in 2003 with new ramps and access roads. In 2007 ODOT began a project to upgrade the road to interstate highway standards north of Akron from State Route 303 to I-271, providing a high speed alternative to Cleveland.
In 1999, Akron ranked as the 94th most dangerous city and the 229th safest, on the 7th Morgan Quitno list. Preliminary Ohio crime statistics show aggravated assaults increased by 45% during 2007. Akron became the first city in the United States to train and equip officers with the CornerShot, to aid them in fighting crime. The city invented the first patrol cars to assist officers.
Historically, organized crime operated in the city with the presence of the Black Hand led by Rosario Borgio, once headquartered on the city's north side in the first decade of the 20th century and the Walker-Mitchell mob, of which Pretty Boy Floyd was a member. Akron has experienced several riots in its history including, the Riot of 1900 and the Wooster Avenue Riots of 1968.
The distribution of methamphetamine ("meth") in Akron greatly contributed to Summit County becoming known as the "Meth Capital of Ohio". The county ranks third in the nation in the number of registered meth sites. During the 1990s, motorcycle gang the Hells Angels sold the drug from bars frequented by members. Between January 2004 and August 2009, the city had significantly more registered sites than any other city in the state. Authorities believe a disruption of a major Mexican meth operation attributed to the increase of it being made locally. In 2007, APD received a grant to help continue its work with other agencies and jurisdictions to support them in ridding the city of meth labs. The Akron Police Department coordinates with the Summit County Drug Unit and the Drug Enforcement Administration, forming the Clandestine Methamphetamine Laboratory Response Team.
Akron has produced and been home to a number of notable individuals in varying fields. Its natives and residents are called "Akronites." The first postmaster of the Connecticut Western Reserve and president of its bank, General Simon Perkins, co-founded Akron in 1825. His son, Colonel Simon Perkins, while living in Akron during the same time as abolitionist John Brown, went into business with Brown. Wendell Willkie, the Republican nominee for president in 1940, worked in Akron as a lawyer for Firestone. Pioneering televangelist Rex Humbard rose to prominence in Akron. Beacon Journal publisher John S. Knight ran the national Knight Newspapers chain from Akron. Broadcaster Hugh Downs was born in Akron. In the mid- to late 1940s, pioneering rock 'n' roll DJ Alan Freed was musical director at Akron's WAKR.
Noted athletes to have come from Akron include National Basketball Association players LeBron James and Stephen Curry, Basketball Hall of Famers Gus "Honeycomb" Johnson and Nate "The Great" Thurmond, Major League Baseball player Thurman Munson, International Boxing Hall of Famer Gorilla Jones, former Northwestern University and Notre Dame coach Ara Parseghian, and Butch Reynolds, former world record holder in the 400 meter dash, and MLS footballer Ben Zemanski. James Harrison of the Pittsburgh Steelers was also born in Akron.
Performing artists to come from Akron include bands such as Ruby and the Romantics, Devo, The Black Keys, The Waitresses, and 1964 the Tribute; singers Chrissie Hynde, James Ingram, Joseph Arthur, Rachel Sweet and outlaw country singer David Allan Coe; and actors Frank Dicopoulos, David McLean, Melina Kanakaredes, Elizabeth Franz, William Boyett, Lola Albright and Jesse White. Clark Gable and John Lithgow lived in Akron.
Poet Rita Dove was born and grew up in Akron. She went on to become the first African-American United States Poet Laureate. Many of her poems are about or take place in Akron, foremost among them Thomas and Beulah, which earned her the 1987 Pulitzer Prize for poetry.
Owner of over 400 patents, native Stanford R. Ovshinsky invented the widely used nickel-metal hydride battery. Richard Smalley, winner of a Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering buckminsterfullerene (buckyballs) was born in the city during 1943. Another native, the second U.S. female astronaut in space, Judith Resnik, died in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster and has the Resnik Moon crater named in her honor.
Carol Folt, the 11th chancellor and 29th chief executive, of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill was born in Akron in 1951. She was previously provost (chief academic officer) and interim president of Dartmouth College. She assumed her duties on July 1, 2013, and is the first woman to lead UNC.
The philosopher and logician Willard van Orman Quine was born and grew up in Akron.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Akron is twinned with:
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "American FactFinder2". Retrieved 2010-03-20.
- "Akron Ohio Historical Timeline". Ci.akron.oh.us. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Akron School Law - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. 2005-07-01. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- When Church Became Theatre: The Transformation of Evangelical Architecture and Worship in Nineteenth-Century America. Jeanne Halgren Kilde. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-517972-9.`p.185
- Jenks, Steven (December 1995). "American Religious Buildings". SacredPlaces.org. New York Landmarks Conservancy. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
Thousands of Akron Plan Sunday Schools were built throughout New York State and the country between 1870 and the First World War.
- "Butler: Clay Products". Akronhistory.org. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Howe, Henry (1896). "Historical collections of Ohio: An encyclopedia of the state: History both general and local, geography with descriptions of its counties, cities and villages, its agricultural, manufacturing, mining and business development, sketches of eminent and interesting characters, etc., with notes of a tour over it in 1886".
- "Mighty mud maidens". Archived from the original on January 1, 2011.
- "A New Brand Of Tech Cities - Newsweek and The Daily Beast". Newsweek.com. 2001-04-29. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "City of Akron: News Releases 2009: Akron Named Tree City USAŽ by the Arbor Day Foundation". Ci.akron.oh.us. Retrieved 2010-03-28.
- "Akron: News Releases 2003: Akron History Returns to the Canal". Ci.akron.oh.us. 2003-07-02. Retrieved 2009-04-15.[dead link]
- "Community slogans about products". ePodunk. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
- Mandel, Peter (April 25, 2004). "Bouncing Around Akron, Rubber Capital of the World". The Washington Post (Katharine Weymouth). Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Ben Cahoon. "Mayors of U.S. Cities A-L". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Robert T. Englert (February 2004). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: First Presbyterian Church". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- Barry Popik, Smoky City, barrypopik.com website, March 27, 2005
- "Police Technology". Inventors.about.com. 2008-04-03. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
- "Akron Ohio History: 1900 Riot". Ci.akron.oh.us. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Goodyear Corporate || Historic Overview". Goodyear.com. Archived from the original on April 9, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "General Tire * Our Company". Generaltire.com. 2009-03-23. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "CONTENTdm Collection". Summitmemory.org. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Deaf Today v2.0: Exhibit reveals history from deaf perspective". Deaftoday.com. 2003-03-24. Retrieved 2010-03-28.
- [dead link]
- "Firestone Park" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Clark Gable – Ohio History Central – A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Goodyear Blimps – Ohio History Central – A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. 2005-07-01. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- Cragg, Dan (2001). Guide to military installations (6th ed.). Stackpole Books. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8117-2781-5. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
- Akron-Summit County Public Library, Summit Memory. "Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation, Facts About the World's Largest Airship Factory & Dock". Retrieved 2008-11-15.
- "Charles Arthur 'Pretty Boy' Floyd". Ngeorgia.com. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Claims to Fame – Products". Epodunk. Archived from the original on April 8, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-16.
- "Akron Rubber Strike of 1936 - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. 2005-07-01. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Akron, Ohio". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 2009-04-03.[dead link]
- "Hungry Bacteria Begins Saving Akron Money" (Press release). City of Akron, Ohio. December 12, 2007. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- "Akron leads the way". Builders Exchange. 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files for Places – Ohio". United States Census. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
- NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 2010-03-07.
- Akron/Canton Normals and Records for August. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 2008-11-13.
- "Nolan N. Guzzetta Miniature Sculpture, (sculpture)". Siris-artinventories.si.edu. 1976-05-18. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
- When Church Became Theatre: The Transformation of Evangelical Architecture and Worship in Nineteenth-Century America. Jeanne Halgren Kilde. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-517972-2.`p.185
- FirstMerit Restoration, http://www.westerngroup.com/servicesAndProjects/structures/officeCommercial.jspx?fileName=1120493926173-106-04-01.jpg&id=245
- "Scraping the Sky". Beacon Journal (Knight-Ridder). 1999-03-14. p. Beacon Magazine 13.
- "Akron Art Museum – Building the Akron Art Museum". Akronartmuseum.org. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Akron Art Museum – Building the Akron Art Museum". Akronartmuseum.org. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Akron Art Museum – Building the Akron Art Museum". Akronartmuseum.org. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Akron: News Releases 2005: MAYOR BRINGS $2 MILLION TO WEEKLY NEWS CONFERENCE". Ci.akron.oh.us. 2005-03-25. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- "Museum Collection: On View Now". Akron Art Museum. 2007. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
...dedicated to the display of its collection, which focuses on art produced since 1850.
- "Akron Art Museum". 2005 American Architecture Awards. The Chicago Athenaeum. 2005. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "Architecture". Akron Art Museum. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "Museum History". Akron Art Museum. 2007. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- Trexler, Phil (2009-12-29). "Arresting displays refreshed for public". Ohio.com. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- Jeffery S. King (1999). The Life and Death of Pretty Boy Floyd. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-87338-650-0. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- "The American Toy Marble Museum Akron, Ohio". Americantoymarbles.com. Archived from the original on March 26, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Dance, Girl, Dance – Lucy’s Ball of Fun on DVD – Movies, Reviews and More". Screenhead.com. Retrieved 2010-01-18.
- "Dance, Girl, Dance". DVD Times. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
- O'Connor, John J. (1989-04-30). "Television; How One Day at a Time Became a creed". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- "Prison Break | Episode 2–15 Transcript | The Message". Twiztv.com. 2007-01-29. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- "All the Marbles 1981 | Movie Trailer, Reviews, Photos, Cast". Hollywood.com. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- A. O. Scott (2009-10-02). "Movie Review - More Than a Game - Akron’s Little Dribblers Who Became Big Shots". Movies.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- "Jason Biggs Interview, Over Her Dead Body – MoviesOnline". Moviesonline.ca. Retrieved 2010-03-25.[dead link]
- "The Virgin of Akron, Ohio Television show – The Virgin of Akron, Ohio TV Show – Yahoo! TV". Tv.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2010-03-26.
- "TV Detail: My Own Worst Enemy reviewSeries Premiere :: TV :: Reviews :: Paste". Pastemagazine.com. 2008-10-13. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
- "The Heldenfiles, Seinfeld Bus Rolling to Cleveland, Akron Beacon Journal, Wednesday, August 13, 2008"
- Cla452 Added Jul 16, 2005 All my reviews (2005-07-16). "M.Y.O.B. on". Tv.com. Retrieved 2010-03-26.
- Vendler, Helen Hennessy (1988). The music of what happens: poems, poets, critics. Harvard University Press. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-674-59152-3.
- Traister, Rebecca (2005-05-06). ""The Coast of Akron" by Adrienne Miller". Salon. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- Niquette, Mark (2007-12-05). "On the brink: Akron – Transitioning from rubber to polymers buoys economy". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- "The Black Keys: "Rubber Factory"". Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- Wolpaw, Erik (2002-09-30). "No One Lives Forever 2: A Spy in H.A.R.M.'s Way Review for PC". GameSpot. Archived from the original on May 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- Allen, Todd. "No One Lives Forever 2: A Spy in HARM's Way Review". GamesFirst!. Retrieved 2010-02-05.
- "Lock 3 Akron, Ohio Concerts". City of Akron. Retrieved 2010-01-20.
- "Hamburger festivals, special events have participants flipping". Post-gazette.com. 2007-07-15. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- "First Night Akron". Downtown Akron Partnership. 2009. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- Carney, Jim (2009-06-11). "This Founders' Day marks A.A. milestones". Ohio.com. Retrieved 2010-01-20.
- "Akron, Ohio – Birthplace of Alcoholics Anonymous". Akron Area Intergroup Council of Alcoholics Anonymous. Retrieved 2010-01-20.
- "F. Schumacher Milling Company". Brandnamecooking.com. 1908-04-16. Archived from the original on January 3, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
- "The Ohio Academy of Science". Heartland Science. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
- "Ferdinand Schumacher – Ohio History Central – A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. 2005-07-01. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- Ohio Curiosities: Quirky Characters .... Google Books. 2007-08-08. ISBN 978-0-7627-4344-5. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- Ohio Curiosities: Quirky Characters .... Google Books. 2007-08-08. ISBN 978-0-7627-4344-5. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- "City of Akron: News Releases 2006: America’s 1st National Hamburger Festival". Ci.akron.oh.us. 2006-04-07. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- "Hoppin’ Frog on list of world’s top brewers | Hoppin' Frog Brewery". Hoppinfrog.com. 2010-02-10. Archived from the original on February 24, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-22.
- "American Food & American Restaurant – Hamburgers | Uniontown, OH". Menchesbros.net. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Food Feuds Episode Guide 2010 Season 1 - Beef Feuds, Episode 8". TVGuide.com. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Shuy, Roger (2006-09-17). "Language Log: Wut? Wen? Wich?". Itre.cis.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- Hall, Joan Houston (2003). Dictionary of American Regional English. p. 38. ISBN 978-0674008847.
It may be called the devil's strip in Akron...
- Akron Marathon. "Popularity, increased registration make Road Runner Akron Marathon Cap". Ohiooutside.com. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Armon, Rick. "Cleveland-Akron win bid for 2014 Gay Games". Ohio.com. Retrieved 2009-09-30.
- "Cavaliers: NBA Stars Join LeBron’s King for Kids Bikeathon". NBA. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Lock 3 Live! Park In Akron, Ohio". Events.ohio.com. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "About the Towpath Trail". Ohioeriecanal.org. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Ohio & Erie Canal Towpath Trail". Ohiobikeways.net. Archived from the original on March 29, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "City of Akron: News Releases 2008: Bridging Urban Places with Green Spaces – Historic Towpath Winds into New Territory". Ci.akron.oh.us. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "The Portage Hike and Bike". PortageParkDistrict.com. Portage Park District. Retrieved October 4, 2009.See also map link
- "The Buchtelite". Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-18.
- "Local Television Market Universe Estimates Comparisons of 2008–09 and 2009–10 Market Ranks" (PDF). nielsen. 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-05.
- "Akron news release".
- Heldenfelds, R.D. (2005-07-05). "Newscast off air, on cable.". Akron Beacon Journal (Knight-Ridder). Retrieved 2008-08-02.
- "Greater Akron’s Competitive Advantages". Greater Akron Chamber. Retrieved 2010-03-28.
- Byard, Katie (2007-12-05). "Goodyear has tentative deal to stay in Akron". Ohio.com. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
- "Akron Riverwalk / The Bridge to Polymer Valley". Akronriverwalk.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Goodyear's headquarters moving along". Archived from the original on December 20, 2010.
- Mackinnon, Jim (2009-11-25). "Mobile Edition". Ohio.com. Retrieved 2009-12-05.
- "Bridgestone Americas, Inc". Bridgestone-firestone.com. 2009-11-13. Retrieved 2009-12-05.
- Lin, Betty (2009-05-26). "KeyBank breaks ground on Akron, Ohio office building |". Securityinfowatch.com. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- "Connect Akron Wireless Network". Connectakron.org. Archived from the original on December 9, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-18.
- "Polymer Valley - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. 2005-07-01. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "A New Brand Of Tech Cities". Newsweek. 2001-04-30. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
- "Akron's biomedical corridor taking shape". Archived from the original on June 15, 2011.
- "Akron Ohio: Akron Ohio: Mayor's Office of Economic Development". Ci.akron.oh.us. Retrieved 2009-11-24.
- "Summa Health System – Summa Celebrates 11th Consecutive Year on U.S. New". Ssl.summahealth.org. 2008-07-11. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- "Summa Health System – Locations". Summahealth.org. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Summa Health System – Hospital Rankings". Summahealth.org. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- "Akron Hospital | Best Ohio Hospital | Akron General Medical Center". Akron General. 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- Powell, Cheryl. "Akron General earns honors". Ohio.com. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- "Akron Children's Hospital : Why Akron Children's?". Akronchildrens.org. 2007-06-19. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Microsoft Word - BIA History of Innovation Timeline Web Version 10.13.08.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-07-05.[dead link]
- "City of Akron CAFR" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-04-01.
- "Ohio Building Authority – Ocasek Building". Ohio Building Authority. 1999-07-06. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "Akron: Office of the Mayor: Cabinet Members". Ci.akron.oh.us. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Letter from Mayors Against Illegal Guns regarding the Tiahrt Amendments" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Ohio.com – Plusquellic in D.C. urging stimulus action[dead link]
- "ASCPL Digital Exhibit". Akronlibrary.org. 1905-07-04. Retrieved 2010-01-20.
- "Ku Klux Klan – Ohio History Central – A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
- "Akron: Akron's Black History Timeline: 1900–1919: The New Century". Ci.akron.oh.us. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- "Akron Ohio Historical Timeline 1950–1999". Ci.akron.oh.us. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- Grevatt, Martha (2008-10-09). "Ohio foreclosure prompts suicide attempt". Workers.org. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- "Akron (city), Ohio". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau.
- "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau.
- "History of the Akron Public Schools" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Akron-Summit County Public Library". Akronlibrary.org. 2009-02-15. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- "PPG Industries – PPG donates $5,000 to University of Akron". Corporateportal.ppg.com. 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
- "University of Akron breaks ground for $13 million polymer center". Plastics News. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
- "Education Alternatives in Akron Ohio". Akronohrealestate.net. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Akron Public Schools General Information". Akron Public Schools. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
- "Welcome to the Akron-Canton Airport!". Archived from the original on December 9, 2008.
- "Akron, Ohio: Akron Fulton Airport". Ci.akron.oh.us. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad, Akron Northside Station In Akron, Ohio". Events.ohio.com. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Akron Express" (PDF). PARTA Online. Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority. January 2009. Archived from the original on March 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "Solar panels make Akron's new transit center a leader in Ohio". The Plain Dealer. December 31, 2008. Archived from the original on March 9, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-16.
- "Akron Innerbelt Integration Initiative – History". Akroninnerbelt.org. Archived from the original on 2006-02-10. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Morgan Quitno's 7th Annual Safest City Award in Dangerous Rank Order". Morganquitno.com. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Preliminary Ohio Crime Statistics for 2007". Funkhouserlaw.com. 2008-06-02. Retrieved 2009-04-03.[dead link]
- "Ohio Police Test Gun That Shoots Round Corners". LiveLeak.com. 2007-12-14. Archived from the original on March 21, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- King, Jeffery S (1999-08-01). "The Life and Death of Pretty Boy Floyd". ISBN 978-0-87338-650-0.
- Armon, Rick (2008-09-05). "Summit County has third most methamphetamine sites in U.S". Ohio.com. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "Methamphetamine – Ohio Drug Threat Assessment". Justice.gov. 2012-06-15. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "National Clandestine Laboratory Register – Ohio". Justice.Gov. United States Department of Justice. August 19, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2010.Note- The list uses the mailing address for each site, so not all sites listed as being in Akron are actually within the Akron city limits but instead have an Akron ZIP code
- Armon, Rick (2009-02-15). "Meth lab raids jump 42% in Summit". Ohio.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- "City of Akron: News Releases 2008: State of the City Presentation". Ci.akron.oh.us. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- [dead link]
- "Twin cities - Chemnitz". http://www.chemnitz.de/chemnitz/en/index.html. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "Sister Cities: City of Akron". http://www.akronohio.gov/cms/city_of_akron/index.html. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Joyce Dyer, Gum-Dipped: A Daughter Remembers Rubber Town. Akron: University of Akron Press, 2003.
- Kathleen Endres, Akron's Better Half: Women's Clubs and the Humanization of a City, 1825–1925, Akron: University of Akron Press, 2006.
- Alfred Winslow Jones, Life, Liberty, & Property: A Story of Conflict and a Measurement of Conflicting Rights. Akron: University of Akron Press, 1999.
- S. A. Lane, Fifty Years and Over of Akron and Summit County. Akron, 1892.
- S. Love and David Giffels, Wheels of Fortune: The Story of Rubber in Akron, Ohio. Akron: University of Akron Press, 1998.
- S. Love, Ian Adams, and Barney Taxel, Stan Hywet Hall & Gardens. Akron: University of Akron Press, 2000.
- F. McGovern, Written on the Hills: The Making of the Akron Landscape. Akron: University of Akron Press, 1996.
- F. McGovern, Fun, Cheap, and Easy: My Life in Ohio Politics, 1949–1964. Akron: University of Akron Press, 2002.
- Russ Musarra and Chuck Ayers, Walks around Akron. Akron: University of Akron Press, 2007.
- Oscar E. Olin, et al., A Centennial History of Akron, 1825-1925. Summit County Historical Society, 1925.
- Akron Chamber of Commerce Year Book, (1913–14)
|Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Akron travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Akron, Ohio at DMOZ
- City of Akron official website
- History of Akron and Summit County
- Balanced in the wind: a biography of .... Google Books. June 1989. ISBN 978-0-8387-5154-1. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (CBSA-EST2009-01)" (CSV). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2010-03-24.[dead link]
- "US Census 2000 est".