阿克苏市 · ئاقسۇ شەھىرى
Location of Aksu City (pink) in Aksu Prefecture and Xinjiang
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Total||14,668 km2 (5,663 sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
Aksu (also transliterated Akesu, Ak-su, Akshu, Aqsu; also known as Bharuka and Po-lu-chia; Uyghur: ئاقسۇ, ULY: Aqsu, UYY: Ak̡su?; simplified Chinese: 阿克苏; traditional Chinese: 阿克蘇; pinyin: Ākèsù), is a city in and the seat of Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang, lying at the northern edge of the Tarim Basin. The name Aksu literally means white water (in Turkic), and is used for both the oasis town and the river.
The economy of Aksu is mostly agricultural, with cotton, in particular long-staple cotton, as the main product. Also produced are grain, fruits, oils, and beets. The industry mostly consists of weaving, cement, and chemical industries.
The land currently under the administration of the Aksu City is divided in two parts, separated by the Aral City. The northern part hosts the city center, while the southern part is occupied by the Taklamakan Desert.
From the Former Han dynasty (125 BCE to 23 CE) at least until the early Tang dynasty (618-907 CE), Aksu was known as Gumo 姑墨 [Ku-mo]. The ancient capital town of Nan ("Southern Town") was likely well south of the present town.
During the Han dynasty, Gumo is described as a "kingdom" (guo) containing 3,500 households and 24,500 individuals, including 4,500 people able to bear arms. It is said to have produced copper, iron and orpiment. The territory of Gumo was roughly situated in the counties of Baicheng and Wensu and the city of Aksu of nowadays.
The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited this "kingdom" in 629 CE and referred to it as Baluka. He recorded that there were tens of Sarvastivadin Buddhist monasteries in the kingdom and over 1,000 monks. He said the kingdom was 600 li from east to west, and 300 li from north to south. Its capital was said to be six li in circumference. He reported that the "native products, climate, temperament of the people, customs, written language and law are the same as in the country of Kuci or modern Kucha, (some 300 km or 190 mi to the east)], but the spoken language is somewhat different [from Kuchean]." He also stated that fine cotton and hemp cloth made in the area was traded in neighbouring countries.
In the 7th, 8th, and early 9th centuries, control of the entire region was often contested by the Chinese Tang dynasty, the Tibetan Tufan Empire, and the Uyghur Empire; cities frequently changed hands. Tibet seized Aksu in 670, but Tang forces reconquered the region in 692. Tibet regained the Tarim Basin in the late 720s, and the Tang dynasty again annexed the region in the 740s. The Battle of Talas led to the gradual withdrawal of Chinese forces, and the region was then contested between the Uyghurs and Tibetans.
In 1207–08, they submitted to Genghis Khan. Around 1220, Aksu became the capital of the Kingdom of Mangalai. The area had been part of the whole Mongol Empire before it was occupied by the independent-minded Chagatai Khanate under the House of Ogedei in 1286 from the hands of Kublai's Yuan Dynasty. After the decline of the Yuan Dynasty in the mid-14th century and subsequently the Chagatai Khanate in the late 14th century, Aksu fell under the power of Turkic and Mongol warlords.
Along with most of Xinjiang, Aksu fell under the control of the Khojas, and later that of Yaqub Beg, during the Dungan Rebellion of 1864–1877. Yakub Beg seized Aksu from Chinese Muslim forces and forced them north of the Tian Shan range, committing massacres upon the Chinese Muslims (tunganis). After the defeat of the rebellion, a learned cleric named Musa Sayrami (1836–1917), who had occupied positions of importance in Aksu under both rebel regimes, authored Tārīkh-i amniyya (History of Peace), which is considered by modern historians as one of the most important historical sources on the period.
British Army officer Francis Younghusband visited Aksu in 1887 on his overland journey from Beijing to India. He described it as being the largest town he had seen on his way from the Chinese capital, with a population of about 20,000, besides other inhabitants of the district and a garrison of about 2,000 soldiers. "There were large bazaars and several inns—some for travellers, others for merchants wishing to make a prolonged stay to sell goods."
The Battle of Aksu occurred here on May 31, 1933. Isma'il Beg, a Uighur, became the rebel Tao-yin of Aksu. After the outbreak of the Ili Rebellion, the Ili National Army forces led by Abdulkerim Abbas attempting to take Aksu were repelled by National Revolutionary Army defenders commanded by Zhao Hanqi after two bitter sieges in September 1945.
Aksu was the site of the a bombing in 2010.
Aksu has a cold desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk) with extreme seasonal variation in temperature. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −7.8 °C (18.0 °F) in January to 23.8 °C (74.8 °F), and the annual mean is 10.25 °C (50.4 °F). Precipitation totals only 74 millimetres (2.9 in) annually, and mostly falls in summer, as compared to an annual evaporation rate of about 1,200 to 1,500 mm (47 to 59 in); there are about 2,800−3,000 hours of bright sunshine annually. The frost-free period averages 200−220 days.
|Climate data for Aksu (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−13.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||1.6
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.3||2.2||1.6||1.5||3.1||5.3||6.6||6.3||3.3||1.1||0.7||1.9||35.9|
|Source: Weather China|
The county is served by the Southern Xinjiang Railway.
- Before 600 the region was under control of Huns and Uyghur Turkic tribes.
- 630: Xuanzang visited the kingdom.
- 800: Kuseen Uyghur kingdom was controlling the region.
- 1000: Qarakhanids Uyghur Empire started controlling the region.
- 1250: Chagatay Mongol started controlling the region.
- 1500: Yarkant Uyghur Empire started controlling the region.
- The Chinese History of the Western Han records some information about the kingdom.
- Either the Old Book of Tang or the New Book of Tang records Xuanzang's information and a little extra.
- Hill (2009), p. 408, n. 20.13. "In Buddhist Sanskrit, it was known as Bharuka."
- Bailey, H. W. (1985): Indo-Scythian Studies being Khotanese Texts Volume VII. Cambridge University Press. 1985.
- Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty, p. 162. E. J. Brill, Leiden.
- Li, Rongxi. Translator. 1996. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California.
- Wright, George Frederick (2009), Asiatic Russia, Volume 1, BiblioBazaar, LLC, pp. 47–48, ISBN 1-110-26901-3 (Reprint of a 19th-century edition)
- Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons (1871). Accounts and papers of the House of Commons. Ordered to be printed. p. 34. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- Kim, Ho-dong (2004). Holy war in China: the Muslim rebellion and state in Chinese Central Asia, 1864–1877. Stanford University Press. p. xvi. ISBN 0-8047-4884-5.
- Younghusband, Francis E. (1896). The Heart of a Continent. London: John Murray. p. 154.
- Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 89. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 241. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.
- Puri, B. N. Buddhism in Central Asia, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, Delhi, 1987. (2000 reprint).
- Stein, Aurel M. 1907. Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan, 2 vols. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 
- Stein, Aurel M. 1921. Serindia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China, 5 vols. London & Oxford. Clarendon Press. Reprint: Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass. 1980. 
- Yu, Taishan. 2004. A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March, 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania.
- Silk Road Seattle - University of Washington (The Silk Road Seattle website contains many useful resources including a number of full-text historical works)