Akureyri

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Akureyri
Town and municipality
Akureyri séð frá Vaðlaheiði.jpeg
Coat of arms of Akureyri
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Höfuðstaður Norðurlands (Capital of the North of Iceland), Höfuðborg hins bjarta Norðurs (Capital of the bright North)
Location of the Municipality of Akureyri
Location of the Municipality of Akureyri
Akureyri is located in Iceland
Akureyri
Akureyri
Location of Akureyri in Iceland
Coordinates: 65°41′N 18°06′W / 65.683°N 18.100°W / 65.683; -18.100
Country Iceland
Constituency[1] Northeast Constituency
Region[2] Northeastern Region
County Eyjafjarðarsýsla
Municipality Akureyri
Government
 • Mayor (Bæjarstjóri) Eiríkur Björn Björgvinsson
Area
 • Total 125 km2 (48.26 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 17,754
 • Density 139.0/km2 (360/sq mi)
Website Official website
Postal Codes: 600–603

Akureyri [ˈaːkʰʏrˌeiːrɪ] ( ) is a town in northern Iceland. It is Iceland's second largest urban area (after the Capital Region) and fourth largest municipality (after Reykjavík, Hafnarfjörður, and Kópavogur).

Nicknamed the Capital of North Iceland, Akureyri is an important port and fishing centre, with a population of 17,754. The area where Akureyri is located was settled in the 9th century but did not receive a municipal charter until 1786.[3] The town was the site of Allied units during World War II. Further growth occurred after the war as the Icelandic population increasingly moved to urban areas.

The area has a relatively warm climate due to geographical factors, and the town's ice-free harbour has played a significant role in its history.

History[edit]

Akureyri in the late 19th century

The Norse Viking Helgi magri (the slim) Eyvindarson originally settled the area in the 9th century. The first mention of Akureyri is in court records from 1562 when a woman was sentenced there for adultery.[4] In the 17th century, Danish merchants based their camps at the current site of Akureyri, which was one of the numerous spits of land in Pollurinn. The main reasons for choosing this spot for trading operations were the outstanding natural harbour and the fertility of the area. The merchants did not live at Akureyri year-round but returned home in the winter.[3]

Permanent settlement at Akureyri started in 1778,[4] and eight years later, the town was granted its municipal charter by the king of Denmark (and at the time Iceland also) along with five other towns in Iceland. The king hoped to improve the living conditions of Icelanders by this action because at the time, Iceland had never had urban areas. As far as the king was concerned Akureyri was unsuccessful, because it did not grow from its population of 12. It lost its municipal status in 1836 but regained it in 1862. From then on Akureyri started to grow because of the excellent port conditions and perhaps more because of the productive agricultural region around it. Agricultural products became an important sector of the economy.[5]

Akureyri, with Hlíðarfjall behind, viewed from the eastern shore of Eyjafjörður, morning November 2007

During World War II, Akureyri was one of three air bases used by the Norwegian-British No. 330 Squadron RNoAF.[6] The squadron, which was formed on 25 April 1941, flew Northrop N-3PB bombers: 'A' flight was based at Reykjavík, 'B' flight at Akureyri and 'C' flight at Budareyri.[6] On 1 December 1940, 'A' and 'B' flights ceased operating from Norwegian bases, but 'C' flight continued to fly Northrop N-3PBs from Akureyri until 5 April 1943.[6] No. 330 Squadron RNoAF also operated Catalina flying boats from Akureyri, which protected convoys from the United States to the United Kingdom and Murmansk from attack by German submarines.[6][7]

In the 20th century, Iceland experienced an exodus from the countryside to the towns.[8] Commerce and service industries grew to be the primary employers in Akureyri in the 1990s.[5] Jón Sveinsson, a popular author of children's books, was born in Akureyri and died in 1944.[9]

In the early 21st century, fishing industries have become more important in Akureyri as two of the major fishing companies of Iceland have become a more important source of revenue and are expected to grow further in coming years. The University of Akureyri was founded in 1987 and is growing rapidly.

Since 2004, the former municipality of Hrísey, an island 35 kilometres (22 miles) to the north, has been a part of Akureyri.[10] Hrísey, which has a population of 210, is the second largest island off Iceland and is a site for pet and livestock quarantine. The settlement was previously the site of fishing processing.[11] The town is located on the southern part of the island.[11] The northern part consists of privately owned land that requires passes to enter.[11]

Geography[edit]

The Glerá River

Akureyri is located at 65°41′N 18°06′W / 65.683°N 18.100°W / 65.683; -18.100Coordinates: 65°41′N 18°06′W / 65.683°N 18.100°W / 65.683; -18.100 and positioned on the west side of the inland end of the fjord Eyjafjörður.

It is surrounded by mountains, the highest being Kista (1447 metres) and another peak of 1538 metres at the head of Glerádalur. There is a narrow coastal strip of flat land; inland is a steep but low hill. In earlier times a few spits of land (Icelandic: eyri, thus Akur-eyri) jutted from the narrow coast, but a lot of land has since been reclaimed from the sea so that today the coastline is more even except for the largest, Oddeyri, which was formed by the river Glerá which runs through the town. It is thought that the name of the town is derived possibly from the name of a field which may have been situated near some of the sheltered locations by the river.[12]

The body of sea between Oddeyri and the end of the fjord is known as Pollurinn ("the Pool") and is known for calm winds and a good natural harbour. Akureyri today is centered on Ráðhústorg (Town Hall Square) near the northwest corner of Pollurinn. The districts of Akureyri are: Innbær, the oldest part of town on the strip of land between the hill and Pollurinn south of the central area; Brekkan, on top of the hill; Oddeyri on the peninsula with the same name; and Glerárhverfi on the north bank of the Glerá (also referred to colloquially as Þorpið, 'the Village'). Because of the town's position at the end of a long fjord surrounded by high mountains, the climate is actually more inland than coastal, meaning greater variations in temperature (warmer summers, colder winters) than in many other inhabited parts of Iceland. However, the mountains shield the town from strong winds. The relatively warm climate (for its latitude) allows the Botanical Gardens to flourish without need of a greenhouse.[13] The area around Akureyri has one of the warmest climates in Iceland even though it is merely 100 km (62 mi) from the Arctic Circle.[14]

Climate[edit]

Akureyri has a subpolar oceanic climate (Koppen: Cfc) with cold though not severe winters and mild summers. The snow cover starts forming in late October and melts in April, yet snow on the mountain peaks around Akureyri can stay for the whole year. Akureyri is a very cloudy town, averaging only 1047 sunshine hours annually, with barely any sunshine between November and February, but precipitation is much lower than in southern Iceland because the prevailing winds are from the south - it is as little as a fifth as much as in Vík í Mýrdal.

Climate data for Akureyri, Iceland
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
13.8
(56.8)
15.0
(59)
19.8
(67.6)
24.6
(76.3)
29.4
(84.9)
27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
21.8
(71.2)
19.5
(67.1)
17.6
(63.7)
N/A 29.4
(84.9)
Average high °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
1.7
(35.1)
2.1
(35.8)
5.4
(41.7)
9.5
(49.1)
13.2
(55.8)
14.5
(58.1)
13.9
(57)
9.9
(49.8)
5.9
(42.6)
2.6
(36.7)
1.3
(34.3)
6.74
(44.13)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.2
(28)
−1.5
(29.3)
−1.3
(29.7)
1.6
(34.9)
5.5
(41.9)
9.1
(48.4)
10.5
(50.9)
10.0
(50)
6.3
(43.3)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
−1.9
(28.6)
3.23
(37.81)
Average low °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−4.7
(23.5)
−4.2
(24.4)
1.5
(34.7)
2.3
(36.1)
6.0
(42.8)
7.5
(45.5)
7.1
(44.8)
3.5
(38.3)
−0.4
(31.3)
−3.0
(26.6)
−5.1
(22.8)
0.42
(32.74)
Record low °C (°F) −21.6
(−6.9)
−21.2
(−6.2)
−23.0
(−9.4)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−10.4
(13.3)
−2.1
(28.2)
1.3
(34.3)
−2.1
(28.2)
−7.3
(18.9)
−13.6
(7.5)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−20.2
(−4.4)
−23
(−9.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 55.2
(2.173)
42.5
(1.673)
43.3
(1.705)
29.2
(1.15)
19.3
(0.76)
28.2
(1.11)
33.0
(1.299)
34.1
(1.343)
39.1
(1.539)
58.0
(2.283)
54.2
(2.134)
52.8
(2.079)
488.9
(19.248)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0mm) 11.1 8.3 9.8 6.2 4.8 6.4 7.3 7.1 7.9 11.0 10.9 11.3 102.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 6.2 36.4 77.5 129.0 173.6 177.0 158.1 136.4 84.0 52.7 12.0 0.0 1,042.9
Source #1: Hong Kong Observatory[15]
Source #2: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)

Demographics[edit]

Akureyri has a population of 17,304 based on the 1 April 2008 census. The population in 1910 was 2,239, increasing to 7,711 in 1950 and 16,756 in 2005.[16] 20% of the working population is employed in service industries.[5] The January 1, 2008 population of the 600 postal code area (Akureyri) was 9,759. The January 1, 2008 population of the 601 postal code area (Akureyri) was 2,213. The January 1, 2008 population of the 603 postal code area (also Akureyri) was 7,375.[17] Postal code 602 is used for post office boxes and is not associated with a specific geographical area. There were 8,541 males and 8,779 females in Akureyri on 1 January 2008. Deaths that year in Akureyri totaled 44 males and 79 females. In 2008, 1,098 moved from Akureyri but this migration was offset by a net[clarification needed] migration into Akureyri of 78 people.[18]

Crime[edit]

Crime statistics have been published by the Iceland national police for 2000. Akureyri had a reported 726 non-traffic offenses per 10,000 population compared with a national average of 892, while 2,891 traffic offenses per 10,000 population were recorded compared with a national average of 2,397.[19] Akureyri has five police officers on call. There have been incidents when there were insufficient police officers on duty to respond to criminal activity in progress, as confirmed by the mayor.[20] However, Akureyri, and Iceland in general, has one of the lowest crime rates in the world.

Economy[edit]

Cruise ship in the harbour

The fishing industry has historically been a large and important part of the local economy. In recent years, other industry and business services have also begun. Higher education is also a growing sector in the local economy.[5] Twenty percent of the work force is in the service industry.[21]

Two of the five largest fishing companies in Iceland are headquartered in Akureyri.[12] The ice-free port is a contributing factor.[5] Other large companies in Akureyri include Samherji, Norðurmjólk, Brim hf, and Vífilfell, the largest brewery in Iceland. Sjúkrahús Akureyrar (FSA/Akureyri Hospital) is a major employer in the area and is one of two major hospitals in Iceland.[22]

Corporations pay a tax rate of 18% to the national government, which is one of the lowest in the world. There are no additional local corporate taxes. Property tax, at 1.99%, accounts for most of the tax base.[5] A local government deficit of ISK 1 billion (US$ 9 million) was anticipated in 2009 prompting a cut in salaries of the mayor, town councilors, and committee members by 10% and increases in local taxes and property taxes.[23]

Culture[edit]

Hlíðarfjall ski slopes just west of the town

Akureyri has a robust cultural scene, with several bars and reputable restaurants (such as "Greifinn", "Bautinn", "RUB 23 Steak/Sushi", "Kung Fu sushi bar" and "Götubarinn"). The Icelandic folk dance ensemble "Vefarinn" comes from Akureyri. Folk culture in general is more prevalent in Akureyri than in Reykjavík. During the summer there are several festivals in Akureyri and its surroundings. One example is the medieval festival held every summer at Gásir. The Akureyri International Music Festival, a concert series by bands, was held for the fourth time in 2009.[24] The town has one of the largest libraries in the country.[25] The Arctic Open Golf Championship is an international event that is held at the Akureyri Golf Club, the northernmost 18-hole course in the world.[26]

Media[edit]

The Vikudagur newspaper is published in Akureyri.[27] Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (Ríkisútvarpið) operates two radio channels nationwide.[28] There are several radio stations in Akureyri, including FM Akureyri and Voice FM 98.7. Several television stations can be watched in Akureyri. N4 is a station whose studios are located in Akureyri.[29] Initially a local channel, it began to broadcast nationwide in 2008.[30]

Townscape[edit]

The town centre of Akureyri.

Sites that have been cited as areas of interest include various museums, churches, and the Botanical Gardens. Local museums[31] include the Minjasafnið á Akureyri (Akureyri Museum),[32] Listasafnið á Akureyri (Akureyri Art Museum), Nonnahús (Nonni house or Jón Sveinsson Memorial Museum, for the writer), Davíðshús (David's house or Davíð Stefánsson Memorial Museum, for the poet), Akureyri Museum of Industry, a motorcycle museum,[33] and Flugsafn Íslands (Aviation Museum).[34] The most northerly botanical gardens and the most northerly 18 hole golf course in the world are in the town.[14] The Náttúrufræðistofnun Norðurlands (Nature Museum) was opened in 1957 and is in the grounds of the Botanical Gardens.[35] The Botanical Gardens (Lystigarður Akureyrar) are located in Spítalavegur. Large churches include the Akureyrarkirkja (The church of Akureyri) and Glerárkirkja (The church of Glerá).[36] Sundlaug Akureyrar is a swimming pool in Akureyri.

New residential and commercial growth has required an extension of electricity and water distribution as well as new water drilling.[37] Much of the town is heated geothermally.[38]

Administration[edit]

Law and government[edit]

Akureyri is governed by a town council, directly elected by those over 18 with registered domicile in the town. The council has 11 members who are elected for four-year terms. The mayor is appointed by the council: usually one of the council members is chosen, but they may also appoint a mayor who is not a member of the council.[39][40]

The last elections to the town council were held on May 31, 2014. The People's List (Listi fólksins), that won outright majority in 2010, and The Town List (Bæjarlistinn) mergered into L-list, The Town List of Akureyri. They had 7 representatives together but now got only 2, 18,8%. The Independence Party (Sjálfstæðisflokkurinn) received the most votes, 3 seats in the council, 25,8%, instead of only 1 before. Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin) and Progressive Party (Framsóknarflokkurinn) both got 2 seats each, instead of 1 each before. Left-Green Movement (Vinstri hreyfingin grænt framboð) and Bright Future (Björt framtíð) got one seat each. L-list, Social Democratic Alliance and Progressive Party formed a new majority in the council. The new majority decided that Eiríkur Björn Björgvinsson, mayor of Akureyri since 2010, will continue to serve as mayor.

Timeline of mayors[edit]

  • 1919–1934 - Jón Sveinsson
  • 1934–1958 - Steinn Steinsen
  • 1958–1967 - Magnús Guðjónsson
  • 1967–1976 - Bjarni Einarsson
  • 1976–1986 - Helgi M. Bergs
  • 1986–1990 - Sigfús Jónsson
  • 1990–1994 - Halldór Jónsson
  • 1994–1998 - Jakob Björnsson
  • 1998–2007 - Kristján Þór Júlíusson
  • 2007–2009 - Sigrún Björk Jakobsdóttir
  • 2009–2010 - Hermann Jón Tómasson
  • 2010–        - Eiríkur Björn Björgvinsson

Twin cities[edit]

The following cities or towns have been designated twin cities with Akureyri:

In 2007, a friendship and fisheries agreement was signed with Grimsby, United Kingdom which, according to Ice News, might lead to a twin cities designation in the future.[41]

Education[edit]

The old building (Gamli Skóli) of the Menntaskóli, i.e. High School precinct in Akureyri.

There are two high schools (gymnasiums) in Akureyri,[42] one of them being the second oldest in Iceland.[43] The Menntaskólinn á Akureyri is a junior college in Akureyri and so is the Verkmenntaskólinn á Akureyri (Akureyri Vocational College). Háskólinn á Akureyri (University of Akureyri) is a university located in Akureyri that was founded in 1987. There are 3 faculties or colleges, the Faculty of Business and Science, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences.[44] The RES - The School for Renewable Energy Science, established in 2006, is also located in the town. This school offers graduate degrees in cooperation with two Icelandic universities.[45]

Transport[edit]

Airport[edit]

Akureyri Airport, one of four international airports in Iceland and the only international airport in the north of the country,[46] was constructed in 1955 replacing the airstrip at Melgerdismelar further to the south.[47] The current airport is mostly used for domestic flights, with seasonal scheduled international flights. Air Iceland flies several times a day to Reykjavík,[48] and there are also flights to Grimsey, Vopnafjörður and Þórshöfn. Since 2006, Iceland Express has operated scheduled flights from Akureyri to Copenhagen during the summer.[49]

In 2007, Akureyri Airport had a passenger traffic level of 221,200 and 19,778 aircraft movements.[50]

Marine port[edit]

The port of Akureyri is vital to the town, which largely bases its livelihood on fisheries. It is the site of large fish processing plants and has docking facilities for trawlers.[51] It is also important for freight handling and for tourism, as cruise ships stop in Akureyri during the summer months.[52] The ice-free nature of the port has been important in the town's establishment.[53]

Bus[edit]

SBA-Norðurleið (Icelandic Bus Company - northern route) is an Akureyri-based company that provides a bus service to the town.[54] Local bus services within Akureyri are provided by the SVA (Akureyri Bus Company), which does not charge fares. The cessation of fares in 2008 resulted in an increase of 130% in passenger numbers compared to the previous year when fares were charged.[55]

Roads[edit]

Route 1 or the Ring Road (Þjóðvegur 1 or Hringvegur) connects the town with the other parts of the country, including Reykjavík, which is 390 kilometres (242 miles) away. The road is mostly one lane in each direction, but is paved and open year round.[56] There are no paved roads from Akureyri to the unpopulated interior of the island. However, the F821 mountain road is open in summer: it climbs southwards from Akureyri and connects with the F26 mountain road across the interior to the SW of the country. Parking in the central area requires use of a parking disc indicating the time that parking has commenced. Parking is free but is limited in certain areas to a maximum period ranging from 15 minutes to 2 hours.[11]

In popular culture[edit]

Akureyri was a main setting in the tenth volume of The Adventures of Tintin, The Shooting Star.

Utilities[edit]

Akureyri has been heated geothermally since the late 1970s. Starting in 1928, there were unsuccessful attempts to develop geothermal energy. During this period, electricity and oil were used for heating. Construction of a geothermal distribution system was begun in 1976 after the discovery of a commercially viable source in 1975. Distribution was widespread by 1979.[38]

The Laugaland field near Akureyri was the first geothermal source commercially developed. The Ytri-Tjarnir field followed. To obtain sufficient water flow, additional fields were developed at Botn in 1980, Glerárdalur 2 kilometres (1 mile) west of the town in 1981, and Þelamörk 10 kilometres (6 miles) north of the town in 1992. Water temperature is generally 65 to 75 °C (149 to 167 °F) but can drop to 45 °C (113 °F) during hot summer days[clarification needed]. The cost of geothermal production is, at 32 mill/kwh[clarification needed], higher than the Icelandic national average of 11, but slightly less than the cost of imported heating oil. There is diminishing excess capacity but there are known and untapped resources near the town. Furthermore, there have been proposals to reinject water to extend the life of the sources.[38]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Political division
  2. ^ Mainly statistical division
  3. ^ a b Evans 2008, p. ‹The template Google books quote is being considered for deletion.›  310
  4. ^ a b "From the history of Akureyri". akureyri.is. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Akureyri region: Iceland's fastest growing region, and a nice region to live in, too!". Akureyri Region Business Agency. Retrieved 2009-07-03. 
  6. ^ a b c d Olsen, Bjorn (1981). "Norwegian Northrop". In After the Battle, No. 31, pages 43–50.
  7. ^ Jefford, Wing Commander C.G., MBE, BA, RAF (Retd). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
  8. ^ Norman, Hans; Runblom, Harald. "Migration patterns in the Nordic countries". Uppsala Universitet. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  9. ^ "Nýjustu fréttir". Nonnahús Akureyri. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  10. ^ "Hrísey 2004". akureyri.is. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  11. ^ a b c d Parnell & O'Carroll 2007, p. ‹The template Google books quote is being considered for deletion.›  220
  12. ^ a b "From the History of Akureyri". akureyri.is. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  13. ^ "Akureyri". geographia.com. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  14. ^ a b "Akureyri". Iceland Tourist Board. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  15. ^ "Climatological Information for Akureyri, Iceland". Hong Kong Observatory. 
  16. ^ "Iceland in figures". Statistics Iceland. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  17. ^ "Urban nuclei and zip codes". Statistics Iceland. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  18. ^ "Municipalities". Statistics Iceland. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  19. ^ "Crime Index 2000". The National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  20. ^ "Group Fight Challenges Understaffed Akureyri Police". Iceland Review Online. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  21. ^ AFE 2004, p. 5
  22. ^ Pálsson, Aðalsteinn; Guðlaugsson, Kristján. "Facility Management at the Landspítali University Hospital". Retrieved 2009-06-12. [dead link]
  23. ^ "Akureyri Local Authorities Expect Vast Deficit in 2009". Iceland Review Online. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  24. ^ "Akureyri Big Band Holds Debut Concert". Iceland Review Online. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  25. ^ "The Municipal Library of Akureyri". akureyri.is. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  26. ^ "The Arctic Open". arcticopen.is. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  27. ^ "Vikudagur". vikudagur.is. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  28. ^ "Practical information". RES - The School for Renewable Energy and Science. Retrieved 2009-07-02. [dead link]
  29. ^ "N4". n4.is. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  30. ^ "North Icelandic TV Goes National". Iceland Review Online. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  31. ^ "Museums". Akureyri Cultural and Marketing Office. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  32. ^ "Akureyri Museum". Minjasafnið á Akureyri. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  33. ^ "Motorcycle Museum Built in Akureyri". Iceland Review Online. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  34. ^ "The Icelandic Aviation Museum, Akureyri". Flugsafn Íslands. Retrieved 2009-06-12. [dead link]
  35. ^ "Hortus Bottanicus Akureyrensis: Home". Lystigarður Akureyrar. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  36. ^ "Akureyrarkirkja". Akureyri Cultural and Marketing Office. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  37. ^ "Iceland. Akureyri Municipality. Energy and water". Nordic Investment Bank. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  38. ^ a b c Ólafur G. Flóvenz1, Franz Árnason2, Magnús Finnsson2 and Gudni Axelsson1. "Hitaveita (District Heating) in Akureiyi". geoheat.oit.edu. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  39. ^ "Samþykkt um stjórn Akureyrarkaupstaðar og fundarsköp bæjarstjórnar". Bæjarstjórn, akureyri.is. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  40. ^ "Samstarfssamningur Samfylkingar og Sjálfstæðisflokks". Bæjarstjórn, akureyri.is. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  41. ^ "Fish friendship between Grimsby and Akureyri". IceNews Daily News. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  42. ^ "Culture, Education and History at Akureyri". Iceland in focus. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  43. ^ "Akureyri Travel Guide". World66.com. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  44. ^ "The University of Akureyri". Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  45. ^ "About RES". RES - The School for Renewable Energy Science. Retrieved 2009-06-25. [dead link]
  46. ^ AFE 2004
  47. ^ "Akureyri airport". Nordic Adventure Travel. Archived from the original on 25 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  48. ^ "Domestic travel". Akureyri Cultural and Marketing Office. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  49. ^ "Welcome to Akureyri AEY". Iceland Express. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  50. ^ "Passengers, freight and mail through Icelandic airports 2003-2007". Statistics Iceland. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  51. ^ "Grimsby forges vital new links with Icelandic fishing port". fishupdate.com. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  52. ^ "Port of Akureyri". port.is. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  53. ^ AFE 2004, p. 6
  54. ^ "Scheduled bus service". SBA-Norðurleið (Akureyri Bus Company). Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  55. ^ "Free Bus Rides in Akureyri Pay Off". Iceland Review Online. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  56. ^ AFE 2004, p. 9

References[edit]

External links[edit]