Al-Adid

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Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh ibn Yūsuf ibn al-Ḥāfiẓ (1149–1171), better known by his regnal name al-ʿĀḍid li-Dīn Allāh (Arabic: العاضد لدين الله‎, "Support of God's Faith"), also known as al-Azid and al-Athid, was the fourteenth and last Caliph of the Fatimid dynasty, reigning from 1160 to 1171. He became Caliph as a minor following the death of his brother al-Faiz (r. 1154–60). The rule of the Fatimids was so weak and divided by this time that the Crusaders were able to begin invasions of Egypt.

Shawar, aid of Nur ad-Din Zangi ruler of the Zengids from Syria, was able to establish himself as vizier in Egypt (1163–1169), and he was the effective ruler of the land. Through careful seesaw diplomacy between Crusaders and Zengids, Shawar maintained a fragile grip on power. First, with the help of Syrian troops under Shirkuh and Saladin, Shawar's forces were able to fight off the Crusader incursions.

A remarkable alliance was struck in 1167 between his caliphate and the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem, against the Zengids. The crusader Arabic-speaking envoys, Hugh Grenier, a Knight Hospitaller, and Geoffrey Fulcher, a Knight Templar, arrived at his palace in Cairo, which was lavishly described by William of Tyre based on their impressions.[1]

Eventually, however, Shirkuh killed Shawar and took his place in 1169. After Shirkuh's death two months later, Shirkuh's nephew Saladin became vizier of Egypt. When al-Adid died of natural causes in 1171, the Fatimid dynasty ended to make way for the Ayyubids (1171–1260), a dynasty named for Saladin's father Ayyub (Job).

Al-Adid was believed by the Hafizi Ismaili Muslims to be an imam.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ William of Tyre, 319ff.

References[edit]

Preceded by
al-Fa'iz
Fatimid Caliph of Egypt
1160–1171
End of Fatimid rule
Saladin establishes Ayyubid dynasty