Abbas ibn Ali
( Father of Virtue )
Al-‘Abbās shrine compound
|Full name||Hazrat al-‘Abbās ibn ‘Alī|
|Born||3 [shaban] 26 AH
≈ May 15, 647
|Died||10th Muharram 61 AH
≈ October 10, 680 (aged 33)
|Place of death||Karbalā|
|Buried||al-‘Abbās Mosque, Karbalā, Iraq|
|Wife||Lubaba bint ‘Ubaydillāh|
|Royal House||Banū Hāshim|
|Father||‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib|
|Mother||Fātimah bint Hizam (Ummul Banīn)|
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Al-‘Abbās ibn ‘Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي) (born 4th Sha‘bān 26 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH; approximately May 15, 647 – October 10, 680) was the son of ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib (the first Imam and fourth Rashidun Caliph) and Fātimah bint Hizam al-Kilabiyyah (commonly known as: Ummul Banīn – Mother of the Sons).
Abbas ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib was born on 4 Shaban 26 AH. He was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah AlKilabiyya. Abbas had three brothers, Abdullah ibn Ali, Jafar ibn Ali, and Uthman ibn Ali. Narratives state that he did not open his eyes after he was born until his brother Husayn ibn Ali took him in his arms.
Battle of Siffin
Abbas debuted as a soldier in the battle of Siffin, one of the main conflicts of the 657 AD Muslim struggle between Abbas's father Ali and Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, the governor of Syria. Wearing the clothes of his father, who was known to be a great warrior, Abbas killed many enemy soldiers. Muawiya's forces actually mistook him for Ali. Therefore, when Ali himself appeared on the battlefield, Muawiya's soldiers were astonished to see him and confused about the identity of the other soldier. Ali then introduced Abbas by saying, "He is Abbas, the Moon of the Hashimi family". He was trained by his Father Ali in the art of battle, that is why he resembled his father in the battlefield.
Battle of Karbala
||This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. (February 2012)|
Abbas showed his loyalty to Hussain at the Battle of Karbala. After succeeding his father Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan as Caliph, Yazid ibn Muawiyah required Hussain to pledge allegiance to him, but Hussain refused to do so, saying, "I am the grandson of the messenger of Allah, and Yazid is a drunkard, womanizer who is unfit for leadership. A person like me does not pay allegiance to a person like him." In 60 AH (680 CE), Hussain left Medina with a small group of his companions and family to travel to Kufa. The people of Kufa invited Hussain to teach them about Islam. Initially he sent sending his cousin, Muslim, to make his decision after the advice of his cousin. But by the time Hussain arrived near Kufa, his cousin had been killed. On the way, Hussain and his group were intercepted. They were forced into a detour and arrived in Karbala on the 2nd of Muharram, 61 AH. Husayn's camp was surrounded and cut off from the Euphrates river. The camp ran out of water on the 7th of Muharram.
The Euphrates river was occupied by Yazid's Army to prevent the camp of Hussain from getting water. Shias believe that Abbas, because of his skill and bravery, could have attacked Yazid's army, occupied the river, and retrieved water for the camp alone. However, Abbas was not allowed to fight. He was only allowed to get water. Thus, he went to the river to get water for Hussain's 4 year old daughter Sakina bint Hussain. Sakina was very attached to Abbas, who was her uncle. To her, Abbas was the only hope for getting water. Abbas could not see her thirsty and crying "Al-Atash" (the thirst). When Abbas entered the battlefield, he only had a spear, and a bag for water in his hands. He was also given the authority to hold the standard (liwa') in the battle. Once he had made it to the river, he started filling the bag with water. Shias emphasize that Abbas's loyalty to Husayn was so great, that Abbas did not drink any water because he could not bear the thought that Sakina was thirsty despite being severely thirsty himself. The essence of this event was to illustrate that Abbas conquered the Euphrates river, held it with his mighty hands, yet still did not drink. They claim that until this very day the water from Euphrates river circles the grave of Abbas. After gathering the water, Abbas rode back towards the camp. On his way back, he was struck from behind, and one of his arms was amputated. Then, he was stuck from behind again, amputating his other arm. Abbas was now carrying the water-bag in his mouth. The army of Yazid ibn Muawiyah started shooting arrows at him. One arrow hit the bag and water poured out of it. At that moment, Abbas lost all hope. One of Yazid's men hit his head with a mace and Abbas fell off his horse without the support of his arms. As he was falling, he called, "Ya Akkha" ("Oh brother!") he was actually calling for his brother, Husayn. According to Shia tradition, Abbas fell first onto his face before he let the standard fall.
He was killed on Friday, 10 Muharram 61 Hijri on the banks of the river Euphrates. Hence, he is called Hero of Al-Qamah (another name for the river Euphrates). His death is generally mourned on the 8th night of Muharram. Shia Muslims mourn the death of all martyrs of Islam associated with Husayn in the month of Muharram, the first of the Islamic calendar, mainly in the first ten days (see Remembrance of Muharram). Fadl ibn Abbas and Qasim ibn Abbas also laid down their lives at Karbala. Ubaydullah ibn Abbas lived to continue the lineage of Abbas with five sons of his own.
‘Abbās was buried at that ground where he fell from his horse in Karbalā, Iraq. The Al-‘Abbās Mosque was built around his grave, to which millions of pilgrims visit and pay homage every year. Albanian Bektashis also maintain a shrine to Abbas on the summit of Mount Tomorr, where an annual pilgrimage is held every August.
Ghazi, or Gha'Z (غازی), means "soldier who returns successfully from the battle". Although Abbas was killed at Karbala, he is known as Ghazi because, when he carried out the first strike against Yazid's army, his mission was to rescue the horse which was seized by Shimr during battle of Siffin. This horse belonged to his other half brother Hassan ibn Ali. Abbas retained control over the horse and presented it to Husayn.  He's also known as Abu Fadl (ابوافضل), mean the father of heavenly graces and/or the father of graceful manner. Abbas (as) is the king of chivalry and the most loyal companion to his brother Imam Hussain (as).
Horse of Abbas
Abbas was given a horse named "Uqab" (Eagle). Shia claim that this horse was used by Muhammad and Ali and that this horse was presented to Muhammad by the King of Yemen, Saif ibn Zee Yazni, through Abdul Muttalib. The king considered the horse to be very important and its superiority over other horses was evident by the fact that its genealogical tree was also maintained. It was initially named as "Murtajiz". The name "Murtajiz" comes from Arabic name "Rijiz" which means thunder (lightning).
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- Lalljee, Yousuf N. (2003). Know Your Islam. New York: Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. p. 160. ISBN 0-940368-02-1.
- "Al-Abbas". Retrieved 2006-07-30.
- at-Tabrizi, Abu Talib (2001). Ahmed Haneef, ed. Al-Abbas Peace be Upon Him. Abdullah Al-Shahin. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. pp. 39–40.
- "Brooklyn Museum: Arts of the Islamic World: Battle of Karbala". Brooklyn, New York: Brooklyn Museum. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Hazrat Abul Fazl Al Abbas". Archived from the original on 7 January 2006. Retrieved 2006-01-08.
- Lalljee, Yousuf N. (2003). Know Your Islam. New York: Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. p. 161. ISBN 0-940368-02-1.
- "Wikipedia: Battle of Kerbala". Archived from the original on 13 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-30.
- "The Great Sacrifice". Retrieved 2006-07-30.[dead link]
- KaraÌraviÌ, NajmulhÌ£asan (January 1, 1974). Biography of Hazrat Abbas. Peermahomed Ebrahim Trust. ASIN B0007AIWQW.
- Tehrani, Allama Ahhsan. Zindagi-e-Abbas Lang. Urdu. p. 83.
- Pinault, David (February 3, 2001). Horse of Karbala: Muslim Devotional Life in India. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-21637-8.
- Naqvi, Allama Zamir Akhtar (2007). Imam aur Ummat. Markaz-e-Uloom-e-Islamia.
- AL-ABBAS By Abu Talib At-tabrizi, Translated by Abdullah Al-Shahin, Edited by Ahmed Haneef
- Abbas an article by Encyclopædia Iranica
- Sacrifice and Courage of Hadrat Abbas
- HAZRAT ABBAS IBN ALI
- Personality of Hadrat Abbas
- Hazrat Abbas's Grave stone in his Holy Shrine
- Cellar (basement) of Hazrat Abbas 's Shrine