Al-Adiliyah Madrasa

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Al-Adiliyah Madrasa
المدرسة العادلية
Location
Damascus, Syria
Information
Type Madrassah
Established 1215 CE
Founder Al-Adil I
Campus Urban
Affiliation Islamic

Al-Adiliyah Madrasa (Arabic: المدرسة العادلية‎) is a madrasah located in Damascus, Syria. Founded in 1215 by Sultan Al-Adil I. He was buried in the school. And his son Al-Mu'azzam finished building the school. The madrasa is considered an important example of Ayyubid architecture in Syria.[1]

Architecture[edit]

The general plan of the madrasa is organized around the central square courtyard (sahn) that distributes the various functions on its four sides. The southern courtyard façade precedes the prayer hall, while the northern side opens to a large iwan. The western side has been completely renewed in the last century but used to lead to a series of residential cells. It includes the staircase that leads to the second story of cells and smaller halls. The eastern façade leads to the main entrance of the madrasa through a large hall covered with a stone vault. The main door is on the same axis of the eastern opening to the courtyard.[1]

The monolithic façades are constructed from limestone blocks 60 centimetres (24 in) high. These blocks are plain without any ornamentation forming monumental façades without windows and a thick unadorned cornice. The main gate is unique in design when compared to other Ayyubid examples, a large iwan as high as the façade covered with two stone vaults that culminate in a hanging 2.2 metres (7.2 ft) long keystone. This stone divides the iwan into two arches with three cameos each. The iwan is enclosed with two small stone muqarnas domes. A large doorway centers the iwan; this black and white stone opening has two outer layers of carved details.[1]

Courtyard[edit]

The courtyard is almost square (18 metres (59 ft) x 17 metres (56 ft)) and covered with stone that created geometric patterns outlined with gold bands between the tiles. A square fountain (8.5 metres (28 ft) x 8.5 metres (28 ft)) stands in the middle of the courtyard; its semicircular corners indicate its Ayyubid character. Because the stone courtyard façades are devoid of ornament, the openings, domes and iwans create a tranquil environment animated with light and shade over the basic volumes.[1]

Mausoleum[edit]

The tomb (turba or turbeh) is covered with a dome raised on an octagonal base supported on stone muqarnas pendentives. The space has two windows on the eastern and western walls and a mihrab similar to the one in the prayer hall. The tomb is also starkly minimal following the style of the rest of the building.[1]

Modern day[edit]

In 1919 CE, the National Museum was assembled inside this school. It holds now the Arabic Language Academy in Damascus.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Al-Adiliyah Madrasa Archnet Digital Library.
  2. ^ Al-Adiliyah School

Coordinates: 33°30′44.5″N 36°18′17″E / 33.512361°N 36.30472°E / 33.512361; 36.30472