Al-Adiyat

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  Sura 100 of the Quran  
سورة العاديات
Sūrat Al-ʿĀdiyāt
The Coursers

Arabic text · English translation


Classification Meccan
Other names (Eng.) The Chargers, The Assaulters
Position Juz' 30
Structure 11 verses
Page from an 18th-century Qur'an showing al-Adiyat in naskh script with a Persian translation in red.

Sūrat Al-ʿĀdiyāt (Arabic: سورة العاديات‎ ) (The Courser, The Chargers) is the 100th sura of the Qur'an with 11 verses (ayat). The Surah has been so entitled after the word al `adiyat with which it opens.

Period of Revelation[edit]

Whether it is a Makki or a Madani Surah is disputed. Hadrat Abdullah bin Masud, Jabir, Hasan Basri, Ikrimah, and Ata say that it is Makki. Hadrat Anas bin Malik, and Qatadah say that it is Madani; and from Hadrat Ibn Abbas two views have been reported, first that it is a Makki Surah, and second that it is Madani. But the subject matter of the Surah and its style clearly indicate that it is no only Makki but was revealed in the earliest stage of Makkah.[1]

Theme and Subject Matter[edit]

Its object is to make the people realize how evil man becomes when he denies the Hereafter, or becomes heedless of it, and also to warn them that in the Hereafter not only their visible and apparent deeds but even the secrets hidden in their hearts too will be subjected to scrutiny.

For this purpose the general chaos and confusion prevailing in Arabia, with which the whole country was in turmoil, has been presented as an argument. Bloodshed, loot and plunder raged on every side. Tribes were subjecting tribes to raids, and no one could have peaceful sleep at night from fear that some enemy tribe might raid his settlement early in the morning. Every Arab was fully conscious of this state of affairs and realized that it was wrong. Although the plundered bemoaned his miserable, helpless state and the plunderer rejoiced, yet when the plunderer himself was plundered, he too realized how abject was the condition in which the whole nation was involved. Referring to this very state of affairs, it has been said, Unaware of the second life after death and his accountability before God in it, man has become ungrateful to his Lord and Sustainer. He is using the powers and abilities given by God for perpetrating tyranny and pillage; blinded by the love of worldly wealth he tries to obtain it by every means, however impure and filthy, and his own state itself testifies that by abusing the powers bestowed by his Lord he is being ungrateful to Him. He would never have behaved so, had he known the time when the dead will be raised from the graves, and when the intentions and motives with which he had done all sorts of deeds in the world, will be exposed and brought out before everyone to see. At that time the Lord and Sustainer of men shall be well informed of what one had done and what punishment or reward one deserved.[2]

Translation[edit]

وَٱلۡعَـٰدِيَـٰتِ ضَبۡحً۬ا 100:1
By the (steeds) that run, with panting.

فَٱلۡمُورِيَـٰتِ قَدۡحً۬ا 100:2
Striking sparks of fire (by their hooves),

فَٱلۡمُغِيرَٲتِ صُبۡحً۬ا 100:3
And scouring to the raid at dawn.

فَأَثَرۡنَ بِهِۦ نَقۡعً۬ا 100:4
And raise the dust in clouds the while,

فَوَسَطۡنَ بِهِۦ جَمۡعًا 100:5
Penetrating forthwith as one into the midst (of the foe);

إِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ لِرَبِّهِۦ لَكَنُودٌ۬ 100:6
Verily, man (disbeliever) is ungrateful to his Lord;

وَإِنَّهُ ۥ عَلَىٰ ذَٲلِكَ لَشَہِيدٌ۬ 100:7
And to that he bears witness (by his deeds);

وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لِحُبِّ ٱلۡخَيۡرِ لَشَدِيدٌ 100:8
And verily, he is violent in the love of wealth

أَفَلَا يَعۡلَمُ إِذَا بُعۡثِرَ مَا فِى ٱلۡقُبُورِ 100:9
Knows he not that when the contents of the graves are poured forth (all mankind is resurrected)?

وَحُصِّلَ مَا فِى ٱلصُّدُورِ 100:10
And that which is in the breasts (of men) is made known?

إِنَّ رَبَّہُم بِہِمۡ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ لَّخَبِيرُۢ 100:11
Verily, that Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) their Lord will be Well-Acquainted with them (as to their deeds and will reward them for their deeds). [3]

Winds in action: Sand-dust transporting wind systems.[edit]

وَالْعَادِيَاتِ ضَبْحًا

فَالْمُورِيَاتِ قَدْحًا

فَالْمُغِيرَاتِ صُبْحًا

فَأَثَرْنَ بِهِ نَقْعًا

فَوَسَطْنَ بِهِ جَمْعًا By the racers, panting [100:1]

And the producers of sparks [when] striking [100:2]

And the chargers at dawn, [100:3]

Stirring up thereby [clouds of] dust, [100:4]

Arriving thereby in the center collectively, [100:5]

الْعَادِيَاتِ Active Participle: Definite; sound Plural; Feminine; genitive, Verbal Noun عَدْوٌ. Its Root is "ع د و". The basic perception is of those feminine objects that disassociate and move-distance away from another. Same is the basic signification infolded in the Root, as stated by Ibn Faris: يدلُّ على تجاوُزٍ في الشيء وتقدُّمٍ لما ينبغي أن يقتصر عليه

"That it leads to the perception to move away-traverse instead of remaining confined, limited or reduced to the thing". It, therefore, denotes those who have become enemy signifying disassociation of affiliation, nearness, distancing. Element of heat, warmness, conflict, friction and agitation is inherent in the action signified by the Root in whatever semantic field it might be used. Lane's Lexicon, quoting Er-Raghib, describes its primary signification as; "transition; or the going, passing beyond, or transgressing: and incompatibility to coalescence".

ضَبْحًا Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative. It will not make much of a difference if we take it as Cognate Adverb for elided verb, or as Circumstance. It illustrates action and the state of those feminine Active Participles. It signifies, "alteration caused by fire, and the Sun but not in a great degree; signifies the sound that is heard from the mouths of horses when fatigued-running [Lane Lexicon]. The hot air emitted from nostrils of horses running-velocity produces little pulses of sound. So is the hiss of air escaping with velocity [the rate of change in the position of an object as it moves in a particular direction]. These two words portray most important characteristics of winds, that are direction, velocity and turbulence, which cause the following action.

فَالْمُورِيَاتِ Conjunction particle فَ Cause and effect indicative + Active Participle: definite; sound Plural; feminine; genitive; [Form-IV]. Subsequently the الْعَادِيَاتِ become such actors who expose something hidden. قَدْحًا Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative, signifies the state, or the manner these feminine Active Participles perform the act of exposing objects. Ibn Faris said, يدلُّ على غَرْفِ شيء that it leads to the perception "scoop up, ladle". Lane's Lexicon shows its meanings as "extracting, eliciting".

فَالْمُغِيرَاتِ Conjunction particle فَ Cause and effect indicative + Active Participle: definite; sound Plural; feminine; genitive; [Form-IV]. The preceding action reaching culmination, those feminine Active Participles cause declining and obscuring the day as صُبْحًا dawn. The dust storms reduce the visibility and the day seems as early morning.

فَأَثَرْنَ Verb: Perfect; third person; plural; feminine; [Form-IV]; [نون النسوة] Suffixed Subject pronoun, in nominative state; مصدر-إِثَارَةٌ Verbal noun. This feminine Verb alone suffices to negate all those translations who bring in horses, steed in these illustrative Verbal Passages. All the Active Participles are Feminine, and the Subject Pronoun of both Verbs are feminine plural. Angels [certainly masculine] and "panting horses" have nothing to do with these words of Qur'an. That are just imaginative flights.

نَقْعًا is the object of Verb. It signifies soaked, macerated dust particle, a small place for collection of water.

Having performed this action, they did this فَوَسَطْنَ بِهِ, thereat, they settled along with it in the midst location of an object having many locations. جَمْعًا Verbal Noun: Indefinite; accusative, it denotes accumulation, gathering.

Arabic words are illustrative. They verbally mirror the image of actions and states in such manner that its complete picture and visuals become conveniently perceivable. To verify this statement, just keep in mind the perception and meanings of ten words in above five Unitary Verbal Passages and read about Wind action; Harmattan; Sirocco; Dune formation in Encyclopedias.

[Winds and Cloud Physics in Grand Qur'an. Pl see vide Surat Fateha "Word by Word analysis"]

Commentary[edit]

[1] There is no direct indication in the words of the first sentence to show whether "those who run" imply the horses; only the word waI-`Aadiyat (by, those who run) has been used. That is why the commentators have disputed as to what is implied by "those who run". One section of the Companions and their immediate successors has been to think that it implies the horses; another section says that it implies the camels. But since the peculiar sound called dhabh is produced only by the panting, snorting horses, and the following verses also in which mention has been made of striking sparks and raiding a settlement early at dawn and raising clouds of dust, apply only to the horses, most scholars are of the opinion that horses are meant. Ibn Jarir says: "Of the two views this view is preferable that by "those who run" horses are implied, for the camel does not breathe hard in running, it is the horse which does so, and Allah has said: "By those runners which pant and breathe hard in running'." Imam Razi says: "The words of these verses proclaim that horses are meant, for the sound of dabh (panting breath) is only produced by the horses, and the act of striking sparks of fire with the hoofs too is associated with the horses, and, likewise, mounting of a raid early at dawn is easier by means of the horses than by other animals."

Other scholars have said that the beginning of this surah refers to how horses behave toward their masters, yet us, the mankind continues to disobey our master, Allah, and so, therefore horses are better than man.

The sura adds that mankind is evidence against itself of these sins. On the Last Day, "when that which is in the tombs is overthrown and that which is in the breasts is brought out," people will be judged according to what their hearts intended in life. The sura concludes with the reminder that while men are fully aware of what they are doing and why, God is even more aware - what is hidden in men's hearts is known to God.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Surah Al-Adiyat (Complete text in Arabic with English and French translations)

Other Information[edit]

Previous sura:
Az-Zalzala
Sura 100 Next sura:
Al-Qaria
Arabic text