Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari
Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Ismaʻel al-Ashʻari
|Born||AH 260 (873/874)|
|Died||AH 324 (935/936)|
|Era||Islamic golden age|
|Main interest(s)||Islamic theology|
|Notable work(s)||Maqālāt al-eslāmīyīn, Ketāb al-loma, Ketāb al-ebāna'an osūl al-dīāna|
Abū al-Hasan Alī ibn Ismā'īl al-Ash'arī (874–936) (Arabic: ابو الحسن علي ابن إسماعيل اﻷشعري) was a Shafi'i scholar and theologian who founded the school of tenets of faith that bears his name (Ash'ari).
Al-Ash'ari was born in Basra, Iraq, and was a descendant of the famous companion of Prophet Muhammad, Abu Musa al-Ashari. As a young man he studied under al-Jubba'i, a renowned teacher of Mu'tazilite theology and philosophy. He remained a Mutazalite until his fortieth year when al-Ash'ari saw the Prophet Muhammad in a dream 3 times in Ramadan. The Prophet Muhammad told him to support what was related from himself, that is, the traditions (hadiths). After this experience, he left the Mu'tazalites and became one of its most distinguished opponents, using the philosophical methods he had learned. Al-Ash'ari then spent the remaining years of his life engaged in developing his views and in composing polemics and arguments against his former Mutazalite colleagues. He is said to have written up to three hundred works, from which only four or five are known to be extant.
"A section of the people (i.e., the Thahirites and others) made capital out of their own ignorance; discussions and rational thinking about matters of faith became a heavy burden for them, and, therefore, they became inclined to blind faith and blind following (taqlid). They condemned those who tried to rationalize the principles of religion as `innovators.' They considered discussion about motion, rest, body, accident, colour, space, atom, the leaping of atoms, and Attributes of God, to be an innovation and a sin. They said that had such discussions been the right thing, the Prophet and his Companions would have definitely done so; they further pointed out that the Prophet, before his death, discussed and fully explained all those matters which were necessary from the religious point of view, leaving none of them to be discussed by his followers; and since he did not discuss the problems mentioned above, it was evident that to discuss them must be regarded as an innovation."
The historian, Al-Dhahabi said of al-Ash'ari: "I saw four works of Abu al-Hasan relating to Aqidah theological fundamentals in which he mentioned the principals of the school of thought of the early scholars, the salaf, pertaining to the attributes. He said in each of them, 'We leave them as they are,' and then saying, 'This is my position by which I practice my religion and they are not to be interpreted to other than their apparent meanings.'" Al-Dhahabi then quoted Abu al-Hasan, in the latter's book entitled Al-'Amd fi al-Ruyah, listing the books he had authored, saying the following, "... And a book about the attributes, the largest of our books, in which we contradict what we had previously authored in correcting the Mu'tazili school of thought.
- A Mujadid appears at the end of every century: The Mujadid of the first century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah, Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The Mujadid of the second century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Muhammad Idrees Shaafi. The Mujadid of the third century was the Imam of Ahlul Sunnah, Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari. The Mujadid of the fourth century was Abu Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri.
The Ashari scholar Ibn Furak numbers Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari's works at 300, and the biographer Ibn Khallikan at 55; Ibn Asāker gives the titles of 93 of them, but only a handful of these works, in the fields of heresiography and theology, have survived. The three main ones are:
- Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, it comprises not only an account of the Islamic sects but also an examination of problems in kalām, or scholastic theology, and the Names and Attributes of Allah; the greater part of this works seems to have been completed before his conversion from the Mutaziltes.
- Kitāb al-luma
- Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna, is according to his disciples a forgery attributed to Al-Ashari; a supposed exposition of his developed theological views and arguments against Mutazilite doctrines where he recanted his previous beliefs. But the Salafists generally claim that it marks his late repentance et his return to the bleifs of the "salaf". The book was supposedly written after he repented from his orthodox Ahlus Sunnah beliefs to heterodoxical anthropomorphic beliefs following his encounter with the extreme sectarian outlaw Al-Hasan ibn 'Ali al-Barbahari and was primarily an attempt to call his previous followers back to Islam.
- ed. H. Ritter, Istanbul, 1929-30
- ed. and tr. R.C. McCarthy, Beirut, 1953
- tr. W.C. Klein, New Haven, 1940
- I.M.N. Al-Jubouri, History of Islamic Philosophy: With View of Greek Philosophy and Early History of Islam, p 182. ISBN 0755210115
- John L. Esposito, The Islamic World: Abbasid-Historian, p 54. ISBN 0195165209
- Marshall Cavendish Reference, Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World, p 87. ISBN 0761479295
- William Montgomery Watt, Islamic Philosophy and Theology, p 84. ISBN 0202362728
- I. M. Al-Jubouri, Islamic Thought: From Mohammed to September 11, 2001, p 177. ISBN 1453595856
- "Scholar of renown: Abul-Hassan Al-Ash’ari". Arabnews.com. 2003-05-12. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- al-Dhahabi, Siyar 'Alam Al-Nubala, vol. 15, pg. 86-7, Mu'assasah al-Risalah, Beirut, 11th edition.
- Izalat al-Khafa, p. 77, part 7.
- Beirut, III, p.286, tr. de Slaine, II, p.228
- Richard M. Frank, Early Islamic Theology: The Mu'tazilites and al-Ash'ari, Texts and studies on the development and history of kalām, vol. 2, pg. 172. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2007. ISBN 9780860789789
- Thatcher, Griffithes Wheeler (1911). "Ash'arī". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press