Jannatul Baqi (جنة البقيع)
|Country||Present-day Saudi Arabia|
|Number of graves||State Secret|
Maqbaratul Baqī' (Arabic: مقبرة البقيع, The Baqi Cemetery) is a cemetery in Medina, present-day Saudi Arabia, located to the southeast of the Masjid al-Nabawi (The Prophet's Mosque). The mosque is built where the Islamic prophet Muhammad used to live, and is currently buried. The cemetery is also known as Jannatul Baqi, meaning "The Garden of Baqi" and Baqiul Qarqad, which means "Baqi of the Boxthorn". However, none of its former greenery has been left, as the cemetery was made desolate by Wahabi demolitions.
The cemetery holds much significance. It contains many of Muhammad's relatives and companions. Many traditions relate Muhammad issuing a prayer every time he passed it. A Jewish graveyard was once located behind Jannatul Baqi. The Umayyad rulers took down the wall of the Jewish cemetery and widened the Muslim graveyard to enclose the tomb of Caliph Uthman ibn Affan within it.
When Muhammad arrived at Medina from Mecca in September 622, al-Baqi was a land covered with Lycium shawii boxthorn trees.
During the construction of the al-Masjid al-Nabawi, on the site he purchased from two orphan children when he arrived after his migration from Mecca to Medina, Asa'ad Bin Zararah, one of Muhammad's companions died. Muhammad chose the spot to be a cemetery and Asa'ad was the first individual to be buried in al-Baqi among the Ansar.
Earlier Caliph Uthman ibn Affan was buried in the huge neighbouring Jewish grave yard. The first enlargement of al-Baqi in history was made by Muawiyah I, the first Umayyad Caliph. In order to honour Uthman ibn Affan, Muawiyah included the huge Jewish graveyard into al-Baqi cemetery. The Umayyad Caliphate built the first dome in al-Baqi over his grave. During different times of history, many domes and structures were built or rebuilt over many famous graves in al-Baqi.
On 21 April 1926, the mausoleums in al-Baqi were destroyed by king Ibn Saud. In the same year, he also demolished the tombs of holy persons at Mualla Cemetery in Mecca where Muhammad's first wife Khadijah, his grandfather and other ancestors are buried. This happened despite protests by the international Islamic community.
Kin of Muhammad
- All of the wives of Muhammad, except Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, who is buried in Jannatul Mualla in Mecca
- Ibrahim, Muhammad's son by Maria al-Qibtiyya, died in infancy
- Roqayyah, daughter of Mohammad and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
- Fatima bint al-Asad, aunt of Muhammad and mother of Caliph Ali; other aunts including Safiya and Aatika
- Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad is purportedly buried there, though the location of her grave is disputed.
- ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad.
- Fatima bint Hizam, known as Umm ul-Banin, who married Caliph Ali after the death of Fatimah; mother of four children including Abbass ibn Ali who died defending Hussain ibn Ali in the Battle of Karbala and Al-Abbas ibn Ali, Husayn ibn Ali, Uthman ibn Ali, Abdullah ibn Ali and Jafar ibn Ali.
- Imam Hasan ibn Ali, grandson of Prophet Muhammad, son of Fatimah and Imam Ali.
- Imam ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn, known as Zayn al-Abidin, grandson of Fatima Zahra who is the only adult male that survived the Battle of Karbala because he was sick and could not fight. He was the fourth Shia Imam.
- Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, son of ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn, the fifth Imam according to Shia
- Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq, son of Muhammad al-Baqir, the sixth Imam according to Shia. Teacher of Jābir ibn Hayyān, Nuʿmān ibn Thābit, Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i, Malik ibn Anas, and Abu Hanifa
- Abdullah son of Jaffar e Tayyar, who was husband of Zainab, daughter of Ali and nephew of Ali and father of Aun and Muhammad (martyrs of Karbala).
- Aqeel ibne abi talib elder brother of imam Ali.
Other notable figures
- Uthman ibn Affan, companion of Muhammad and third Sunni Caliph. Uthman ibn Affan was at first buried in a Jewish graveyard behind Al-Baqi', but later Muawiyah I extended Al-Baqi' to include Uthman.
- Uthman Bin Mazoun, companion of Muhammad
- Malik ibn Anas, Islamic jurist
- Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi, scholar
- Imam Shamil, Muslim leader and freedom fighter from the Caucuses
- Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, scholar
- Idris of Libya, King of Libya
- Hasan as-Senussi, Crown Prince of Libya
- Muhammad Zakariya Kandhalawi,Author of Fazael-e-A'maal
- Shaukat Ali Hayat, Islamic scholar
- Textual Sources for the Study of Islam By Knappert, Jan, Andrew Rippin
- http://www.al-islam.org/shrines/baqi.htm. History of the Cemetery of Jannat al-Baqi
- "8th of Shawwal - A day of deep grief and sorrow". Sibtayn.com. Sibtayn International Foundation. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Lady Fatima, Islamic Insight, Accessed September 1, 2012.
Media related to Jannatul Baqi at Wikimedia Commons
- Visitation of Baqi
- The oldest photos of Jannat al-Baqi (Persian)
- Jannat al-Baqi website
- Map of Jannat al-Baqi
- History of the Cemetery of Jannat al-Baqi
- The Baqi Collection Photos
- Map of Jannat al-Baqi according to Sunni Muslim sources
Panorama showing a part of the Baqi Cemetery. Qibla is behind the photographer.