Al-Khansa

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For the al-Qaeda publication, see Al-Khansaa (magazine).
Al-Khansa
الخنساء
Al-Khansa.jpg
Al-Khansa’, Drawing by Kahlil Gibran, al-Funun 2, no. 10 (March 1917)
Born 575
Najd, Arabia
Died 645 (aged 69–70)
Najd
Occupation poet

Tumāḍir bint ʿAmr ibn al-Ḥarth ibn al-Sharīd al-Sulamīyah (Arabic: تماضر بنت عمرو بن الحرث بن الشريد السُلمية ‎), usually simply referred to as al-Khansā’ (Arabic: الخنساء‎) (translated from Arabic as either "gazelle" or "short-nosed") was a 7th-century Arabic poet. She was born and raised in the Najd region (the central region of modern-day Saudi Arabia). She was a contemporary of Muhammad, and eventually converted to Islam.

In her time, the role of a female poet was to write elegies for the dead and perform them for the tribe in public oral competitions. Al-Khansa’ won respect and fame in these competitions with her elegies for her brothers, Ṣakhr and Muʿāwiyah, who had died in battle. She is the best known female poet in Arabic literature.

Life[edit]

Al-Khansa’ was born into a wealthy family of Najd.

In 612, her brother Muʿawiyah was killed by members of another tribe. Al-Khansa’ insisted that her brother, Sakhr, avenge Muʿawiyah's death, which he did. Sakhr was wounded in the process and died of his wounds a year later. Al-Khansa’ mourned his death in poetry and gained fame for her elegiac compositions.

She met the Islamic prophet, Muhammad in 629 and converted to Islam. He is said[citation needed] to have been very impressed by her poetry.

She had four sons: Yazīd, Muʿāwiyah, ʿAmr, and ʿAmrah, all of whom converted to Islam. All four of her sons were killed in the Battle of Qadisiyah.

When she received the news, she did not grieve, but said, "Praise be to Allah who honored me with their martyrdom. And I have hope from my Lord that he will reunite me with them in the abode of his mercy." (Arabic: الحمد لله الذي شرفني بقتلهم، وأرجو من ربي أن يجمعني بهم في مستقر رحمته‎)[citation needed]

Critical reception[edit]

The contemporaneous Arabic poet al-Nābighah al-Dhubyānī said of her: "al-Khansa’ is the finest poet of the jinn and the humans." (Arabic: الخنساء أشعر الجن والإنس‎) [1]

Another anecdote says that al-Nabigha told al-Khansa "If Abu Basir[2] had not already recited to me, I would have said that you are the greatest poet of the Arabs. Go, for you are the greatest poet among those with breasts." Al-Khansa replied, "I'm the greatest poet among those with testicles, too." [3] [4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ibn Qutaybah, al-Shiʿr wa-al-shuʿarā’ (Beirut, 1964)
  2. ^ http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Asha
  3. ^ http://islamport.com/w/adb/Web/766/336.htm
  4. ^ Arab women writers: a critical reference guide, 1873-1999, American Univ in Cairo Press, 2008

External links[edit]