From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Mahdi (disambiguation).
This article is about the Abbasid caliph. For Twelfth Imam and Islamic Promised One, see Muhammad al-Mahdi.
Muhammad ibn Abdullah (al-mansur) al-Mahdi
محمد بن عبدالله (المنصور)المهدى
3rd Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad
Reign 775–785
Predecessor Al-Mansur
Successor Al-Hadi
Issue Banuqa
Harun Al-Rashid
Full name
Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi
Dynasty Abbasid
Father Al-Mansur
Born 744 or 745
Died 4 August 785
Religion Islam

Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi (Arabic: محمد بن منصورالمهدى ‎) (born: 126 or 127 AH; died: 169 AH) (born: 744 or 745 AD; died: 785 AD),[1] was the third Abbasid Caliph who reigned from 158 AH to 169 AH (775–785).[2] He succeeded his father, al-Mansur.

Al-Mahdi, whose name means "Rightly-guided" or "Redeemer", was proclaimed caliph when his father was on his deathbed. His peaceful reign continued the policies of his predecessors.

Rapprochement with the Alids in the Caliphate occurred under al-Mahdi's reign. The powerful Barmakid family, which had advised the Caliphs since the days of al-'Abbas as viziers, gained even greater powers under al-Mahdi's rule, and worked closely with the caliph to ensure the prosperity of the Abbasid state.

Al-Mahdi reigned for ten years. He imprisoned his most trusted vizier Ya'qub ibn Dawud. In the year 167 AH/ 783 AD, al-Mahdi instituted an official inquisition to execute the alleged Zindiq (heretics). in the official inquisition. He was fond of music and poetry and during his caliphate the musicians and poets were patronized and he universalized music and poetry in his dominion.

In the year 161 AH, he subdued the rebellion of Abdallah ibn Marwan ibn Muhammad, leading the Umayyad remnant in Syria. In 160 AH he put down the insurrection of Yusuf ibn Ibrahim in Khurasan. In the same year al-Mahdi deposed Isa ibn Musa as his successor and appointed his own son Musa al-Hadi in his place and took allegiance (bayah) for him from the nobles. Al-Mahdi was poisoned by one of his concubines in the year 169 AH/ 785 AD).

Dirham of Al-Mahdi, 166 AH, Kirman, silver 2.95 g.

The cosmopolitan city of Baghdad blossomed during al-Mahdi's reign. The city attracted immigrants from all of Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Persia, and lands as far away as Afghanistan and Spain. Baghdad was home to Christians, Jews, Hindus, and Zoroastrians, in addition to the growing Muslim population. It became the world's largest city.

Al-Mahdi continued to expand the Abbasid administration, creating new diwans, or departments, for the army, the chancery, and taxation. Qadis or judges were appointed, and laws against non-Arabs were dropped.

The Barmakid family staffed these new departments. The Barmakids, of Persian extraction, had originally been Buddhists, but shortly before the arrival of the Arabs, they had converted to Zoroastrianism. Their short-lived Islamic legacy would count against them during the reign of Harun al-Rashid.

The introduction of paper from China (see Battle of Talas) in 751, which had not yet been used in the West – the Arabs and Persians used papyrus, and the Europeans used vellum – had a profound effect. The paper industry boomed in Baghdad where an entire street in the city center became devoted to sales of paper and books. The cheapness and durability of paper were vital to the efficient growth of the expanding Abbasid bureaucracy.

Al-Mahdi had two important religious policies: the persecution of the zanadiqa, or dualists, and the declaration of orthodoxy. Al-Mahdi singled out the persecution of the zanadiqa in order to improve his standing among the purist Shi'i, who wanted a harder line on heresies, and found the spread of syncretic Muslim-polytheist sects to be particularly virulent. Al-Mahdi declared that the caliph had the ability – and indeed, the responsibility – to define the orthodox theology of Muslims, in order to protect the umma against heresy. Al-Mahdi indeed did make great use of this broad, new power, and it would become important during the 'mihna' crisis of al-Ma'mun's reign.


Banuqa (c767 – c783) was a Muslim Abbasid princess, the daughter of Al-Mahdi, Caliph of Baghdad, and his wife Al-Khayzuran, and sister to Harun Al-Rashid.

Banuqa had her own palace in the grounds of the royal palace in Baghdad. Beautiful and elegant, she was her father's favourite daughter. The caliph allowed her to ride in his own retinue, disguised in male attire and carrying a sword. She died young, and contemporary poets produced many elegiac works to honour her memory.[3]


In the words of Ibn Khallikan (CE 1211–1282):

This prince had great talent as a singer and an able hand on musical instruments; he was also an agreeable companion at parties of pleasure. Being of dark complexion, which he inherited from his mother, Shikla- who was a Negro-he received the name "Al-Tinnin" (the Dragon).


Al-Masudi (p. 34f) relates some anecdotes in his Meadows of Gold that illumine a little the character of this caliph. There is the story of al-Mahdi out hunting stopping to take a simple meal from a peasant. With him on this occasion was one companion who felt the peasant should be punished for serving such food. Al-Mahdi rewarded the peasant.

Another tale has the caliph dining with a bedouin unaware of the identity of his guest. After tasty food the bedouin offers al-Mahdi liquid refreshment. Progressively al-Mahdi tells the bedouin that his guest is one of the caliph's eunuchs, one of the caliph's generals and then the caliph himself. The bedouin says no more for you. Next you'll be claiming you're the Messenger of God.

Al-Mahdi alarmed his treasurer by charitably spending the vast amount that al-Mansur had left him. However, the caliph was unconcerned and, indeed, incoming revenue soon arrived, enabling his bounty to continue. His generosity was compared to the waves of the sea.

Just before his death, al-Mahdi is supposed to have had a supernatural visitation who recited to the caliph ominous verses.


  1. ^ Al-Souyouti, Tarikh Al-Kholafa'a (The History of Caliphs)
  2. ^ Stanley Lane-Poole, The Coins of the Eastern Khaleefahs in the British Museum
  3. ^ N. Abbott, Two Queens in Baghdad (1986)


  • al-Masudi The Meadows of Gold, The Abbasids, transl. Paul Lunde and Caroline Stone, Kegan Paul, London and New York, 1989
Born:  ? Died: 785
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Caliph of Islam
Succeeded by