Al-Ram

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A-Ram
Other transcription(s)
 • Arabic الرّام
 • Also spelled al-Ramm (official)
al-Ram (unofficial)
A-Ram in the background
A-Ram in the background
A-Ram is located in the Palestinian territories
A-Ram
A-Ram
Location of A-Ram within the Palestinian territories
Coordinates: 31°51′12.35″N 35°14′00.12″E / 31.8534306°N 35.2333667°E / 31.8534306; 35.2333667Coordinates: 31°51′12.35″N 35°14′00.12″E / 31.8534306°N 35.2333667°E / 31.8534306; 35.2333667
Governorate Jerusalem
Government
 • Type Municipality
Area
 • Jurisdiction 3,289 dunams (3.3 km2 or 1.3 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Jurisdiction 25,595
Name meaning "The Hill"/"Stagnant water"[1]

A-Ram or al-Ramm (Arabic: الرّام‎;) is a Palestinian town which lies northeast of Jerusalem, just outside the city's municipal border. The village is part of the built-up urban area of Jerusalem, the Atarot industrial zone and Beit Hanina lie to the west, and Neve Ya'akov borders it on the south.[2] with a built-up area of 3,289 dunums. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, a-Ram had a population of 25,595 in 2006.[3] The head of a-Ram village council estimates that 58,000 people live there, more than half of them holding Israeli identity cards.[4]

History[edit]

In Crusader sources, Al-Ram was named Aram, Haram, Rama, Ramatha, Ramitta, or Ramathes.[5]

Al-Ram was one of 21 villages given by King Godfrey as a fief to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre[6][7]

All the inhabitants of the village who were mentioned in Crusader sources between 1152 and 1160 had names which imply they were Christian.[8][9]

The village was mentioned around 1161, when a dispute about a land boundary was settled.[9][10]

Ottoman era[edit]

In 1838 Edward Robinson found the village to be very poor and small, but large stones and scattered columns indicated that it had previously been an important place.[11] In 1870 the French explorer Victor Guérin found the village to have 200 inhabitants.[12]

In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Er Ram as a "small village in a conspicuous position on the top of a white hill, with olives. It has a well to the south. [..] The houses are of stone, partly built of old material".[13] "West of the village is a good birkeh with a pointed vault; lower down the hill a pillar-shaft broken in two, probably from the church. On the hill are cisterns. Drafted stones are used up in the village walls. At Khan er Ram, by the main road, is a quarry with half-finished blocks still in it, and two cisterns. The Khan appears to be quite modern, and is in ruins. There are extensive quarries on the hill-sides near it."[14]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Ram had a population 208, all Muslims.[15] This had increased in the 1931 census to 262, still all Muslim, in 51 houses.[16]

In a survey in 1945, Er Ram had a population of 350 Arabs, and a total land area of 5,598 dunams.[17] 441 dunams were designated for plantations and irrigable land, 2,291 for cereals,[18] while 14 dunams were built-up area.[19]

post-1948[edit]

In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Al-Ram came under Jordanian rule. It was captured by Israel along with the rest of East Jerusalem and the West Bank, and has been under Israeli occupation since then.

In 2006, the Israeli High Court rejected three petitions objecting to the construction of a security barrier separating a-Ram from Jerusalem.[20] The route of the fence planned to encircle northern Jerusalem has been revised several times. The latest plan calls for a "minimalist" route that leaves the village of A-Ram east of the fence. According to the current plan, still subject to revision, the fence will approach A-Ram, near the Atarot airport and Qalandiyah.[21]

Crusader remains[edit]

Two structures in the town have been identified.

Tower[edit]

A tower, which was later part of a courtyard building, is of Crusader origin.[22]

Former Crusader church[edit]

The former (old) mosque of Al-Ram was once a Crusader parish church.[9][23]

In 1838, Robinson noted that "A small mosk with columns seems once to have been a church".[11]

In 1870, Guérin described "a mosque, replacing a former Christian church, of which it occupies the choir; the inhabitants venerate there the memory of Shaykh Hasen. The columns of this sanctuary come from the church."[24]

In 1881, Lieutenant Conder reported: "At the shrine which is so conspicuous near this village are remains of a former chapel. The lintel stone (as it would seem), with a bas-relief of rosettes, has been found by Dr. Chaplin within the building, and a very curious stone mask is in his possession, obtained from the village. It represents a human face without hair or beard, the nose well-cut, the eyes and mouth very feebly designed. ' The mask is hollowed out behind, and has two deep holes at the back as if to fix it to a wall. It is over a foot in longer diameter, and curiously resembles some of the faces of the Moabite collection of Mr. Shapira. There cannot well be any question of its genuine character, and nothing like it has been found, so far as I know, in Palestine.'[14][25][26]

In 1883, SWP noted that "west of the village is the Muqam of Sheik Hasein, once a small Christian basilica". It further described it as "The remains of the north aisle 6 feet 8 inches wide, are marked by four columns 2 feet in diameter. The chamber of the saint's tomb occupies part of the nave, and into its north wall the lintel of the old door is built, a stone 10 feet long, half of which is visible, with designs as shown. In the courtyard east of this chamber is an old well of good water and a fine mulberry-tree. In the west wall of the Mukam other stones, with discs in low relief, are built in."[14]

Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 324
  2. ^ "The Separation Barrier surrounding a-Ram". Btselem. January 1, 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  3. ^ The Separation Barrier surrounding a-Ram Projected Mid -Year Population for Jerusalem Governorate by Locality 2004- 2006[dead link] Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics.
  4. ^ http://www.palestine-pmc.com/details.asp?cat=3&id=568[dead link]
  5. ^ Pringle, 1998, p. 179
  6. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 11
  7. ^ de Roziére, 1849, pp. 263: Haram, cited in Röhricht, 1893, RRH, p. 16-17, No 74
  8. ^ Röhricht, 1893, RRH, pp. 70- 71, No 278; p. 92, No 353
  9. ^ a b c Pringle, 1998, p. 180
  10. ^ Röhricht, 1893, RRH, pp. 96, No 365
  11. ^ a b Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 2, pp. 315-317
  12. ^ Guérin, 1874, p. 199 ff
  13. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 13
  14. ^ a b c Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 155
  15. ^ Barron, 1923, Table V||, Sub-district of Jerusalem, p. 14
  16. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 42
  17. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 58
  18. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 104
  19. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 154
  20. ^ High Court: A-Ram fence is our defense, Dec. 13, 2006, The Jerusalem Post
  21. ^ Harel, Amos (November 10, 2003). "Separation fence to include wide area east of Jerusalem". Haaretz. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  22. ^ Pringle, 1997, p. 88
  23. ^ Wilson, 1881, p. 214: picture
  24. ^ Guérin, 1874, p. 200, as translated in Pringle, 1998, p. 180
  25. ^ Conder, 1881, p. 196
  26. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 438

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]