Al-Hasakah Governorate

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This article is about the dejure governorate. For the defacto canton, see Jazira Canton.
Al-Hasakah Governorate
محافظة الحسكة
Governorate
Map of Syria with Al Hasakah highlighted
Map of Syria with Al Hasakah highlighted
Coordinates (Al-Hasakah): 36°30′N 40°54′E / 36.5°N 40.9°E / 36.5; 40.9Coordinates: 36°30′N 40°54′E / 36.5°N 40.9°E / 36.5; 40.9
Country  Syria
Capital Al-Hasakah
Manatiq (Districts) 4
Area
 • Total 23,334 km2 (9,009 sq mi)
Population (31/12/2011)
 • Total 1,512,000[1]
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
ISO 3166 code SY-HA
Main language(s) Arabic, Kurdish, Syriac, Armenian
Ethnicities Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Armenians

Al-Hasakah Governorate (Arabic: محافظة الحسكة‎ / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat al-Ḥasakah, Kurdish: پارێزگای حەسیچە/Parêzgeha Hesîçe, Classical Syriac: ܓܙܪܬܐ Gozarto) is a governorate in the far north-east corner of Syria. It is distinguished by its fertile lands, plentiful water, picturesque nature, and more than one hundred archaeological sites. It was formerly known as Al-Jazira province. Prior to the Syrian Civil War nearly half of Syria's oil was extracted from the region.[2]

History[edit]

Three soldiers were killed by armed militants in Al-Hasakah in an ambush during the Syrian Civil War on 24 March 2012.[3]

About a year later, Kurdish forces launched the 2013 Al-Hasakah offensive.

Demographics and population[edit]

The inhabitants of al-Hasakah governorate are composed of different ethnic and cultural groups, the larger groups being Arabs and Kurds in addition to a significant large number of Syriacs/Assyrians/Chaldeans and a smaller number of Armenians.[4] The population of the governorate, according to the country's official census, was 1,275,118, and was estimated to be 1,377,000 in 2007, and 1,512,000 in 2011.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1931 44,153 —    
1933 64,886 +47.0%
1935 94,596 +45.8%
1937 98,144 +3.8%
1938 103,514 +5.5%
1939 106,052 +2.5%
1940 126,508 +19.3%
1942 136,107 +7.6%
1943 146,001 +7.3%
1946 151,137 +3.5%
1950 159,300 +5.4%
1953 232,104 +45.7%
1960 351,661 +51.5%
1970 468,506 +33.2%
1981 669,756 +43.0%
2004 1,275,118 +90.4%
2011 1,512,000 +18.6%

According to the National Association of Arab Youth, an Arab nationalist organisation, there are 1717 villages in Al-Hasakah province: 1161 Arab villages, 453 Kurdish villages, and 50 Assyrian villages.[5]

Arab villages 1161
Kurdish villages 453
Assyrian villages 50
Mixed Arab-Kurdish villages 48
Mixed Arab-Assyrian villages 3
Mixed Assyrian-Kurdish villages 2
Total 1717

Censuses of 1943 and 1953[edit]

Syrian censuses of 1943[6] and 1953[7] in Al-Jazira province
Religious group Population
(1943)
Percentage
(1943)
Population
(1953)
Percentage
(1953)
Muslims Sunni Muslims 99,665 68.26% 171,058 73.70%
Other Muslims 437 0.30% 503 0.22%
Christians Assyrians 31,764 21.76% 42,626 18.37%
Armenians 9,788 6.70% 12,535 5.40%
Other churches 944 0.65% 1,283 0.55%
Total Christians 42,496 29.11% 56,444 24.32%
Jews 1,938 1.33% 2,350 1.01%
Yazidis 1,475 1.01% 1,749 0.75%
TOTAL Al-Jazira province 146,001 100.0% 232,104 100.0%

Among the Sunni Muslims, mostly Kurds and Arabs, there were about 1,500 Circassians in 1938.[8]

In 1949, there were officially 155,643 inhabitants. The French geographers Fevret and Gibert estimated that there were about 50,000 Arabs, 60,000 Kurds, a few thousands Jews and Yezidis, the rest being Christians of various denominations.[9]

Cities, towns and villages[edit]

This list includes all cities, towns and villages with more than 5,000 inhabitants. The population figures are given according to the 2004 official census:[10]

English Name Arabic Name Population District
Al-Hasakah الحسكة 188,160 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Qamishli القامشلي 184,231 Al-Qamishli District
Ras al-Ayn رأس العين 29,347 Ras al-Ayn District
Amuda عامودا 26,821 Al-Qamishli District
Al-Malikiyah المالكية 26,311 Al-Malikiyah District
Al-Qahtaniyah القحطانية 16,946 Al-Qamishli District
Al-Shaddadi الشدادي 15,806 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Muabbada المعبدة 15,759 Al-Malikiyah District
Al-Sabaa wa Arbain السبعة وأربعين 14,177 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Manajir المناجير 12,156 Ras al-Ayn District
Al-Darbasiyah الدرباسية 8,551 Ras al-Ayn District
Tell Tamer تل تمر 7,285 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Jawadiyah الجوادية 6,630 Al-Malikiyah District
Mabrouka مبروكة 6,325 Ras al-Ayn District
Al-Yaarubiyah اليعربية 6,066 Al-Malikiyah District
Tell Safouk تل صفوك 5,781 Al-Hasakah District
Tell Hamis تل حميس 5,161 Al-Qamishli District
Al-Tweinah التوينة 5,062 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Fadghami الفدغمي 5,062 Al-Hasakah District

Districts and sub-districts[edit]

The governorate has 4 districts (Mintaqa's). These are further divided into 16 sub-districts (nawahi):

Archaeology[edit]

The Khabur River, which flows through al-Hasakah for 440 kilometres (270 mi), witnessed the birth of the some of the earliest civilizations in the world. The most prominent archaeological sites are:

  • Hamoukar:considered by some archaeologists to be the oldest city in the world
  • Tell Halaf: Excavations have revealed successive civilization levels, Neolithic glazed pottery and beautiful basalt sculptures.
  • Tell Brak: Situated halfway between al-Hasakah city and the frontier town of al-Qamishli. Excavations in the tell have revealed the Uyun Temple and King Naram-Sin palace-stronghold.
  • Tell el Fakhariya
  • Tell Hittin: 15 layers of occupation have been identified.
  • Tell Leilan: Excavations began in 1975 and have revealed many artefacts and buildings dating back to the 6th millennium BC such as a bazaar, temple, palace, etc.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://cbssyr.org/yearbook/2011/Data-Chapter2/TAB-3-2-2011.htm
  2. ^ Al Monitor, Syria's Oil Crisis, 2013, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ru/originals/2013/02/syria-oil-crisis.html#
  3. ^ Fresh clashes break out in Damascus
  4. ^ Syria - Sunnis
  5. ^ National Association of Arab Youth, 2012. Arab East Centre, London, 2012. Study of the demographic composition of al-Hasakah Governorate (in Arabic). Accessed on 26 December 2014.
  6. ^ Hourani, Albert Habib (1947). Minorities in the Arab World. London: Oxford University Press. p. 76. 
  7. ^ Etienne, de Vaumas (1956). "La Djézireh". Annales de Géographie (in French) 65 (347): 64–80. Retrieved 2012-03-29. 
  8. ^ M. Proux, "Les Tcherkesses", La France méditerranéenne et africaine, IV, 1938
  9. ^ Fevret, Maurice; Gibert, André (1953). "La Djezireh syrienne et son réveil économique". Revue de géographie de Lyon (in French) (28): 1–15. Retrieved 2012-03-29. 
  10. ^ http://www.cbssyr.org/General%20census/census%202004/pop-man.pdf

External links[edit]

  • ehasakeh The First Complete website for Al-Hasakah news and services