Al Anbar Governorate
|Governor||Ahmed Khalaf Dheyabi|
|• Total||138,501 km2 (53,476 sq mi)|
|Population (July 2011 Estimate)|
|• Total||1,561,400 |
Al Anbar Governorate (Arabic: الأنبار; al-’Anbār) (or Anbar Province) is the largest governorate in Iraq geographically. Encompassing much of the country's western territory, it shares borders with Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. The provincial capital is Ramadi, and other important cities in the province include Fallujah and Haditha.
Before 1976 the governorate was known as Ramadi; before 1962, it was known as Dulaim. In 1976 it was renamed Al Anbar Province. Nearly all the inhabitants of the province are Sunni Muslims and mostly from the Dulaim tribe.
As of 2014, the majority of Al Anbar is occupied by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
The name of the governorate means "granaries" in Persian. The name of the Governorate is taken over by a city that was originally located on its territory and whose ruins can still be seen 5 km northwest of Fallujah today. This city of Anbār (originally Peruz Shapur) was founded in the 3rd century by Shapur I, and was before the Arab conquest in 634, the second largest city of Iraq. It was abandoned after the Mongol invasion in the 14th century.
Geographically, Anbar governorate is considered part of the Arabian Peninsula. The region's geography is a combination of steppe and true desert, characterised by a desert climate, low rainfall and a large variation in temperature between day and night. Summer temperatures rise to 42 degrees Celsius, whilst in the winter average lows reach 9 degrees Celsius. The northwesterly and southwesterly winds are sometimes to a maximum speed of 21 m / sec. Average rainfall in winter to 115mm.
The most important agricultural crops in Al-Anbar are wheat, potatoes, autumn, barley, maize and vegetables and fodder. There are also a large number of orchards and the province has 2.5 million palm trees. Agriculture depends on perfusion or through the rivers and the wells and the rains.
The Euphrates River flows diagonally from the north to the southeast, passing through six of the seven districts:
- Al-Qa'im District
- Anah District
- Haditha District
- Hīt District
- Ramadi District
- Fallujah District
- Ar Rutba District
- Governor: Ahmed Khalaf Dheyabi
- Deputy Governor: Fuad Jatab Hamad Khalaf al-Karbuli
- Deputy Governor: Hikmat Jassim Zaidon Khalaf al-Mohemdi
- Provincial Council Chairman (PCC): Dr. Jassim Mohammad Hamid Husayn al-Halbusi
- Caliph: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
In the 1920s, the governorate had 250,000 people from a total population in Iraq of 2 million. It is believed that the total population of Anbar was between 2 to 6 million people in the 1960s but there is no precise sources because Anbar was a dangerous area at that time and the majority of the residents lived on the banks of the Euphrates River outside cities and the towns, however there were between 1.9 million and 2.9 million inhabitants in the other districts of Al Anbar.
According to UN statistics in 2003 the population of Al Anbar is 1,230,169. There are no precise estimates of the population which include all of the cities and towns and villages in Anbar. According to a 2003 estimate by the NGO Coordination Committee in Iraq, the population was 1,230,140.
Anbar during the United States War in Iraq
The geographic challenge of the Anbar Governorate is demonstrated by two contrasting facts: While it is Iraq’s largest governorate, it also is its most sparsely populated. For a governorate that is approximately the size of Bangladesh, it is home to fewer than 1.8 million Iraqis. Most of the population lives in the major cities, like Ramadi and Fallujah, and almost everyone else lives within a short distance of the Euphrates River that snakes from Baghdad to the Syrian Border near Al Qa’im. Its strategic challenge was demonstrated, in part, by casualty statistics. During the first four years of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), the Anbar Province was the deadliest province for American service members, claiming approximately one-third of American fatalities.
In a country where most were associated with the Shi’ia branch of Islam, the Anbar Province was the Sunni stronghold that had long provided Saddam Hussein with the support he needed to remain in power. During the early years of Operation Iraqi Freedom, it provided an important base for Al Qaeda and insurgent operations. part of its significance came from the fact that the Western Euphrates River Valley served as an important infiltration route for foreign fighters headed to Iraq’s heartland. The New York Times compared this region to the Vietnam War’s Ho Chi Minh Trail, as foreign fighters and insurgents used the river valley to move in relative safety from the Syrian border to cities like Baghdad, Ramadi and Fallujah.
The contrast between the fertile Euphrates River Valley and the rest of the province is striking. Along the Euphrates, groves of fruits and vegetables and acre after acre of date palms are surrounded by a lushness that paints the area a vivid green. Just a few miles from the Euphrates, however, the barren landscape turns brown. With the exception of an occasional Bedouin, the desert is essentially empty. Whether traveling by aircraft, vehicle, or on foot, the Anbar Governorate is vast. During a time when mining roads became a strategy of choice for insurgents, the need to patrol and travel throughout the province became one of the Marine Corps’ greatest challenges. The threat of insurgent activity, when combined with the challenges that long-distance travel, choking dust, and stifling heat created, made the Anbar Province a difficult area of operation.
Cities and towns
- Al-Anbar governorate council election, 2005
- Abdul Sattar Buzaigh al-Rishawi
- Anbar Awakening
- First Battle of Fallujah
- Operation Phantom Fury
- Battle of Ramadi
- Battle of Haditha
- Parfit, Joseph T. (1920). Marvellous Mesopotamia, The world's wonderland. London: S. W. Partridge & co., ltd. p. 15.
- UN Data 2003
||Syria||Ninawa Governorate||Salah ad Din Governorate|
|Mafraq Governorate||Baghdad Governorate
|Northern Borders Province||Karbala Governorate