|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2009)|
|Member of the Australian Parliament
25 October 1969 – 18 May 1974
|Preceded by||Bill Armstrong|
|Succeeded by||John Sullivan|
12 July 1926|
|Died||23 April 2005(aged 78)|
|Political party||Australian Labor Party|
Albert Jaime Grassby, AM (12 July 1926 – 23 April 2005), Australian politician, was Minister for Immigration in the Whitlam Labor government. He initiated sweeping reforms in immigration, human rights, and is often known as the father of Australian "multiculturalism".
Early life and state politics
Born Albert Grassby in Brisbane, Queensland to parents of Spanish and Irish descent, Grassby changed his name to emphasise his Irish roots. After working as a journalist and a consultant on agricultural issues, in 1965 Grassby was elected as Member of the NSW Legislative Assembly for the electorate of Murrumbidgee representing the Australian Labor Party. Grassby served as Shadow Minister for Agriculture and Conservation between 1968 and 1969. His high profile and popularity in the local community encouraged him to enter federal politics.
Grassby won the rural electorate of Riverina for the Labor Party at the 1969 federal election. Labor had not won this seat for 24 years. Following Gough Whitlam's victory at the 1972 election, Grassby was appointed Minister for Immigration. In this role, Grassby became one of the more high profile members of the Whitlam ministry and was best known for ushering in multiculturalism in Australia and burying the White Australia policy. Grassby pushed for more immigration from non-English-speaking countries, "banned racially selected sporting teams from playing in Australia and repealed the law that required Indigenous Australians to seek permission before going overseas."
As the White Australia Policy had been formally revoked in 1973, Grassby's actions provoked disquiet among sections of the Australian community, including in his Riverina electorate and some of his ALP colleagues, who thought his reforms too radical for the period; but Grassby could point to his enormous popularity within multicultural Australia and the subsequent growth of support for the ALP from this section of the community as more than adequate recompense for any possible loss of support from white Australia.
In addition to his high profile crusade for multiculturalism, Grassby also gained wide attention for his flamboyant dress sense, his colourful ties and suits setting him apart from the unwritten dress code for politicians of sombre dark suits and plain ties.
Grassby's actions attracted criticism from anti-immigration groups, led by the Immigration Control Association, which targeted his electorate in a campaign at the May 1974 election. Partly as a result, Grassby was defeated by the National Party candidate, John Sullivan by just 792 votes. Grassby and his supporters accused these groups of mounting a racist smear campaign against him.
Commission for Community Relations
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Following his defeat, Grassby was appointed as the first federal Commissioner for Community Relations, administering the Racial Discrimination Act 1975, which he had championed while in parliament. While he continued to work towards a multicultural Australia, Grassby couldn't escape controversy. In one case, Grassby nominated for preselection for the safe federal Labor seat of Parramatta following encouragement from Gough Whitlam, who sought to return Grassby to the ministry. However, Grassby surprisingly lost the preselection ballot, because many rank-and-file Labor members objected to an outside candidate being foisted upon them.
In another case, he became entangled in one of the more sensational political cases of Australian history when he hired Junie Morosi to work at the Commission for Community Relations, which brought her into contact with a number of government ministers, including Deputy Prime Minister and Treasurer, Jim Cairns. Cairns appointed Morosi as his Principal Private Secretary, a job traditionally held by a senior public servant. The ensuing controversy surrounding the appointment led to the downfall of Cairns and, while Grassby was not guilty of any misconduct himself, he attracted criticism by his connection to the case.
Grassby published a number of books, including a biography of early Australian Prime Minister Chris Watson and various studies of multiculturalism in Australia.
In 1980 Grassby was charged with criminal defamation when it was alleged that he had asked a New South Wales state politician, Michael Maher, to read in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly a document that imputed that Barbara Mackay and her family solicitor were responsible for the disappearance (and probable murder) of her husband Donald Mackay, a prominent Riverina businessman who had been a Liberal candidate against Grassby in 1974. Maher, when asked why Grassby had made the request, replied that it was a matter of his own Sydney electorate's demographics: "I had the biggest concentration of Italians in Haberfield, Five Dock, Concord and Drummoyne. He [Grassby] thought I could play the Italian vote." Grassby maintained his innocence and fought a twelve-year battle in the courts before he was eventually acquitted on appeal in August 1992. He was awarded $180,000 in costs. Grassby had already lost a civil suit filed by Barbara Mackay, forcing him to unconditionally apologize.
Death and subsequent media reports
Al Grassby, who had been treated for cancer, died on 23 April 2005, two days after suffering a heart attack, after several months' pneumonia. He was survived by his wife Ellnor Grassby and his daughter Gabriella Davis, and his partner of 25 years, Angela Chan.
After Grassby's death, a number of revelations were made in the media, particularly in relation to his alleged links with the Calabrian Mafia (known as the 'Ndrangheta) in Griffith and to the events surrounding the disappearance and probable murder of Donald Mackay. Beginning on 9 May 2005, the Melbourne Herald Sun ran a series of articles alleging that Grassby used his influence to thwart a National Crime Authority investigation into the Mafia, and to "let mafia criminals into Australia", and that he was "paid to do the mafia's bidding", including receiving a $40,000 payment from the Griffith Mafia to smear Barbara Mackay.
Giafranco Tizzoni, a Mafia supergrass, identified Grassby as being at the "beck and call" of the Calabrian Mafia for at least 40 years and according to the National Crime Authority the Mafia funded Grassby's election campaigns. One of Al Grassby's closest associates was Toni Sergi, the man identified in court and in Parliament as the Mafia leader who ordered the execution of Donald Mackay.
A decision, in 2009, by the Australian Capital Territory's Labor Chief Minister Jon Stanhope to erect a statue of Al Grassby in Canberra has been the subject of some controversy. Grassby's various criminal connections were featured in the television crime drama Underbelly.
- "Whitlam government minister Al Grassby dies". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). 23 April 2005. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- Stephens, Tony (25 April 2005). "Grassby's legacy of tolerance, diversity". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- "Mr Albert Jaime Grassby (1926 - 2005)". Members of Parliament. Parliament of New South Wales. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- Weekly Hansard, 14 March 2007. Legislative Assembly for the ACT. Page 580. Debate: Theo Notaras Multicultural Centre—proposed statue of Mr Al Grassby. MR HARGREAVES (Brindabella—Minister for the Territory and Municipal Services, Minister for Housing and Minister for Multicultural Affairs)
- "Mackay report hits at police chief, Grassby". The Age. 2 December 1986. p. 1.
- Grassby v R, 168 (High Court of Australia 1989).
- Sheehan, Paul (16 February 2009). "Monuments to honesty and deceit". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Heinrichs, Paul (24 April 2005), Al Grassby, father of multiculturalism, dies, The Age (Fairfax Media), archived from the original on 20 January 2010, retrieved 2010-01-16
- Jenny Cooke (1 June 1988). "Prosection appeals over Grassby decisions". Sydney Morning Herald. p. 11. "Mr Williams - partly due to the lengthly delay in bringing the charge and the fact that Mrs Mackay already had won a civil suit with an unconditional apology from Mr Grassby - permanently stayed the criminal defamation."
- Kerry-Anne Walsh (8 May 2005). "Al Grassby's double life". The Sun-Herald. Archived from the original on 9 May 2005.
- "Mafia Influence and the Whitlam Government". National Observer (Winter, 2005 ed.). 2005.
- Grassby, A. J. (Albert Jaime), 1926-2005 search author database at the National Library of Australia
|Parliament of New South Wales|
|Member for Murrumbidgee
|Parliament of Australia|
|Member for Riverina
|Minister for Immigration