Al Jazeera effect
The Al Jazeera effect is a term used in political science and media studies to describe the impact of new media and media sources on global politics, namely, reducing the government and mainstream media monopoly on information, and empowering groups which previously lacked a global voice. The primary example is the one after which the effect is named - the impact of the Al Jazeera Media Network on the politics of the Arab world.
Origin and use
William Lafi Youmans attributes the first use of the term to Philip Seib, author of the 2008 book, The Al Jazeera Effect: How the New Global Media Are Reshaping World Politics. However, it had also been used beforehand as early as 2000 by Simon Henderson, who in turn attributes it to "diplomats in the region". As used by Henderson, it originally referred to Arab Middle East governments losing their monopoly on information because of the popularity and easy access to the Al Jazeera satellite broadcast media network, and it is still often used in such a limited context. Thomas L. McPhail used it to refer to the changes in all of the Arab media. Seib generalized it to other, Internet-powered new media worldwide.
Seib noted that the Al Jazeera effect can be seen as parallel to the CNN effect, which states that coverage of international events can force otherwise uninvolved governments to take action. Whereas the CNN effect is used in the context of mainstream, traditional media networks such as CNN, the Al Jazeera effect generalizes this to newer media such as citizen journalist blogs, internet radio, and satellite broadcasting. He also argues that new media strengthen the identity of, and give voice to, previously marginalized groups, which previously lacked their own media outlets; an example he uses is the Kurdish people. Many of the new media organizations are affiliated with such groups, social movements or similar organizations. New media weaken the monopoly of many states on information, as even extensive Internet censorship in countries such as China is not wholly effective. He concludes that the new media, while not beyond being abused, are largely contributing to democratization and political reform worldwide. William Lafi Youmans notes that Seib's prediction that the Al Jazeera effect will lead to changes in the politics of the Middle East was realized during the Arab Spring in the early 2010s, with new media provoking widespread debate and unrest within the region.
- William Lafi Youmans, Al Jazeera Effect, in Encyclopedia of Social Media and Politics, Harvey Kerric and Golson J. Jeffrey (eds.), CQ Press/SAGE Reference, 2013 (forthcoming)
- "The ‘al-Jazeera Effect’: - The Washington Institute for Near East Policy". Washingtoninstitute.org. 2000-12-08. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- Houman A. Sadri; Madelyn Flammia (3 March 2011). Intercultural Communication: A New Approach to International Relations and Global Challenges. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 229. ISBN 978-1-4411-0309-3. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Thomas L. McPhail (16 March 2010). Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends. John Wiley & Sons. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-4443-3030-4. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Megan E. Zingarelli (May 2012). The Cnn Effect and the Al Jazeera Effect in Global Politics and Society. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-1-248-97482-7. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Michael C. Hudson (2005). "Washington vs Al Jazeera: Competing Constructions of Middle East Realities". In Walter Armbrust; Lindsay Wise. Culture Wars: The Arabic Music Video Controversy. American Univ in Cairo Press. pp. 120–142. ISBN 978-977-424-962-4. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Megan E. Zingarelli, THE CNN EFFECT AND THE AL JAZEERA EFFECT, Master Thesis
- Sherry Ricchiardi, The Al Jazeera Effect, American Journalism Review, March & April 2011
- Hugh Miles, The Al Jazeera Effect, Foreign Policy, Feb 8, 2011
- Walied Khogali and Anita Krajnc, Effect' Counters 'CNN Effect': Canadians Deserve Al Jazeera, Toward Freedom, 5 June 2009