Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi

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Not to be confused with Syed Ahmad Barelvi.
Islamic scholars
Ahmed Raza Khan
Title Ala Hazrat
Born 14 June 1856[1]
Died 1921 (aged 64–65)
Ethnicity Indian
Era Modern era
Region South Asia
Jurisprudence Hanafi
Creed Sunni
Main interest(s) Aqeedah, Fiqh, Tasawwuf

Barelvi movement

Sunni Barelvis consider Dargah Ajmer Shareef as their prime center of Islam in South Asia
Central figures

Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi
Mustafa Raza Khan
Hamid Raza Khan

Organizations

Jamaat Ahle Sunnat, Pakistan
Sunni Tehreek, Pakistan
Sunni Ittehad Council, Pakistan
Dawat-e-Islami, International
Sunni Dawat-e-Islami, International

Institutions

Al Jamiatul Ashrafia · Manzar-e-Islam
Al-Jame-atul-Islamia · Jamiatur Raza

Notable Scholars

Ameen Mian Qaudri, India
Sarfraz Ahmed Naeemi, Pakistan
Muhammad Ilyas Qadri, Pakistan
Akhtar Raza, India
Qamaruzzaman Azmi, United Kingdom
Muhammad Muslehuddin Siddiqui, Pakistan
Arshadul Qaudri, India

Literature

Kanzul Iman, translation of the Qur'an

Imam Ahmed Raza (Riza/Rida) Khan Fazil-e-Barelvi (Urdu: احمد رضاخان‎, Hindi: अहमद रज़ा खान, 1856 –1921 CE or 10/10/1272__25/02/1340 AH, born & died Bareilly, UP), popularly known as Aala Hazrat, was a Hanafi Sunni, the leader of the Sunni Muslims and founded the Barelvi movement of South Asia.[2][3][4] He is well known for his love for the Prophet Muhammad.He became the 14th Mujaddid ,the reviewer of Islam of 14th Hijri.


He wrote on numerous topics, including law, religion, philosophy and the sciences. He was a prolific writer, producing nearly 1,000 works in his lifetime.[3]

Early life and Notable works[edit]

His father was Naqi Ali Khan, his grand father was Raza Ali Khan and his great-grandfather Shah Kazim Ali Khan[5] was a noted Sunni scholar.[6]

Ahmed Raza khan was born on 14 June 1856 at the time of Zuhr in Jasuli, one of the areas of Bareilly Sharif, united India. His birth name is Mohammad however his grandfather called him Ahmad Raza and his mother named him Amman Miyān. He became famous with the name which was kept by his grandfather[7] Khan used the appellation "Abdul Mustafa" (slave [or servant] of Mustafa) prior to signing his name in correspondence.[8] He studied Islamic sciences and completed a traditional Dars-i-Nizami course under the supervision of his father Naqī Áli Khān, who was a legal scholar.He had two brothers , two sisters , two sons , five daughters , three grandsons , ten grand daughters and three paternal aunties.

At the age of 8, he wrote a book in Arabic language. He became Mufti at the age of 13 years 10 months 5 days and issued his first Fatwa.His one of the most famous work include writing Mustafa Jaan-E-Rehmat Pe Lakho Salaam which is considered to be recited most in the world after Azan. He went on the Hajj with his father in 1878.He translated the Quran in Urdu language in the year 1911 named Kanzul Imaan, which is considered to be the best translation of Quran in urdu language.His other work also includes Fatawa E Razaviyya concluding in 12 volumes.

Beliefs[edit]

Ahmed Raza Khan's beliefs regarding Muhammad include:

  • Muhammad, although human, possessed a noor (light) that predates creation.[9] This contrasts with the Deobandi view that Muhammad was insan-e-kamil ("the complete man"), a respected but physically typical human.[10][11]
  • He is haazir naazir (can be present in many places at the same time, as opposed to God, who is everywhere by definition).[12]
  • God has granted him ilm-e-ghaib (the knowledge of the unseen).

Raza Khan wrote:

We do not hold that anyone can equal the knowledge of Allah Most High, or possess it independently, nor do we assert that Allah’s giving of knowledge to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is anything but a part. But what a patent and tremendous difference between one part [the Prophet’s] and another [anyone else’s]: like the difference between the sky and the earth, or rather even greater and more immense.

—Ahmed Raza Khan, al-Dawla al-Makkiyya (c00), 291.

Opposition to other sects[edit]

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed to be the Mahdi (Promised Messiah) awaited by the Muslims as well as by Chirstians and other religions and was a prophet within the folds of Islam . These claims proved to be extremely controversial among many in the Muslim community, and he was branded a heretic and apostate by many religious scholars of the time, including Ahmed Raza Khan. Ghulam Ahmad's claims are controversial to this day, but his Mahdi status and prophethood is believed in by the Ahmadiyya sect. Though, Pakistan in 1974, have officially declared the Ahmadiyya sect non-Muslims.[13]

When Ahmed Raza visited Mecca and Medina for pilgrimage in 1905, he prepared a draft document entitled Al Motamad Al Mustanad ("The Reliable Proofs") for presentation to the scholars of Mecca and Medina. Ahmed Raza Khan collected opinions of the ulama of the Hejaz and compiled them in an Arabic language compendium with the title, Husam al Harmain ("The Sword of Two Sanctuaries"), a work containing 34 verdicts from 33 ulama (20 Meccan and 13 Medinese). In that work, which was to inspire a reciprocal series of fatwas between Barelvis and Deobandis lasting to the present, Ahmad Raza denounced as kuffirs the Deobandi leaders Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, and Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi.[14]

Opposition to heterodox practices[edit]

Raza Khan condemned many practices he saw as bid'at (forbidden innovations), such as:

  • Qawali (religious music) and Sufi whirling, which he opposed as un-Islamic. Khan issued a fatwa in which he quoted the sayings of the Chisti Sufi order demonstrating their view that musical instruments are forbidden in Islam.[15]
  • Tawaf (ceremonially walking in circles around a holy site ) of tombs.[16]
  • Sajda (prostration) on Shrines and Tombs to those other than God[17][18]
  • Ta'zieh, plays re-enacting religious scenes[17]
  • Women going to visit mazaar (tombs)[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hayat-e-Aala Hadhrat, vol.1 p.1
  2. ^ .See:
  3. ^ a b Usha Sanyal (1998). "Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century". Modern Asian Studies 32 (3): 635. doi:10.1017/S0026749X98003059. 
  4. ^ Ali Riaz (2008) Faithful Education: Madrassahs in South Asia, p. 75. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, ISBN 9780813543451
  5. ^ Usha Sanyal (1996). Devotional Islam and politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and his movement, 1870–1920. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-19-563699-4. 
  6. ^ Malfuzaat e A'ala Hadrat. Dawateislami.net (2009-11-08). Retrieved on 2012-06-01.
  7. ^ Ala Hadhrat by Bastawi, p. 25
  8. ^ Man huwa Ahmed Rida by Shaja'at Ali al-Qadri, p.15
  9. ^ Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish. 1 September 2010. pp. 145–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved 4 May 2011. 
  10. ^ Pakistan perspectives, Volume 7. Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi, 2002
  11. ^ Akbar S. Ahmed (1999) Islam today: a short introduction to the Muslim world. I.B. Tauris Publishers, ISBN 978-1-86064-257-9
  12. ^ N. C. Asthana & A.Nirmal (2009) Urban Terrorism : Myths And Realities. Publisher Pointer Publishers, ISBN 978-81-7132-598-6, p. 67
  13. ^ Zahid Aziz, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam (2008) A survey of the Lahore Ahmadiyya movement: history, beliefs, aims and work. A.a.i.i.l. (u.k.), ISBN 978-1-906109-03-5. p. 43
  14. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=6w7JVOlDIokC&pg=PA282&dq=Khan++deobandi+husam&hl=en&sa=X&ei=h3LgUb-DDaj84AOOq4G4Ag&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Khan%20%20deobandi%20husam&f=false
  15. ^ Ahkame Shariat part 1 pp. 33–34 Fatwa No 18
  16. ^ Ahkame Shariat part 3 pp. 2–3
  17. ^ a b Ahkame Shariat part 1
  18. ^ Qanoon-e-Shariat Part1
  19. ^ Fatwa-e-Razwia

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]