Alabama's 7th congressional district
|Alabama's 7th congressional district|
|Current Representative||Terri Sewell (D–Birmingham)|
|Distribution||72.2% urban, 27.8% rural|
|Ethnicity||35.5% White, 61.7% Black, 0.6% Asian, 1.3% Hispanic, 0.2% Native American, 0.7% other|
|Occupation||28.6% blue collar, 53.4% white collar, 18% gray collar|
Alabama's 7th congressional district is a United States congressional district in Alabama that elects a representative to the United States House of Representatives. The district encompasses Choctaw, Dallas, Greene, Hale, Lowndes, Marengo, Pickens, Perry, Sumter and Wilcox counties, and portions of Clarke, Jefferson, Montgomery and Tuscaloosa counties. The district encompasses portions of the Birmingham, Montgomery and Tuscaloosa/Northport urban areas. The largest city entirely within the district is Selma.
Alabama's 7th Congressional District was first created in 1843 and has existed since then with the exception of the years 1867-1873. The area this district has represented in the state has changed over time, depending upon the number of U.S. Representatives apportioned to Alabama. Around the turn of the 20th Century, the district included the city of Gadsden. Over time, this shifted to cover the area around Tuscaloosa. The last two representative for the district before its reconfiguration into majority-minority — Richard Shelby (now Alabama's senior senator) and Claude Harris — were Tuscaloosa residents.
The current shape of the district was largely formed in 1992 when it was reconstituted as a majority-minority district under provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 as amended in 1982 to include greater representation for minorities in Congress. Half of the western Alabama portion of the district was moved to the 4th district, and a large portion of Tuscaloosa County was moved into the 6th district, which had primarily been based around Birmingham. To counter the loss in population and to create the minority majority, many counties from the Black Belt region, a rural expanse in Alabama and former home to the state's once-flourishing cotton plantations, were added to the district, as was as an arm extending from Tuscaloosa roughly along the Interstate Highway 20/59 corridor into Jefferson County all the way to inner city Birmingham. This resulted in two districts that were centered around Birmingham in terms of population (the 6th and the 7th), effectively disenfranchising Tuscaloosa from congressional representation. The three representatives elected from the district following reconfiguration — Earl F. Hilliard, Artur Davis and Terri Sewell — have been from Birmingham.
Mostly minor changes in the following two redistrictings have left the district in fairly the same shape, with the major exception being the addition of western portions of Montgomery County, including large swaths of inner-city Montgomery in the redistricting following the 2010 census. Presently, the district contains heavily urban areas in Birmingham, Montgomery and Tuscaloosa and ten of the fourteen counties in the Black Belt. Three of the state's largest colleges are located in the district: Alabama State University in Montgomery, the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Due to the minority representation in this district, a majority of the voters identify with the Democratic Party.
|Election results from statewide races|
|2012||President||Obama 72 - 27%|
|2008||President||Obama 72 - 27%|
|2004||President||Kerry 64 - 35%|
|2000||President||Gore 66 - 33%|
List of representatives
|District created March 4, 1843|
|28th-29th||Felix G. McConnell||Democratic||March 4, 1843 - September 10, 1846||Died|
|29th-31st||Franklin W. Bowdon||December 7, 1846 - March 3, 1851|
|32nd||Alexander White||Whig||March 4, 1851 - March 3, 1853|
|33rd||James F. Dowdell||Democratic||March 4, 1853 - March 3, 1855||Redistricted to the 3rd district|
|34th||Sampson W. Harris||March 4, 1855 - March 3, 1857||Redistricted from the 3rd district|
|35th-36th||Jabez L. M. Curry||March 4, 1857 - January 21, 1861||Withdrew|
|District eliminated in 1863|
|District re-established in 1877|
|44th-52nd||William H. Forney||Democratic||March 4, 1877 - March 4, 1893||Redistricted from the At-large district|
|53rd||William H. Denson||March 4, 1893 - March 3, 1895|
|54th-55th||Milford W. Howard||Populist||March 4, 1895 - March 3, 1899|
|56th-66th||John L. Burnett||Democratic||March 4, 1899 - May 13, 1919||Died|
|66th-67th||Lilius Bratton Rainey||September 30, 1919 - March 3, 1923|
|68th-72nd||Miles C. Allgood||March 4, 1923 - March 3, 1933||Redistricted to the 5th district|
|73rd-76th||William B. Bankhead||March 4, 1933 - September 15, 1940||Redistricted from the 10th district, Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1936–1940, Died|
|76th||Zadoc L. Weatherford||November 5, 1940 - January 3, 1941|
|77th||Walter W. Bankhead||January 3, 1941 - February 1, 1941||Resigned|
|77th-80th||Carter Manasco||June 24, 1941 - January 3, 1949|
|81st-87th||Carl Elliott||January 3, 1949 - January 3, 1963||Redistricted to the At-large district|
|88th||January 3, 1963 - January 3, 1965||District inactive, all representatives elected At-large on a general ticket|
|89th||James D. Martin||Republican||January 3, 1965 - January 3, 1967|
|90th-92nd||Tom Bevill||Democratic||January 3, 1967 - January 3, 1973||Redistricted to the 4th district|
|93rd-95th||Walter Flowers||January 3, 1973 - January 3, 1979||Redistricted from the 5th district|
|96th-99th||Richard C. Shelby||January 3, 1979 - January 3, 1987|
|100th-102nd||Claude Harris, Jr.||January 3, 1987 - January 3, 1993|
|103rd-107th||Earl F. Hilliard||January 3, 1993 - January 3, 2003|
|108th-111th||Artur Davis||January 3, 2003–January 3, 2011|
|112th-113th||Terri Sewell||January 3, 2011–Present|
- "Partisan Voting Index Districts of the 113th Congress: 2004 & 2008". The Cook Political Report. 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- Pear, Robert (August 3, 1992). "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Congressional Districts; Redistricting Expected to Bring Surge in Minority Lawmakers". The New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present