Alamut Geographic Region (Persian: الموت; Alamūt) is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north. Starting from Qazvin toward Alamut, passing through the first range of hills, curvatures, forms, scars, wrinkles are significant themes in nature's composition of this area. Two big citadels of Ismailis, Lambsar and Alamut castles, are in this area. Hassan-i Sabbah and his Hashshashin controlled the area for many years.
In 1090 A.D, Hassan Sabbah, the leader of Ismailites in Iran, chose the Alamut region, as his headquarters to campaign, preach and convert new followers. This proved to be a turning point for destiny of Alamut Valley. The result of over two centuries Ismailite stronghold, the region witnessed innumerous castles throughout, of which at least 20 “castles“ dating back to this era have been identified. The most magnificent castle in the Alamut Valley is the Alamut Castle, which is built on top of a high rock reaching 2163 m above sea level near the Gazor Khan Village. The rock is 200 m high and covers an area of 20 hectares (49 acres); with its steep slope and deep and dangerous ravine, the rock is practically inaccessible and forms a part of the fort’s structure. Currently only ruins of the fort and some towers are apparent and it is only through archaeological excavation the main portions can be discovered.
Lords of Alamut Castle who ruled the Nizārī Ismā'īlī state from Alamūt
|The President of Nizārī Ismā'īlī state||Period||Master of Alamūt|
|The First Da'i Hasan bin Sabbah||1090-1124||1. Effendi/Lord|
|The Second Da'i Kiya Buzurg-Ummid||1124-1138||2. Effendi/Lord|
|The Third Da'i Muhammad bin Kiya Buzrug||1138-1162||3. Effendi/Lord|
|23rd Imām Hasan ‘Alā Dhīkr‘īhī’s-Salām||1162-1166||4. Effendi/Lord|
|24th Imām Nūr al-Dīn Muhammad||1166-1210||5. Effendi/Lord|
|25th Imām Jalāl al-Dīn Hasan||1210-1221||6. Effendi/Lord|
|26th Imām ‘Alā al-Dīn Muhammad||1221-1255||7. Effendi/Lord|
|27th Imām Rukn al-Din Khurshah||1255-1256||The Last Master|
The valley of Alamut is situated in the northeast of Qazvin province. The region is an enclave in the form of a U-shaped valley in the central Alborz chains and opening up to the fertile Qazvin plains. The mountains of Alamut were ideal for construction of castles. The natural heights contains a section of the defensive structure of the castles.
The only access before 2010 was from Qazvin, which connects to the region via two roads. One road starts from north of the city to West Alamut, and the other starts on the eastern part of the city and leads north to East Alamut. But in recent years the new road is opened from Tonkabon (Shahsavar) to east Alamut (Balan, Yoj, Maran, Piche Bon, Garmaroud Sina) and accessed new connection between Qazvin and Mazandaran. The distance between Tonkabon to Garmaroud Sina is 85 KM and it takes 2:30 hours.
Having ample rivers, the Alamut valley has released inhabitants from worries about shortage in provided water. The heavy seasonal rainfalls, and adequate snowfall in winter replenish the origins of abundant water resources. Innumerable large and small lakes such as Ovan and Alebon are counted as the region's water resources. Countless rivulets flow in the Alamut Valley, joining up to finally reach Sefīd-Rūd and end up in the Caspian Sea.
- Hassan-i Sabbah
- Kia Bozorg Omid
- Muhammad bin Kiya Buzrug Ummid
- El-Hâdî bin el-Nizâr
- El-Môhtadî bin el-Hâdî
- El-Kahir bin el-Môhtadî bi-Kuvvet’ûl-Lâh / bi-Ahkâmî’l-Lâh
- Hasan Alâ Zikrihi’s Selâm
- Nūr al-din Muhammad II
- Jalaluddin Hasan
- ‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad III
- Ruknu-d-Dīn Khurshāh (The last ruler of the Alamut Castle)
- Ovan Lake
- Alamut River
- Alamut Castle
- Lambsar Castle
- Rudkhan Castle
- List of Ismaili castles
- Alamut-e Gharbi District
- Alamut-e Sharqi District
- Alamut-e Bala Rural District
- Alamut-e Pain Rural District
- (Turkish) Kıyâmet-i Kûbrâ
- Alamut (1938 novel), novel written by Vladimir Bartol in 1938
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