Alaouite dynasty

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This article is about the current Moroccan royal family. For the former ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, see Muhammad Ali dynasty.
Alaouite Dynasty
Royal standard of Morocco.svg
Country Morocco
Founded 1631
Founder Moulay Ali Cherif
Current head Mohammed VI

The Alaouite dynasty (Arabic: سلالة العلويين الفيلاليين‎, Sulālat al-ʿAlawiyyīn al-Fīlālīyn) is the current Moroccan royal family. The name Alaouite comes from the ‘Alī of its founder Moulay Ali Cherif who became Prince of Tafilalt in 1631. His son Mulay Al-Rashid (1664–1672) was able to unite and pacify the country. The Alaouite family claim descent from Muhammad through his daughter Fāṭimah az-Zahrah and her husband ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib.

Conquest[edit]

According to tradition, the Alaouites entered Morocco at the end of the 13th century when Al Hassan Addakhil, who lived then in the town of Yanbu in the Hejaz, was brought to Morocco by the inhabitants of Tafilalet to be their imām. They were hoping that, as he was a descendant of Muhammad, his presence would help to improve their date palm crops thanks to his barakah "blessing", an Arabic term meaning a sense of divine presence or charisma. His descendants began to increase their power in southern Morocco after the death of the Saʻdī ruler Ahmad al-Mansur (1578–1603). In 1669, the last Saʻdī sultan was overthrown in the conquest of Marrakesh by Mulay r-Rshid (1664–1672). After the victory over the zāwiya of Dila, who controlled northern Morocco, he was able to unite and pacify the country.

The organization of the sultanate developed under Ismail Ibn Sharif (1672–1727), who, against the opposition of local tribes began to create a unified state. Because the Alaouites had difficult relations with many of the country's Berber and Bedouin-Arab tribes, Isma'īl formed a new army of black slaves, the Black Guard. However, the unity of Morocco did not survive his death—in the ensuing power struggles the tribes became a political and military force once again.

Only with Muhammad III (1757–1790) could the kingdom be pacified again and the administration reorganized. A renewed attempt at centralization was abandoned and the tribes allowed to preserve their autonomy. Under Abderrahmane (1822–1859) Morocco fell under the influence of the European powers. When Morocco supported the Algerian independence movement of the Emir Abd al-Qadir, it was heavily defeated by the French in 1844 at the Battle of Isly and made to abandon its support.

From Muhammad IV (1859–1873) and Hassan I (1873–1894) the Alaouites tried to foster trading links, above all with European countries and the United States. The army and administration were also modernised, to improve control over the Berber and Bedouin tribes. With the war against Spain (1859–1860) came direct involvement in European affairs—although the independence of Morocco was guaranteed in the Conference of Madrid (1880), the French gained ever greater influence. German attempts to counter this growing influence led to the First Moroccan Crisis of 1905-1906 and the Second Moroccan Crisis (1911). Eventually the Moroccans were forced to recognise the French Protectorate through the Treaty of Fez, signed on December 3, 1912. At the same time the Rif area of northern Morocco submitted to Spain.

Under the protectorate (1912–1956), the infrastructure was invested in heavily in order to link the cities of the Atlantic coast to the hinterland, thus creating a single economic area for Morocco. However the regime faced the opposition of the tribes—when the Berbers were required to come under the jurisdiction of French courts in 1930 it marked the beginning of the independence movement. In 1944, the independence party Istiqlāl was founded, supported by the Sultan Muhammad V (1927–1961). France was obliged to grant Morocco independence on March 2, 1956, leaving behind both a legacy of urbanization and industrial economy in some cities, and destruction and isolation in the areas that hosted the Berber resistance against France and Spain between 1912 and 1933.

List of Alaouite rulers[edit]

From 1631 to 1666 as princes of Tafilalt.

Sultan Mulay al-Rashid bin Sharif, 1st Alaouite Sultan of Morocco, etc., b. at Sijilmasa (Rissani), Tafilalt, 1631, second son of Prince Moulay Ali Cherif of Tafilalt, educ. privately. Proclaimed at Toza, on the death of his elder half-brother as Sultan of Tafilalt, 2 August 1664. Proclaimed as Sultan of Morocco, etc. at Fez, 1666.

Under French Protectorate (1912–1956):

Restored Independence (1956 onwards):

Timeline[edit]

Mohammed VI of Morocco Hassan II of Morocco Mohammed V of Morocco Mohammed Ben Aarafa Mohammed V of Morocco Yusef of Morocco French-Spanish Protectorate Abdelhafid of Morocco Abdelaziz of Morocco Hassan I of Morocco Mohammed IV of Morocco Abderrahmane of Morocco Slimane of Morocco Yazid of Morocco Mohammed ben Abdallah Abdallah of Morocco al-Mostadi of Morocco Abdallah of Morocco al-Mostadi of Morocco Abdallah of Morocco Zin al-Abidin of Morocco Abdallah of Morocco al-Mostadi of Morocco Muhammad II ben Arbia of Morocco Abdallah of Morocco Ali of Morocco Abdallah of Morocco Abu'l Abbas Ahmad II of Morocco Abdalmalik of Morocco Abu'l Abbas Ahmad II of Morocco Alaouite Succession Crisis Ismail Ibn Sharif al-Rashid of Morocco Muhammad ibn Sharif Moulay Ali Cherif Kings of Morocco Sultans of Morocco Tafilalt

Family tree[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MonarchMoulay Ali Cherif
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MonarchMohammed I
 
MonarchIsmail
 
MonarchRachid
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MonarchAhmad
 
MonarchAbdul Malek
 
MonarchAbdallah II
 
MonarchMohammed II
 
MonarchAli
 
MonarchAl-Mustadi'
 
MonarchZin al-Abidin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MonarchMohammed III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MonarchAl-Yazid
 
MonarchHisham
 
MonarchSulayman
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MonarchAbd al-Rahman
ibn Hicham
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MonarchMohammed IV
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MonarchHassan I
 
 
 
 
 
Aarafa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MonarchAbd al-Aziz
 
MonarchAbd al-Hafid
 
MonarchYoussef
 
Tahar
 
MonarchMohammed
Ben Aarafa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MonarchMohammed V
3° spouse
Lalla Bahia
 
1° spouse
Lalla Abla bint Tahar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lalla
Fatima Zahra
 
Lalla
Amina
 
MonarchHassan II
2° spouse
Lalla Latifa Hammou
 
Lalla
Malika
 
Lalla
Nuzha
 
Lalla
Aicha
 
Abdellah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lalla
Meryem
 
Lalla
Asma
 
MonarchMohammed VI
spouse
Lalla Salma
 
Lalla
Hasna
 
Rachid
 
Hicham
 
Ismail
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crown Prince
Hassan

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


Royal house
House of Alaoui
Preceded by
Saadi Dynasty
Ruling house of Morocco
1666 – present
Incumbent