Alaska Native Regional Corporations

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The Alaska Native Regional Corporations (Alaska Native Corporations or ANCSA Corporations) were established in 1971 when the United States Congress passed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) which settled land and financial claims made by the Alaska Natives and provided for the establishment of 13 regional corporations to administer those claims.[1][2]

Associations, regional and village corporations[edit]

Under ANCSA the state was originally divided into twelve regions, each represented by a "Native association" responsible for the enrollment of past and present residents of the region. Individual Alaska Natives enrolled in these associations, and their village level equivalents, were made shareholder in the Regional and Village Corporations created by the Act. The twelve for-profit regional corporations, and a thirteenth region representing those Alaska Natives who were no longer residents of Alaska in 1971, were awarded the monetary and property compensation created by ANCSA. Village corporations and their shareholders received compensation through the regional corporations. The fact that many ostensibly Alaska Native villages throughout the state were not empowered by the ANCSA to form village corporations later led to a number of lawsuits.

The regional and village corporations are now owned by Alaska Native people through privately owned shares of corporation stock. Alaska Natives alive at ANCSA's enactment on December 17, 1971, who enrolled in a Native association (at the regional and/or village level) received 100 shares of stock in the respective corporation. In 2006, the 109th Congress passed S.449 which amended ANCSA, and allowed for shares to be more easily issued to those who had missed the enrollment, or were born after the enrollment period[3] by reducing the requirement for voting from a majority of shareholders to a majority of attending shareholders at corporation meetings.[4]

During the 1970s, ANCSA regional and village corporations selected land in and around native villages in the state in proportion to their enrolled populations. Village corporations own the surface rights to the lands they selected, but regional corporations own the subsurface rights of both their own selections and of those of the village corporations.

Text of the Act[edit]

The Act lays out the specifics of the corporations' status. Here is an excerpt of the relevant portion:[5]

43 U.S.C. § 1606
(a) Division of Alaska into twelve geographic regions; common heritage and common interest of region; area of region commensurate with operations of Native association; boundary disputes, arbitration. For purposes of this chapter, the State of Alaska shall be divided by the Secretary within one year after December 18, 1971, into twelve geographic regions, with each region composed as far as practicable of Natives having a common heritage and sharing common interests. In the absence of good cause shown to the contrary, such regions shall approximate the areas covered by the operations of the following existing Native associations:
(1) Arctic Slope Native Association (Barrow, Point Hope, Point Lay, Wainwright, Atqasuk, Nuiqsut, Kaktovik, Anaktuvuk Pass);
(2) Bering Straits Association (Seward Peninsula, Unalakleet, Saint Lawrence Island);
(3) Northwest Alaska Native Association (Kotzebue);
(4) Association of Village Council Presidents (southwest coast, all villages in the Bethel area, including all villages on the Lower Yukon River and the Lower Kuskokwim River);
(5) Tanana Chiefs' Conference (Koyukuk, Middle and Upper Yukon Rivers, Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana River);
(6) Cook Inlet Association (Kenai, Tyonek, Eklutna, Iliamna);
(7) Bristol Bay Native Association (Dillingham, Upper Alaska Peninsula);
(8) Aleut League (Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands and that part of the Alaska Peninsula which is in the Aleut League);
(9) Chugach Native Association (Cordova, Tatitlek, Port Graham, English Bay, Valdez, and Seward);
(10) Tlingit-Haida Central Council (southeastern Alaska, including Metlakatla);
(11) Kodiak Area Native Association (all villages on and around Kodiak Island); and
(12) Copper River Native Association (Copper Center, Glennallen, Chitina, Mentasta).
[...]
(c) Establishment of thirteenth region for nonresident Natives; majority vote; Regional Corporation for thirteenth region. [...]
(d) Incorporation; business for profit; eligibility for benefits; provisions in articles for carrying out chapter. Five incorporators within each region, named by the Native association in the region, shall incorporate under the laws of Alaska a Regional Corporation to conduct business for profit, which shall be eligible for the benefits of this chapter so long as it is organized and functions in accordance with this chapter. The articles of incorporation shall include provisions necessary to carry out the terms of this chapter.
Regional corporations established by the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.

The thirteen regional corporations created under ANCSA are:

#
Abbreviation
ANCSA
Native
Association
Alaska
Native
Regional
Corporation
ANCSA
Villages
1 ASRC Arctic Slope Native Association Arctic Slope Regional Corporation Barrow, Point Hope, Point Lay, Wainwright, Atqasuk, Nuiqsut, Kaktovik, Anaktuvuk Pass
2 BSNC Bering Straits Association Bering Straits Native Corporation Seward Peninsula, Unalakleet
3 NANA Northwest Alaska Native Association NANA Regional Corporation Kotzebue
4 Association of Village Council Presidents Calista Corporation southwest coast, all villages in the Bethel area, including all villages on the Lower Yukon River and the Lower Kuskokwim River
5 DOYON Tanana Chiefs' Conference Doyon, Limited Koyukuk, Middle and Upper Yukon Rivers, Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana River
6 CIRI Cook Inlet Association Cook Inlet Region, Inc. Kenai, Tyonek, Eklutna, Iliamna
7 BBNC Bristol Bay Native Association Bristol Bay Native Corporation Dillingham, Upper Alaska Peninsula
8 TAC Aleut League The Aleut Corporation Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands and that part of the Alaska Peninsula which is in the Aleut League
9 CAC Chugach Native Association Chugach Alaska Corporation Cordova, Tatitlek, Port Graham, English Bay, Valdez, and Seward
10 SEAC Tinglit-Haida Central Council Sealaska Corporation southeastern Alaska, including Metlakatla
11 Kodiak Area Native Association Koniag, Incorporated (all villages on and around Kodiak Island)
12 AHTNA Copper River Native Association Ahtna, Incorporated Copper Center, Glennallen, Chitina, Mentasta
13 Regional Corporation for thirteenth region The 13th Regional Corporation non-resident Alaska Native

Alaska Native Village Corporations[edit]

There are over 200 Alaska Native Village Corporations

Native Village Corporation Name Community Name Alaska Native Regional Corporation Website
Afognak Native Corporation Afognak Koniag, Incorporated http://www.afognak.com/
Afognak Native Corporation Port Lions Koniag, Incorporated http://www.afognak.com/
Akhiok-Kaguyak, Inc. Akhiok Koniag, Incorporated http://aki-kodiak.com/
Akhiok-Kaguyak, Inc. Kaguyak Koniag, Incorporated http://aki-kodiak.com/
Akiachak Limited Akiachak Calista Corporation
Akuliuk Inc. Selawik NANA Regional Corporation
Akutan Corporation Akutan Aleut Corporation
Alakanuk Corporation Alakanuk Calista Corporation Native Corporation) Port Heiden, South Naknek, Kokhanok, Ugashik, and Newhalen, Alaska
Bristol Bay Native Corporation www.alaskapeninsulacorp.com facebook.com/alaskapeninsulacorporation
Aleknagik Natives Limited Aleknagik Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Alexander Creek Inc. Alexander Creek Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Anton Larsen Inc. Anton Larsen Bay Koniag, Incorporated
Arvig Inc. Platinum Calista Corporation
Askinuk Corporation Scammon Bay Calista Corporation
Atkasook Corporation Atkasook Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Atmauthluak Limited Atmautluak Calista Corporation
Atxam Corporation Atka Aleut Corporation
Ayakulik Inc. Ayakulik Koniag, Incorporated
Azachorok Inc. Mt. Village Calista Corporation
Baan-o-yeel kon Corporation Rampart Doyon, Limited
Bay View Inc. Ivanof Bay Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Bean Ridge Corporation Manley Hot Springs Doyon, Limited
Beaver Kwit'Chin Corporation Beaver Doyon, Limited
Becharof Corporation Egegik Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Belkofski Corporation Belkofski Aleut Corporation
Bells Flats Native Group Inc. Bells Flats Koniag, Incorporated
Bethel Native Corporation Bethel Calista Corporation http://www.bnc-alaska.com
Brevig Mission Native Corporation Brevig Mission Bering Straits Native Corp.
Buckland Nunachiak Corporation Buckland NANA Regional Corporation
Cape Fox Corporation Saxman Sealaska Corporation http://capefoxcorp.com
Caswell Native Assoc. Inc. Caswell Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Chalkyitsik Native Corporation Chalkyitsik Doyon, Limited
Chaluka Corporation Nikolski Aleut Corporation
Chefarnrmute Inc. Chefornakes Slough Calista Corporation
Chenega Corporation Chenega Chugach Alaska Corporation http://www.chenega.com/
Chevak Co Chevak Calista Corporation
Chigik River Limited Chignik Lake Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Chignik Lagoon Native Corporation Chignik Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Chilkaloon Moose Creek Native Assoc. Chickaloon Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Chitina Native Corporation Chitina Ahtna, Incorporated
Choggiung Limited Dillingham Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Chugach Natives Inc. Icy Bay Chugach Alaska Corporation
Chuloonawick Corporation Chuloonawik Calista Corporation
Corporationoration Name Community Name Koniag, Incorporated
Council Native Corporation Council Bering Straits Native Corp.
Cully Corporation Point Lay Arctic Slope Regional Corp. http://www.cullycorp.com/
Danzhit Hanlaii Corporation Circle Doyon, Limited
Deacons Landing Inc. Deacons Landing Doyon, Limited
Deering Ipnatchiak Corporation Deering NANA Regional Corporation
Deloycheet Inc. Holy Cross Doyon, Limited http://www.deloycheet.com/
Dineega Corporation Ruby Doyon, Limited
Dinyea Corporation Stevens Village Doyon, Limited
Doratoi Inc. Falt Doyon, Limited
Dot Lake Native Corporation Dot Lake Doyon, Limited
Eklutna Inc. Eklutna Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated http://www.eklutnainc.com
Ekuk Native Limited Ekuk Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Ekwok Natives Limited Ekwok Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Elim Native Corporation Elim Reserve Bering Straits Native Corp.
Elim Native Corporation St. Lawrence Bering Straits Native Corp.
Emmonak Corporation Emmonak Calista Corporation
English Bay Corporation English Bay Chugach Alaska Corporation
Evansville Inc. Evansville Doyon, Limited
The Eyak Corporation Cordova Chugach Alaska Corporation http://www.eyakcorporation.com/
Far West Inc. Chignik Lake Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Forty-Mile Inc. Chicken Doyon, Limited
Gakona Corporation Gakona Ahtna, Incorporated
Gana-a'yoo Limited Galena Doyon, Limited
Gana-a'yoo Limited Kaltag Doyon, Limited
Gana-a'yoo Limited Koyukuk Doyon, Limited
Gana-a'yoo Limited Nulato Doyon, Limited
Ganawas Corporation Knight Island Sealaska Corporation
Gold Creek-Susitna Native Association Gold Creek Calista Corporation
Gold Creek-Susitna Native Association Susitna Calista Corporation
Goldbelt Inc. Juneau (4 cities) Sealaska Corporation http://www.goldbelt.com/
Golovin Native Corporation Golovin Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Grouse Creek Corporation Grouse Creek Doyon, Limited
Gwitchyaazhee Corporation Ft. Yukon Doyon, Limited
Haida Corporation Hydaburg Sealaska Corporation http://www.haidacorp.com/
Haycock Native Group Corporation Haycock Calista Corporation
Hee-yea Lingde Corporation Grayling Doyon, Limited
Huna Totem Corporation Hoonah Sealaska Corporation www.hunatotem.com
Hungwitchin Corporation Eagle Doyon, Limited
Igiugig Native Corporation Igiugig Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Iliamna Native Corporation Iliamna Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Ingalik Inc. Anvik Doyon, Limited
Iqfijouq Co Eek Calista Corporation
Isanotski Corporation False Pass Aleut Corporation http://www.isanotski.alaska.com/
Isingnakmeut Shungnak NANA Regional Corporation
Ivaisaapaagmit Corporation Ambler NANA Regional Corporation
Kake Tribal Corporation Kake Sealaska Corporation
Kaktovik Inupiat Corporation Kaktovik Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Karluk Native Corporation Karluk Koniag, Incorporated
Kasigluk Inc. Kasigluk Calista Corporation
Katyaak Corporation Kiana NANA Regional Corporation
Kavilco Inc. Kassan Sealaska Corporation
Kenai Native Assoc. Inc. Kenai Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Kian Tr'ee Corporation Canyon Village Doyon, Limited
Kikiktagruk Inupiat Corporation Kotzebue NANA Regional Corporation
King Cove Corporation King Cove Aleut Corporation
King Island Native Corporation King Island Bering Straits Native Corp.
Kiutsarak Inc. Goodnews Bay Calista Corporation
Kivalina Sinnigaakmiut Kivalina NANA Regional Corporation
Klawaock Heenya Corporation Klawock Sealaska Corporation
Klukwan, Inc. Klukwan Sealaska Corporation http://www.klukwan.com/
Kluti-Kaah Corporation Copper Center Ahtna, Incorporated
Knikatnu Inc. Knik Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Kokarmiut Corporation Akiak Calista Corporation
Kokrines Ic. Kokrines Doyon, Limited
Koliganek Natives Limited Koliganek Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Kongnikilnomuit Yuita Corporation Bill Moores Slough Calista Corporation
Kootznoowoo Inc. Angoon Sealaska Corporation
Koovukmeut Inc. Kobuk NANA Regional Corporation
Kotlik Yupik Corporation Kotlik Calista Corporation
K'oyitl'ots'ina Limited Hughes Doyon, Limited
K'oyitl'ots'ina Limited Huslia Doyon, Limited
K'oyitl'ots'ina Limited Alatna Doyon, Limited
K'oyitl'ots'ina Limited Allakaket Doyon, Limited
Koyuk Native Corporation Koyuk Bering Straits Native Corp.
Kugkaktilk Limited Kipnuk Calista Corporation
Kuskokwim Corporation Aniak Calista Corporation http://www.kuskokwim.com/
Kuskokwim Corporation Chuathbaluk Calista Corporation http://www.kuskokwim.com/
Kuskokwim Corporation Crooked Creek Calista Corporation http://www.kuskokwim.com/
Kuskokwim Corporation Georgetown Doyon, Limited http://www.kuskokwim.com/
Kuskokwim Corporation Lower Kalskag Calista Corporation http://www.kuskokwim.com/
Kuskokwim Corporation Upper Kalskag Calista Corporation http://www.kuskokwim.com/
Kuskokwim Corporation Napaimute Calista Corporation http://www.kuskokwim.com/
Kuskokwim Corporation Red Devil Calista Corporation http://www.kuskokwim.com/
Kuskokwim Corporation Sleetmute Calista Corporation http://www.kuskokwim.com/
Kuskokwim Corporation Stony River Calista Corporation http://www.kuskokwim.com/
Kuukpik Corporation, Inc. Nuiqsut Arctic Slope Regional Corp. http://www.kuukpik.com/
Kwethluk Inc. Kwethluk Calista Corporation
Kwik Inc. Kwigillingok Calista Corporation
Leisnoi, Inc. Woody Island Koniag, Incorporated
Levelock Natives Limited Levelock Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Lime Village Co Lime Village Calista Corporation
Litnik Inc. Litnik Koniag, Incorporated
Little Lake Louise Inc. Little Lake Louise Ahtna, Incorporated
Lower Tonsina Inc. Lower Tonsina Ahtna, Incorporated
Manokotak Natives Limited Manokotak Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Mary's Igloo Native Corporation Mary's Igloo Bering Straits Native Corp.
Maserculig Inc. Marshall Calista Corporation
Medfra Native Council Inc. Medfra Doyon, Limited
Mendas Cha-ag Native Corporation Healy Lake Doyon, Limited
Mentasta Inc. Mentasta Lake Ahtna, Incorporated
Minchumina Natives Inc. Minchumina Doyon, Limited
Montana Creek Native Assoc. Montana Creek Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
MTNT Limited McGrath Doyon, Limited
MTNT Limited Nikolai Doyon, Limited
MTNT Limited Takotna Doyon, Limited
MTNT Limited Telida Doyon, Limited
Nagamut Limited Nagamut Calista Corporation
Napakiak Corporation Napakiak Calista Corporation
Napaskiak Inc. Napaskiak Calista Corporation
Native of Kodiak Inc. Kodiak Koniag, Incorporated
Nebesna Native Group Inc. Nebesna Ahtna, Incorporated
Neechootaalichaagat Corporation Birch Creek Doyon, Limited
Neechootaalichaagat Corporation Kantishna Doyon, Limited
Nelson Lagoon Corporation Nelson lagon Aleut Corporation
Nerklikmute Native Corporation Andereafsky Calista Corporation
Newtok Inc. Newtok Calista Corporation
NGTA Inc. Nightmute Calista Corporation
Nima Corporation Mekoryuk Calista Corporation
Nima Corporation Nunivak Calista Corporation
Ninilchik Natives Assoc., Inc. Ninilchik Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Noatak Napaaktukmeur Corporation Noatak NANA Regional Corporation
Nondalton Native Corporation Nondalton Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Northway Natives Inc. Northway Doyon, Limited
Nu-Nachk Pit Inc. Larsen Bay Koniag, Incorporated
Nunakauiak Yupik Corporation Toksook Bay Calista Corporation
Nunamiut Corporation Anaktuvuk Pass Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Nunapiglluraq Corporation Hamilton Calista Corporation
Nunapitchuk Limited Nunapitchuk Calista Corporation
Oceanside Corporation Perryville Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Ohgsenskale Corporation Portage Creek Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Ohog Inc. Ohogamiut Calista Corporation
Old Harbor Native Corporation Old Harbor Koniag, Incorporated
Olgoonik Corporation, Inc. Wainwright Arctic Slope Regional Corp. http://www.olgoonik.com/
Olsonville Inc. Olsonville Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Oscarville Native Corporation Oscarville Calista Corporation
Ounalashka Corporation Unalaska Aleut Corporation http://www.ounalashka.com/
Ouzinkie Native Corporation Ouzinkie Koniag, Incorporated http://ouzinkienativecorporation.com/
Paimiut Corporation Paimiut Calista Corporation
Paug-Vik Inc. Limited Naknek Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Pedro Bay Corporation Pedro Bay Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Pilot Point Native Corporation Pilot Point Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Pilot Station Native Corporation Pilot Station Calista Corporation
Pitkas Point Native Corporation Pitkas Point Calista Corporation
Point Possession Inc. Point Possession Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Port Graham Corporation Port Graham Chugach Alaska Corporation
Putoo Corporation Noorvik NANA Regional Corporation
Qanirtuuq Inc. Quinhagak Calista Corporation
Qemirtalek Coast Corporation Kongiganek Calista Corporation
Saguyak Inc. Clarks Point Bristol Bay Native Corporation
St. George Tanadax Corporation St. George Aleut Corporation
St. Marys Native Corporation St. Marys Calista Corporation
St. Michael native Corporation St. Michaels Bering Straits Native Corp.
Salamatoff Native Assoc. Inc. Salamatoff Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Sanak Corporation Pauloff Harbor Aleut Corporation
Savonski Corporation Savonski Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Sea Lion Corporation Hooper Bay Calista Corporation
Seldovia Native Assoc. Inc. Seldovia Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Seth-do-ya-ah Corporation Minto Doyon, Limited
Shaan-Seet Inc. Craig Sealaska Corporation
Shaktoolik Native Corporation Shaktoolik Bering Straits Native Corp.
Shee Atiká, Inc. Sitka Sealaska Corporation http://www.sheeatika.com/
Shishmaref Natrive Corporation Shishmaref Bering Straits Native Corp.
Shumagin Corporation Sand Point Aleut Corporation
Shuyak Inc. Port William Koniag, Incorporated
Sitnasuak Native Corporation Nome Bering Straits Native Corp. http://www.snc.org/
Slana Native Corporation Slana Ahtna, Incorporated
Solomon Native Corporation Solomon Bering Straits Native Corp.
Sta-Keh Corporation Gulkana Chugach Alaska Corporation
Stebbins Native Corporation Stebbins Bering Straits Native Corp.
Stuyahok Limited New Stuyahok Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Swan Lake Corporation Sheldon Point Calista Corporation
Talzina Inc. Tazlina Ahtna, Incorporated
Tanacross Inc. Tanacross Doyon, Limited
Tanadgusik Corporation St. Paul Aleut Corporation [1]
Tanalian Inc. Port Alsworth Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Tatitlek Corporation Tatitlek Chugach Alaska Corporation
Teller Native Corporation Teller Bering Straits Native Corp.
Tetlin Indian Reservation Tetlin Doyon, Limited
Tikigaq Corporation Point Hope Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
Tihteet'aii Inc. Birch Creek Doyon, Limited
Toghotthele Corporation Nenana Doyon, Limited
Togiak Natives Limited Togiak Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Tozitna Limited Tananna Doyon, Limited
Tulkisarmute Inc. Tuluksak Calista Corporation
Tuntutuliak Land Limited Tuntutuliak Calista Corporation
Tununrmiut Rinit Corporation Tununak Calista Corporation
Twin Hills Native Corporation Twin Hills Bristol Bay Native Corporation
Twin Lake Native Group Inc. Twin Lake Ahtna, Incorporated
Tyonek Native Corporation Tyonek Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated
Uganik Natives, Inc. Uganik Koniag, Incorporated
Ukpeaġvik Iñupiat Corporation Barrow Arctic Slope Regional Corp. http://www.ukpik.com/
Umkumiute Limited Umkumiute Calista Corporation
Unalakleet Native Corporation Unalakleet Bering Straits Native Corp.
Unga Corporation Unga Aleut Corporation
Uyak, Inc. Uyak Koniag, Incorporated
Venetie Indian Reservation Venetie Doyon, Limited
Wales Native Corporation Wales Bering Straits Native Corp.
White Mountain Native Corporation White Mountain Bering Straits Native Corp.
Wisenak Inc. Wisenak Doyon, Limited
Yak-tat Kwaan Inc. Yakutat Sealaska Corporation
Yedetena Na Corporation Cantwell Ahtna, Incorporated
Yedetena Na Corporation Chistochina Ahtna, Incorporated
Zho-Tsa, Inc. Shageluk Doyon, Limited

AFOGNAK NATIVE CORPORATION

The Afognak Native Corporation was organized in 1977 through the merger of two ANCSA village corporations: Port Lions Native Corporation and Natives of Afognak, Inc. It is governed by a nine member board of directors.[6] Afognak Native Corporation has many business interests. For 18 years it participated in and profited from timber development ventures on Afogank Island. It also operates a number of successful subsidiaries including Leasing, Bioenergy Operations and Oil Field Services.[6] In the late 1990s, the Afognak Native Corporation launched a government contracting business.[6] The Afognak Native Corporation is a wealthy corporation and was listed in the Top 100 Contractors of the Federal Government in 2010. Coming in at No. 79, The Afognak Native Corporation's contracts were $749,557,576.49.[7] Afognak Native Corporation entities also received NASA Small Business Contractor of the Year Award in 2013. [8] The Corporation's profile is listed as "Construction and Engineering" services.[9] The Afognak Native Corporation has approximately 900 shareholders and pays over $12 million in dividends annually. The Afognak Native Corporation controls over 160,000 acres of land in the Kodiak Archipelago and the lands form the core of financial success of the corporation.[10]

In 2012 the Afognak Native Corporation sued Tom and Grace Malmberg over the misjudgment of one-fifth of an acre of land in a remote area of Kodiak Island where the couple had built a home and raised their family for thirty years. The Afognak Native Corporation refused to accept a land exchange for five acres of timbered land next door to the land in question, nor would they allow the couple to purchase the land; the Afognak Native Corporation will likely burn the home and the family's belongings.[11]

See also[edit]

Compare:

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]