Albanian Revolt of 1843–44

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Albanian Revolt of 1843–1844)
Jump to: navigation, search
Albanian Revolt of 1843–1844
Part of the Albanian revolts against the Ottoman Empire
Date 1843–1844
Location Ottoman Albania
Modern-day northern Albania, Kosovo, and western Macedonia
Result Suppression of the revolt by the Ottomans
Belligerents
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
Albanian Rebels
Commanders and leaders
Ottoman Empire Hayredin Pasha
Ottoman Empire Omar Pasha
Dervish Cara
Sheh Mustafa Zerqani
Cen Leka

The Albanian Revolt of 1843–1844, variously also known as the Revolt of 1844[1] or the Uprising of Dervish Cara (Kryengritja e Dervish Carës),[2] was a 19th-century uprising in northern Ottoman Albania directed against the Ottoman Tanzimat reforms which started in 1839 and were gradually being put in action in the regions of Albania. Some historians include the actions in Dibër of the same time under the same historical name, though the events in Dibër were independent and headed by other leaders.

Background[edit]

The Tanzimat reforms began in 1839, and aimed to modernize the Ottoman Empire by introducing European-inspired reforms. Most importantly, it involved a centralization and streamlining of the administration and military. This hurt the old-established feudal order (cf. timariots and sipahis) among the Empire's Muslim communities, and especially the various local leaders who had exercised considerable regional authority and often enjoyed wide-ranging autonomy from the imperial government. The Albanians had long been a source of manpower for the Ottomans, providing both soldiers and statesmen such as the Köprülü family. The Tanzimat reforms however; in particular the replacement of influential local leaders by Ottoman functionaries, the imposition of new taxes, the compulsory recruitment into the regular army, and the attempt to disarm the general population; caused much resentment, and led to a series of disorders throughout the western Balkan provinces in 1840–43.[3]

In the summer of 1843, the inhabitants of Prizren attacked and routed the new officials of the city and their example was followed by the inhabitants of Priştine (now Pristina) and Yakova (now Gjakova).[4] These local insurrections in the cities were immediately suppressed by Ottoman authorities.

The uprising[edit]

The direct cause of the uprising was the arresting and liquidation of the local Albanophone pashas, most notably that of Abdurrahman Pasha of Kalkandelen (now Tetovo) and his two brothers, Havzi Pasha of Üsküb (now Skopje) and Hussein Pasha of Kustendil. The revolters, who were led by Dervish Cara, also had the support of the Christian population and were assisted also by other Albanophone pashas'.[5] The revolt began in Üsküb in July 1843 and grew strongly when an Ottoman army under Hajredin Pasha, in a process of opposing it, tried to recruit local Albanians into the regular army. In November the rebels liberated Gostivar and in January 1844, after bitter fights with the Ottoman army, they captured Kalkandelen. The leader of the rebels was Dervish Cara, who was assisted by various local leaders. In February 1844 the rebels attacked and captured Üsküb. They created a Great Council led by Dervish Cara which was the supreme body of the newly created administration in the liberated territories. In February 1844 the rebels took Kumanova (now Kumanovo). After Kumanova the rebels captured Preševo, Bujanovac, Vranje, Leskovac and other territories now in North Kosovo. The rebellion was spread to İpek, Yakova, Prizren and İşkodra (now Shkodër), while in the spring of 1844 the rebellion reached Ohri (now Ohrid) and Manastiri in the south, İşkodra in west, North Kosovo in North and Kumanova in east.[6] The rebels sent a letter to the Albanians of the Sanjak of Ioannina, recalling them as brothers and asking them not to fight for the Ottoman army.[7]

Fearing a further extension of the rebellion, the Ottoman government tried to gain some time through negotiations. The requests of the rebels were:

  1. Abolish the military levy for Albanian recruitments
  2. Replacement of Ottoman functionaries who didn't know the Albanian language with local Albanians.
  3. Recognition of the autonomy of Albania, just like the Ottoman government did with the Serbians in 1830.

The requests of the rebels were not accepted. In a move to disunite the rebels, the Ottoman government declared an amnesty, the abolishment of the new taxes and the postponement of the recruitment process which would become voluntary in the future. A promise was made by the Ottoman commander in chief Omer Pasha to the Albanians that if they handed over their arms, they would the same rights as the Serbs did in 1830, which meant autonomy.[7] At the same time an Ottoman army of 30,000 men, led by Omer Pasha, was sent to Monastir. In May 1844 the Ottoman army attacked the rebels, forcing them to retreat to the areas of Kalkandelen, Üsküb and Kumanova. Heavy fighting took place from 13–17 May 1844 in Katlanovo Pass, and on 18 May in Katlanovo thermals. In disparity of numbers and without artillery the rebels could no longer resist the superior Ottoman army. In 21 May 1844 the Ottoman army entered Üsküb, where many reprisals took place. During May–June, after bitter struggle with the rebels the Ottoman army retook Kumanova, Preševo, Bujanovac, Vranje, Kalkandelen and Gostivar whilst in July the Ottoman army captured all areas ranging from Kačanik to Pristina. Dervish Cara was captured by Ottoman forces in summer 1844.

Actions in Dibër[edit]

The capture of Dervish Cara didn't put an end to the rebellion, which continued in the areas of Dibër and İşkodra. The resistance was very strong especially in Dibër under its local leaders. In the fall of 1844, the Ottoman army was concentrated against the rebels in the Sanjak of Dibra. Ottoman forces led by Rexhep Pasha were defeated by the rebels in the field of Mavrovë. The rebels in the Sanjak of Dibër were led from Sheh Mustafa Zerqani. In a meeting in November 1844 they declared that the old autonomy of Dibër was not to be changed. The rebel army led by Cen Leka tried to stop the advancing Ottoman army led by Hayredin Pasha. The Ottoman commander declared again an amnesty, the abolishment of the new taxes and the postponement of the recruitment process which would become voluntary in the future. The greatest resistance happened during the Battle of Gjuricë, which lasted for five days. According to the report of a French diplomat in Yanina even women and children participated in the battle.[8] The Ottoman army suffered a great number of losses but due to their great superiority in numbers and armaments, they succeeded in forcing the rebels to retreat from the battle. The reprisals from the Ottoman army forced a large number of people to leave their homes. Although the rebellion was crushed, the Ottoman government postponed the application of Tanzimat for the Sanjak of Dibër and Shkodër. Dervish Cara together with other local leaders was sentenced to death, but this punishment was later transformed into a lifetime sentence.

Legacy[edit]

The song on Hayredin Pasha remembering the Battle of Gjuricë is famous among Albanians and continues to be sung even nowadays.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Albanians: a modern history Author Miranda Vickers Edition 3, revised, illustrated, reprint Publisher I.B.Tauris, 1999 ISBN 1-86064-541-0, ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9 p.25
  2. ^ Albanische Geschichte: Stand und Perspektiven der Forschung Volume 140 of Südosteuropäische Arbeiten Authors Oliver Jens Schmitt, Eva Anne Frantz Editors Oliver Jens Schmitt, Eva Anne Frantz Publisher Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2009 ISBN 3-486-58980-6, ISBN 978-3-486-58980-1 p. 168
  3. ^ La Question Nationale En Europe Du Sud-Est: Genese, Emergence Et Développement de L'Identite Nationale Albanaise Au Kosovo Et En Macedoine Author Bashkim Iseni Publisher Peter Lang, 2008 ISBN 3-03911-320-8, ISBN 978-3-03911-320-0 pp.169-174
  4. ^ Historia e Shqipërisë. Vëllim i dytë / Instituti i historisë Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë Published: Tiranë, Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, 1984 p. 127
  5. ^ La Question Nationale En Europe Du Sud-Est: Genese, Emergence Et Développement de L'Identite Nationale Albanaise Au Kosovo Et En Macedoine Author Bashkim Iseni Publisher Peter Lang, 2008 ISBN 3-03911-320-8, ISBN 978-3-03911-320-0 p.174
  6. ^ Albanische Geschichte: Stand und Perspektiven der Forschung Volume 140 of Südosteuropäische Arbeiten Authors Oliver Jens Schmitt, Eva Anne Frantz Editors Oliver Jens Schmitt, Eva Anne Frantz Publisher Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2009 ISBN 3-486-58980-6, ISBN 978-3-486-58980-1 p. 168
  7. ^ a b La Question Nationale En Europe Du Sud-Est: Genese, Emergence Et Développement de L'Identite Nationale Albanaise Au Kosovo Et En Macedoine Author Bashkim Iseni Publisher Peter Lang, 2008 ISBN 3-03911-320-8, ISBN 978-3-03911-320-0 p.176
  8. ^ Historia e Shqipërisë. Vëllim i dytë / Instituti i historisë Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Published: Tiranë, Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, 1984 p. 129
  9. ^ "Song of Hayredin Pasha on youtube". Retrieved 22 September 2010. 

Related videos[edit]