Albanian exonyms

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Many places have exonyms, names for places that differs from that used in the official or well-established language within that place, in the Albanian language.

Albanian has a relatively small number of true exonyms in areas beyond the current borders of Albania and Kosovo, mostly in neighboring countries, and those are listed here.

In addition, Albanian is a language with phonetic spelling that includes orthographic exonymy, i.e. it renders the names of non-Albanian places and people phonetically according to Albanian orthography. For example, Manchester is written as Mançester, Los Angeles as Los Anxheles, and New York as Nju Jork, etc.

Grammatical forms of Albanian placenames[edit]

True Albanian exonyms, not mere orthographic exonyms, like all Albanian placenames can be rendered in two forms the same way as common nouns, the definite and indefinite forms.[1] These forms are created with postpositions to the placename.

When using English or another foreign language, Albanians tend to use the definite form but on road signs and other similar usage, the indefinite form is used because there is an implied preposition , meaning "to" or "in", which is followed by the indefinite.[2] Maps, especially those produced in Albania, consistently use the indefinite form.[2]

The two forms are applied differently depending on grammatical gender of the word. "Recommended international usage for Albanian toponyms" in Kosovo has feminine place names appearing in the definite form and masculine place names in the indefinite form. However, in Albania, English usage is of the indefinite for both feminine and masculine placenames except for the capital, Tirana. Thus the following usage in English with the preferred form in bold and link to the respective article:

Albanian-Language Placename Forms (Forms normally used in English sources in boldface)
Feminine Albanian-Language Placenames
Indefinite Form Definite Form Country
Korçë Korça Albania
Prishtinë Prishtina Kosovo
Pejë Peja Kosovo
Shkodër Shkodra Albania
Tiranë Tirana Albania
Masculine Albanian-Language Placenames
Indefinite Form Definite Form Country
Durrës Durrësi Albania
Elbasan Elbasani Albania
Fier Fieri Albania
Lipjan Lipjani Kosovo
Prizren Prizreni Kosovo
Ulqin Ulqini Montenegro

Since Albanian exonyms by nature are rarely seen in English texts, there are no strict rules as to which is the "correct" form for places outside of Albania and Kosovo. When available, both are given with the indefinite followed by the definite separated by a slash (stroke, i.e. "/").

List of Albanian exonyms[edit]

Cities are grouped by country and then listed alphabetically by their current best-known name in English. The English version is followed by Albanian variants in order of significance. A blue asterisk generally indicates the availability of an Albanian Wikipedia article for that city under that name which may also provide additional reference for the equivalence. Any other equivalents without further footnotes should be viewed with caution.

Language Native name Albanian exonym
 Afghanistan Afganistani
Persian - Pashto Kābul - Kabəl Kabul / Kabuli*
 Austria Austria
German Graz Graz
Wien Vjenë[3] / Vjena*
 Azerbaijan Azerbaxhani
Azerbaijani Bakı Baku*
 Belgium Belgjikë
Dutch - French Brussel - Bruxelles Bruksel[3] / Brukseli*
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnjë Hercegovinë
Bosnian Banja Luka Banja Lluka
Bihać Bihaç
Brčko Bërçka*
Sarajevo Sarajevë / Sarajeva
 Bulgaria Bullgari
Bulgarian Sofija Sofje[3] / Sofja*
 Canada Kanadaja
English - French Ottawa Otava
 China Kinë
Mandarin Běijīng Pekin / Pekini*
 Croatia Kroacia
Croatian Arbanasi Arbëneshi
Opatija Opatia
Rijeka Rieka
Šibenik Shibeniku
Zadar Zara
 Cyprus Qipro
Greek - Turkish Lefkosía - Lefkoşa Nikozia
 Czech Republic Çeki
Czech Praha Pragë[3] / Praga*
 Denmark Danimarkë
Danish København Kopenhagë[3] / Kopenhaga, Kopenhagen / Kopenhageni*
 Estonia Estoni
Estonian Tallinn Talin*
 Egypt Egjipt
Arabic Qāhirah Kajro*[3]
 France Franca
French Paris Paris / Parisi*
 Germany Gjermani
German Bonn Bon
Braunschweig Braunshvajg
Düsseldorf Dyseldorf
Hannover Hanovër
Heidelberg Hajdelberg
Kassel Kasel
Kiel Kiel
Köln Këln
Leipzig Lajpcig
Lübeck Lybek
Mainz Majnz
Mannheim Manhajm
München Mynih
Schwerin Shverin
Stuttgart Shtutgart
Wiesbaden Visbaden
 Greece Greqi
Greek Arta Artë
Athína Athinë
Édessa Vodhenë
Filiátes Filat
Flórina Follorinë
Grevená Grebené
Igoumenítsa Gumenicë
Ioánnina Janinë
Kalamáta Kallamatë
Karditsa Kardhicë
Kastoriá Kostur
Kavala Kavallë
Kérkyra Korfuz, Qarfoz
Kónitsa Konicë
Livadeia Livadhja
Margaríti Margëllëç
Métsovo Meçovë
Paramithiá Paramithi
Párga Pargë
Patras Patër
Pelopónnisos Moré
Perdika Arpicë
Préveza Prevezë
Ptolemaïda Kajlar
Thessaloníki Selanik
Trikala Tërkallë, Trikallë
Sývota Volë
 Iran Irani
Persian Tehrān Teheran
 Iraq Iraku
Arabic - Kurdish Baġdād - Bexda Bagdad
 Israel Izraeli
Hebrew - Arabic Yerushaláyim - al Quds Jeruzalem
Natzrát - Naseriyye Nazaret
 Italy Itali
Italian Firenze Firence
Genova Gjenovë
Ragusa Raguzë
Roma Romë
Trieste Trieshtë
Venezia Venedik
 Jordan Jordania
Arabic Ammān Amani
 Lebanon Libani
Arabic - French Bayrūt - Beyrouth Bejrut
 Libya Libi
Arabic Ṭarābulus Tripoli
 Macedonia Maqedoni
Macedonian Berovo Berovë / Berova*
Bitola Manastir[3] / Manastiri*
Debar Dibër[3] / Dibra*
Delčevo Dellçevë / Dellçeva*
Gevgelija Gjevgjeli / Gjevgjelia*
Kičevo Kërçovë[3] / Kërçova*
Kočani Koçan / Koçani*
Kratovo Kratovë / Kratova*
Kriva Palanka Kriva Pallankë / Kriva Pallanka*
Kruševo Krushevë / Krusheva*
Kumanovo Kumanovë / Kumanova*
Negotino Negotinë / Negotina*
Ohrid Ohër[3] / Ohri*, Ohrit[3]
Pehčevo Peçevë / Peçeva*
Prilep Prilep / Prilepi*, Përlep / Përlepi
Probištip Probishtip / Probishtipi*
Radoviš Radovish / Radovishti*
Resen Resnjë / Resnja*
Šar Mountains Malet e Sharrit, Bjeshkët e Sharrit*, Mali i Sharrit[3]
Skopje Shkup / Shkupi*[3]
Štip Shtip / Shtipi*
Struga Strugë[3] / Struga*
Strumica Strumicë / Strumica*
Sveti Nikole Sveti Nikollë / Sveti Nikolla*
Tetovo Tetovë[3] / Tetova*
Valandovo Vallandovë / Vallandova*
Veles Veles / Velesi*
Zajas Zajaz / Zajazi*
 Mongolia Mongolia
Mongolian Ulaanbaatar Ulan Bator
 Montenegro Mali i Zi
Montenegrin Andrijevica Andrijevicë
Bar Tivar
Berane Beranë
Cetinje Cetinë
Gusinje Guci
Kotor Kotorr
Nikšić Nikshiq
Plav Plavë
Pljevlja Plevë
Plužine Pluzhinë
Podgorica Podgoricë, Anamal, Burguriçë
Rožaje Rrozhajë
Šavnik Shavnik
Ulcinj Ulqin
Žabljak Zhabjak
   Nepal Nepali
Nepali Kantipur Kat'hmandu
 The Netherlands Hollandë
Dutch Den Haag Hagë
 Oman Omani
Arabic Masqaṭ Muskat
 Poland Poloni
Polish Warszawa Varshavë
 Romania Rumani
Romanian Bucureşti Bukuresht
Constanţa Konstancë
 Rwanda Ruanda
KinyarwandaFrench Kigali Kigal
 Russia Rusii
Russian Moskva Moska
Sankt-Peterburg Shën-Pjetërburgu
 Saudi Arabia Arabia Saudite
Arabic al-Madīna Medina
Makkah Meka
Riyāḍ Riad
 Serbia Sërbi
Serbian Bujanovac Bujanoc
Kuršumlija Kurshumli
Medveđa Medvegjë
Niš Nish
Novi Pazar Treg i Ri, Pazar i Ri
Preševo Preshevë
Raška Rashkë
Sandžak Sanxhak
 Somalia Somalia
Somali - Arabic Muqdisho - Maqadīshū Mogadishu
 Slovakia Sllovaki
Slovakian Bratislava Bratisllavë
 Slovenia Slloveni
Slovenian Ljubljana Ljubjanë
 Switzerland Zvicër
German - French Basel - Bâle Bazel
Bern - Berne Berna
Chur - Coire Kur
Genf - Genèvre Gjeneva
Lausanne Lozana
Luzern - Lucerne Luzern
Schwyz Shvicë
Zug - Zoug Cug
Zürich Zyrih
 Turkey Turqi
Türkish İstanbul Stamboll
Edirne Adrianopojë
 Ukraine Ukrainë
Ukraine Kyiv Kiev
 United Arab Emirates Emiratet e Bashkuara Arabe
Arabic Abū Zabī Abu Dabi
Dubayy Dubai
 United Kingdom Mbretëria e Bashkuar
English Cardiff Kardif
Coventry Koventri
Liverpool Liverpul
London Londër
Manchester Mançester
 United States Shtetet e Bashkuara të Amerikës
English Connecticut Kenerik
Los Angeles Los Anxheles
Miami Majemi
New York Nju Jork
Washington D.C. Uashington
Worcester Ustër
 Uzbekistan Uzbekistani
Uzbek Toshkent Tashkent
Language Native name Albanian exonym

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leonard Newmark, Philip Hubbard, Peter R. Prifti. Standard Albanian: a reference grammar for students. Stanford University Press, 1982. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-8047-1129-6.
  2. ^ a b Gillian Gloyer. The Bradt Travel Guide Albania. 3rd edition. Bradt Travel Guides, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84162-246-0.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o KNAB, the Place Names Database of EKI