According to the results of the 2011 Census which was mostly boycotted, there are 5,809 Albanians in Serbia (excluding Kosovo). An estimate of total of 50,000 Albanians live in Serbia out of whom majority live in the municipalities of Preševo (Albanian: Preshevë) and Bujanovac (Albanian: Bujanoc). The region of Bujanovac and Preševo is widely known as the Preševo Valley (Serbian: Прешевска Долина, Preševska Dolina, Albanian: Lugina e Preshevës).
In 1992, the Albanians of southern Serbia organized a referendum in which they voted that Preševo, Bujanovac and Medveđa should join Kosovo. Between 1999 and 2001, an ethnic Albanian guerilla organization, the Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (in Albanian Ushtria Çlirimtare e Preshevës, Medvegjës dhe Bujanocit, UÇPMB), was operational in this region with a goal to secede these three municipalities from the FR Yugoslavia and join them to Kosovo upon achieving independence. The activities attracted less international media interest than the related events of Kosovo and Macedonia. Since then, the Albanian Coalition from Preševo Valley has gained representation in the National Assembly of Serbia where it holds a seat.
Education in Albanian is provided in primary and secondary schools. There may be some university-level courses provided in Albanian, in the capital of Serbia, Belgrade, but students mainly do their university degree in Universiteti i Prishtinës in Kosovo, in Macedonia, or in Albanian universities.
The main religion of Albanians in this region is Islam.