Albany, Western Australia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the city of Albany. For the local government area, see City of Albany.
Albany
Western Australia
York Street Albany.jpg
York Street in Albany
Albany is located in Western Australia
Albany
Albany
Coordinates 35°01′22″S 117°52′53″E / 35.02278°S 117.88139°E / -35.02278; 117.88139Coordinates: 35°01′22″S 117°52′53″E / 35.02278°S 117.88139°E / -35.02278; 117.88139
Population 30,656 (2011 census)[1]
 • Density 281/km2 (730/sq mi)
Established 26 December 1826
Postcode(s) 6330
Area 89.8 km2 (34.7 sq mi)
Time zone AWST (UTC+8)
Location 408 km (254 mi) from Perth
LGA(s) City of Albany
State electorate(s) Albany
Federal Division(s) O'Connor
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
19.5 °C
67 °F
11.7 °C
53 °F
929.6 mm
36.6 in
Albany Entertainment Centre, opened December 2010.

Albany /ˈælbəni/ is a port city in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, 418 km SE of Perth, the state capital. Albany is the oldest permanently settled town in Western Australia, predating Perth and Fremantle by some two years. At the 2011 Census, Albany's population was 30,656, making it the state's sixth-largest population centre.[2]

The city centre is at the northern edge of Princess Royal Harbour, which is a part of King George Sound. The Central Business District is bounded by Mount Clarence to the east and Mount Melville to the west. The city is in the local government area of the City of Albany.

Albany was founded on 26 December 1826[3] as a military outpost of New South Wales as part of a plan to forestall French ambitions in the region. The area was initially named Frederick Town in honour of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany.[4][5][6] In 1831, the settlement was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony and renamed Albany by Governor James Stirling.[7]

During the late 19th century the town served as a gateway to the Eastern Goldfields and, for many years, it was the colony's only deep-water port, having a place of eminence on shipping services between Britain and its Australian colonies. The opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897,[8] however, saw its importance as a port decline, after which the town's industries turned primarily to agriculture, timber and, later, whaling. Unlike Perth and Fremantle, Albany was a strong supporter of Federation in 1901.

Today the town is a significant tourist destination and base from which to explore the south-west of the state, and is well regarded for its natural beauty and preservation of heritage. The town has an important role in the ANZAC legend, being the last port of call for troopships departing Australia in the First World War.

History[edit]

The Albany region was first home to the Menang Noongar people, who made use of the area during the summer months for fishing and other activities. They called the area Kinjarling which means "the place of rain".[9] Many town names in South-Western Australia end in "up" or "ing", which means "place of" in the Noongar language. They would sometimes camp near "Boondie Yokine" – roughly translated as Dog Rock.[9] Early European explorers discovered evidence of fish traps located on Emu Point and on French, now Kalgan, River and a small "village" of bark dwellings that were, at the time, deserted.

Albany is the oldest continuous European settlement in Western Australia, founded in 1826, two years before Fremantle or Perth. The King George Sound settlement was a hastily dispatched British military outpost, intended to forestall any plans by France for settlements in Western Australia.

The coastline of the Albany area was observed for the first time in 1627 by the Dutchman François Thijssen, captain of the ship 't Gulden Zeepaert (The Golden Seahorse), who sailed to the east as far as Ceduna in South Australia and back. Captain Thijssen had discovered the south coast of Australia and charted about 1,800 kilometres (1,100 mi) of it between Cape Leeuwin and the Nuyts Archipelago.[10][11]

In 29 September 1791, explorer Captain George Vancouver while exploring the south coast, entered and named King George the Third's Sound and Princess Royal Harbour, and took possession of New Holland for the British Crown. Vancouver went out of his way to establish good relationships with the local Aboriginal people.[12][13]

Old Forts Lighthouse. King Point, Albany.
Convict gaol, c. 1850

In 1792, Frenchman Bruni d'Entrecasteaux, in charge of the Recherche and L'Esperance, reached Cape Leeuwin on 5 December and explored eastward along the southern coast. The expedition did not enter King George Sound due to bad weather.

In 1801, Matthew Flinders entered King George Sound and stayed for about a month before charting the rest of the southern Australian coastline. By 1806 he had completed the first circumnavigation of Australia.

French explorer Nicolas Baudin visited King George Sound from 18 February – 1 March 1803, in the Géographe and Casaurina. He surveyed Princess Royal Harbour, Oyster Harbour and the coast as far as Bald Island, to the east. During this visit, the Casaurina was beached in Princess Royal Harbour for repairs.[14]

Australian-born explorer Phillip Parker King visited King George Sound in 1822 on the Bathurst.

In a letter dated 11 March 1826 Secretary of State for War and the Colonies Earl Bathurst instructed Governor of New South Wales Ralph Darling that if found suitable a settlement should be established at King George's Sound as it was located on the shipping route between Britain and Port Jackson.[15]

Major Edmund Lockyer was placed in command of the expedition by Governor Darling on 4 November 1826, and given instructions in case of an encounter with the French, that Lockyer was to land troops to signify to the French that "the whole of New Holland is subject to His Britannic Majesty's Government, and that orders have been given for the Establishment at King George's Sound of a Settlement for the reception of Criminals accordingly".[15]

On 26 October 1826, Frenchman Dumont d'Urville in the L'Astrolabe had visited King George Sound before sailing along the south coast to Port Jackson.

Lockyer and his expedition left Sydney on 9 November 1826 aboard HM brig Amity, with a detachment of twenty troops from the 39th Regiment, twenty-three convicts to assist in establishing the settlement, and six months provisions.[15]

Arriving at King George's Sound on 25 December 1826, Major Lockyer landed ashore early the next day and commenced a survey of the area. On 30 December the troops and prisoners were disembarked, setting up camp and landing stores. On 21 January 1827, as instructed by the Colonial Secretary, the Union Jack was raised and a feu de joie fired by the troops, formally annexing the territory, in assertion of the first official claim by the Imperial Government to British possession over the whole continent of Australia.[15][16]

Lockyer rescued Aboriginal women from offshore islands, who had been kidnapped by sealers operating in the Great Australian Bight as sexual slaves, and apprehended the culprits, sending them east to stand trial. As a result, the local Minang Noongar organised a corroboree in his honour, cementing the good relationships established earlier between local Aboriginal groups of the area and European explorers.

On 7 March 1831 the King George Sound and colony was made part of the Swan River Colony and a free settlement.[17]

Albany was officially named by Governor Stirling at the beginning of 1832, at the time that political authority passed to the Swan River colony. It is named after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, second son of King George III.[18]

Albany was also the final destination in 1841 of explorer Edward John Eyre, after being the first person to reach Western Australia by land from the East (Adelaide).

The old Albany Courthouse, built 1898

Until the opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897,[19] Albany was also home to the only deep-water port in Western Australia, Princess Royal Harbour. This is the largest natural harbour in Western Australia and also on the entire south coast of the Australian mainland, outside of Melbourne. This facility meant that, for many years, the first port of call for the mail from England was at Albany. This put Albany in a privileged position over Perth and it remained that way until engineer C. Y. O'Connor removed the bar that was blocking the entrance into the Swan River, constructing the Fremantle Inner Harbour, thus establishing this port as Western Australia's major harbour.

Since that time, Albany has become popular with retirees, with inhabitants enjoying the fresh air, clean beaches, and fine views over the Southern Ocean It is still also a thriving regional centre.

World War I[edit]

Ships carrying the Australian Imperial Force and the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (later known collectively as ANZACs) to Egypt to join World War I gathered at Albany in late October 1914. The first detachment departed in convoy on 1 November 1914, with a second detachment departing in late December 1914. Albany was the last place in Australia that the ANZACs saw and is therefore a prominent memorial, with the dedication of the Albany Anzac Peace Park and the pier of remembrance in 2010 a precursor to centenary commemorations planned for 2014–18.

The First Australian and New Zealand Expeditionary Force Fleet (1st Detachment) comprised the escort vessels HMS Minotaur of the Royal Navy's China Station, Japanese battlecruiser Ibuki, the Australian cruisers Melbourne and Sydney, and the Royal New Zealand Squadron warships Pyramus, Psyche, and Philomel.[citation needed] These warships protected a 38-strong convoy, consisting of the Australian troopships Hymettus, Geelong, Orvieto (which was fleet command vessel), Pera, Omrah, Clan Maccorquordale, Medic, Argyllshire, Shropshire, Karoo, Ascanius, Saldanha, Katuna, Euripides, Star of England, Star of Victoria, Port Lincoln, Wiltshire, Afric, Hororata, Morene, Rangatira, Suffolk, Benalla, Anglo-Egyptian, Armadale, Southern, and Militiades, plus the New Zealand transports Maunganui, Tahiti, Ruapehu, Orari, Limerick, Star of India, Hawke's Bay, Arawa, Athenic, and Waimana.[citation needed]

There is a memorial to the Desert Mounted Corps on top of Mount Clarence. The memorial consists of a statue of an Australian mounted soldier assisting a New Zealand soldier whose horse has been wounded and a wall bearing the words "Lest We Forget". The first recorded Dawn Service was conducted by Anglican Chaplain Padre Arthur Earnest White (44th Battalion AIF) on 25 April 1923 atop Mount Clarence, and has been held ever since with several thousand people participating each year. Atop the adjoining Mount Adelaide is the Princess Royal Fortress - gun emplacements, buildings and a collection of military memorablilia to honour the sacrifice of Australian Defence Force personnel spanning the Boer War to today. The contribution of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, president of Turkey from 1923 until 1938, is recognised by naming the entrance into Princess Royal Harbour as Atatürk Entrance, and there is a statue / monument overlooking the entrance on the Marine Drive walking trail.

Geography[edit]

Middleton Beach, Albany

The city centre of Albany is located between the hills of Mount Melville and Mount Clarence, which look down into Princess Royal Harbour. Many beaches surround Albany, with Middleton Beach being the closest to the town centre. Other popular beaches include Frenchman Bay and Muttonbird Island.

Albany is 418 kilometres (260 mi) SSE of the state capital, Perth, to which it is linked by Albany Highway.

Wine region[edit]

Albany is in a sub-region of the Great Southern region of Western Australia.[20]

Coastline[edit]

King George Sound, painted in 1803 by William Westall

The Albany coastline is notorious for deaths due to king waves washing people off rocks. On the otherwise picturesque coastline there are many beaches that are safe and usable:

Climate[edit]

Albany has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) with dry, warm summers, mild, wet winters, and pleasant springs and autumns.[21] Summers have short spells of very hot weather, but cool ocean breeze brings relief, especially during evenings and nights. The city is situated on what is promoted as the "Rainbow Coast", an appropriate title given the frequency of days with both sun and drizzle or showers.

July is the wettest month, with a long-term average of 144.0 mm (5.67 in). Rain in excess of 0.2 millimetres (0.01 in) occurs on two days out of every three during an average winter. The driest month is February with a mean of 22.9 mm (0.90 in).

Albany received a record amount of rain on 20 November 2008 when violent storms swept across the Great Southern region. The town was flooded after 113.8 mm (4.48 in) of rain fell in a 24-hour period, the highest amount recorded since rainfall records began in 1877.[22] The wettest month on record was June 1920 when 292.8 millimetres (11.5 in) fell, while February 1877 and February 1879 remain the only rainless months.

Climate data for Albany
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 41.7
(107.1)
44.8
(112.6)
40.8
(105.4)
37.7
(99.9)
35.2
(95.4)
24.6
(76.3)
22.8
(73)
27.3
(81.1)
30.6
(87.1)
36.2
(97.2)
41.1
(106)
42.2
(108)
44.8
(112.6)
Average high °C (°F) 22.8
(73)
22.9
(73.2)
22.2
(72)
20.8
(69.4)
18.6
(65.5)
16.5
(61.7)
15.7
(60.3)
16.3
(61.3)
17.2
(63)
18.4
(65.1)
20.3
(68.5)
21.8
(71.2)
19.5
(67.1)
Average low °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
15.4
(59.7)
14.6
(58.3)
12.7
(54.9)
10.7
(51.3)
9.0
(48.2)
8.1
(46.6)
8.3
(46.9)
9.2
(48.6)
10.4
(50.7)
12.4
(54.3)
14.0
(57.2)
11.7
(53.1)
Record low °C (°F) 10.0
(50)
7.2
(45)
6.1
(43)
4.8
(40.6)
2.4
(36.3)
1.7
(35.1)
0.1
(32.2)
1.6
(34.9)
2.0
(35.6)
3.4
(38.1)
5.6
(42.1)
6.7
(44.1)
0.1
(32.2)
Rainfall mm (inches) 23.9
(0.941)
22.8
(0.898)
38.2
(1.504)
69.0
(2.717)
117.2
(4.614)
133.8
(5.268)
143.6
(5.654)
126.0
(4.961)
101.3
(3.988)
79.2
(3.118)
44.9
(1.768)
29.7
(1.169)
929.6
(36.6)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 3.4 3.4 5.3 8.0 11.1 12.5 13.9 13.0 11.4 9.5 6.5 4.3 102.3
 % humidity 67 67 69 69 70 70 70 68 69 70 68 67 68.7
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology[23]

Industry[edit]

Albany's main industries are tourism, fishing, timber (wood chips) and agriculture. From 1952 to 1978 whaling was a major source of income and employment for the local population.

Sperm whale remains at the Albany Whaling Station in July 1977

The Whaling Station, which closed operations in 1978, has been converted to a museum of whaling, and features one of the 'Cheynes' whale chasers that were used for whaling in Albany. The station was the last operating whaling station in the southern hemisphere and the English-speaking world at the time of closure.

Wind farm at Albany

The Western Power Wind Farm is located at Sand Patch, a locality to the west of Albany. The wind farm originally commissioned in 2001 with 12 turbines now has 18 turbines, driven by strong southerly winds, and can generate up to 80%[24] of the city's electricity usage.[25]

Albany also has a number of historic tourist sites including the Museum, Albany Convict Gaol, The Princess Royal Fortress (commonly known as The Forts) and Patrick Taylor Cottage, one of the oldest dwellings in Western Australia, c1832.[26] Albany has a great deal of historical significance to Western Australia.

Natural sights are also numerous, especially the rugged coastline, which includes the Natural Bridge and the Gap. The beaches have pristine white sand. The destroyer HMAS Perth was sunk in King George Sound in 2001 as a dive wreck.[27] Albany is also close to two low mountain ranges, the Porongurups and Stirling Ranges.

Albany is also the southern terminus of the Bibbulmun Track walking trail.[28]

Albany is home to HMAS Albany (based in Darwin) and the adopted home port of the Royal Australian Navy frigate HMAS Anzac. Albany is frequently visited by other warships.

Transport[edit]

Albany has a town bus service run by Loves bus service with 5 town routes. Albany is connected to Perth with road-coach services via Walpole and Bunbury; via Katanning and Northam; via Kojonup and Williams. A coach service also serves Jerramungup, Ravensthorpe and Hopetoun.

There is an air connection to Perth from the Albany Airport serviced by Virgin Australia Regional Airlines using Fokker 50 aircraft.

Media[edit]

Albany radio stations include RadioWest 6VA, Gold MX, Rete Italia, Vision FM, Fly FM Albany, Vision FM, HOT FM, ABC South Coast, ABC NewsRadio, ABC Radio National, ABC Classic FM, Triple J, Racing Radio & Albany Community Radio.

Localised television stations available in Albany include GWN7, SBS, WIN Television Western Australia and ABC Television Western Australia. GWN7 broadcasts a half-hour news program for regional WA, GWN7 News, at 5:30pm on weeknights with a district newsroom covering Albany and surrounding areas based in the city.

Local newspapers are the Albany Advertiser (established 1888) and The Extra, (owned by Seven West Media Limited, publishers of The West Australian), and The Great Southern Weekender, independently owned but part of the Fairfax Media regional group.

Education[edit]

There are currently several primary schools, 8 high schools and 1 university in the Albany area.

Albany Senior High School

Primary schools[edit]

  • Albany Primary School
  • Flinders Park Primary
  • Mount Lockyer Primary
  • Parklands School
  • Spencer Park Primary
  • Yakamia Primary
  • Woodbury Boston Primary School
  • Woodthorpe School
  • Little Grove Primary School
Great Southern Grammar Gym

High schools[edit]

Universities[edit]

  • University of Western Australia
  • Curtin University of Technology

TAFE[edit]

  • Great Southern Institute of Technology

Localities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Albany (SUA)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  2. ^ About Albany City of Albany, accessed 1 December 2009
  3. ^ Battye, James Sykes (1924). Western Australia: A History from Its Discovery to the Inauguration of the Commonwealth. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 61. 
  4. ^ Nind, Isaac Scott (7 February 1828). "View of Frederick Town, King Georges Sound, at the expiration of the first year of its settlement" (pdf). Manuscripts, Oral History and Pictures. State Library of New South Wales. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  5. ^ Nind, Isaac Scott (1832). "Description of the Natives of King George's Sound (Swan River Colony) and Adjoining Country". The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 1: 12. JSTOR 1797657. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  6. ^ Wilson, Thomas Braidwood (1835). "Formation of the Settlement at King George's Sound". Narrative of a Voyage Round the World. London: Sherwood Gilbert & Piper. p. 281. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  7. ^ West, D.A.P., The Settlement on the Sound – Discovery and settlement of the Albany Region 1791–1831, Western Australian Museum, Perth, 1976, reprinted 2004. pp. 55–115.
  8. ^ Hutchison, D., Fremantle Walks, Fremantle Arts Centre Press, Fremantle, 2006, pp. 51–55.
  9. ^ a b The Amity Heritage Precinct www.museum.wa.gov.au. http://www.albanyaustralia.com/history.htm Retrieved 3 August 2007.
  10. ^ McHugh, Evan (2006). 1606: An Epic Adventure. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. pp. 44–57. ISBN 978-0-86840-866-8. 
  11. ^ Garden 1977, p.8.
  12. ^ Vancouver, George (1798). "2". A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round the World 1. London: G.G. & J. Robinson. p. 35. 
  13. ^ Garden 1977, p.9.
  14. ^ Baudin, Nicolas (trans. Christine Cornell), The Journal of Post Captain Nicolas Baudin, Libraries Board of South Australia, Adelaide, 1974.
  15. ^ a b c d "King George's Sound Settlement". State Records. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  16. ^ "Hoisted the Flag - Claim for Major Lockyer". The Argus (Melbourne). 12 January 1931. p. 6. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  17. ^ (pg. 19) Dowson 2008, Old Albany. ISBN 978-0-9805395-2-3
  18. ^ Western Australian Land Information Authority. "History of country town names". Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  19. ^ Western Australian Museum. "History of the Albany Port". Archived from the original on 1 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  20. ^ James Halliday (2009). The Australian Wine Encyclopedia. Hardie Grant Books. ISBN 978-1-74066-774-6. 
  21. ^ Garden 1977, p.5.
  22. ^ "PerthNow - Storm dumps record rainfall on Albany". 20 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-24. [dead link]
  23. ^ "Climate statistics for Albany". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 
  24. ^ "Albany Wind Farm". Verve Energy. 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  25. ^ Wind Energy in Western Australia Jade Carlton, www.sustainability.dpc.wa.gov.au. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
  26. ^ "Assessment Documentation - Patrick Taylor Cottage" (pdf). Register of Heritage Places. Heritage Council of Western Australia. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  27. ^ Former HMAS Perth Dive Wreck www.albany.wa.gov.au. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
  28. ^ "Overview Map". Track Info. Bibbulmun Track Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
Bibliography
  • Garden, Donald S. Albany : a panorama of the Sound from 1827. West Melbourne, Vic.: Thomas Nelson (Australia), 1977. ISBN 0-17-005167-6

External links[edit]

Wikisource[edit]