Albany, Western Australia

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This article is about the city of Albany. For the local government area, see City of Albany.
Albany
Western Australia
York Street Albany.jpg
York Street in Albany
Albany is located in Western Australia
Albany
Albany
Coordinates 35°01′22″S 117°52′53″E / 35.02278°S 117.88139°E / -35.02278; 117.88139Coordinates: 35°01′22″S 117°52′53″E / 35.02278°S 117.88139°E / -35.02278; 117.88139
Population 30,656 (2011 census)[1]
 • Density 281/km2 (730/sq mi)
Established 26 December 1826
Postcode(s) 6330
Area 89.8 km2 (34.7 sq mi)
Time zone AWST (UTC+8)
Location 408 km (254 mi) from Perth
LGA(s) City of Albany
State electorate(s) Albany
Federal Division(s) O'Connor
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
19.5 °C
67 °F
11.7 °C
53 °F
929.6 mm
36.6 in
Albany Entertainment Centre, opened December 2010.
Port of Albany
Albany, 1874 by Sir Whately Eliot
Scots Uniting Church Albany

Albany /ˈælbəni/ is a port city in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, 418 km SE of Perth, the state capital. Albany is the oldest permanently settled town in Western Australia, predating Perth and Fremantle by over two years. At the 2011 Census, Albany's population was 30,656, making it the state's sixth-largest population centre.[2]

The city centre is at the northern edge of Princess Royal Harbour, which is a part of King George Sound. The central business district is bounded by Mount Clarence to the east and Mount Melville to the west. The city is in the local government area of the City of Albany.

Albany was founded on 26 December 1826[3] as a military outpost of New South Wales as part of a plan to forestall French ambitions in the region. The area was initially named Frederick Town in honour of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany.[4][5][6] In 1831, the settlement was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony and renamed Albany by Lieutenant-Governor James Stirling.[7]

During the last decade of the 19th century the town served as a gateway to the Eastern Goldfields. For many years, it was the colony's only deep-water port, having a place of eminence on shipping services between Britain and its Australian colonies. The opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897,[8] however, saw its importance as a port decline, after which the town's industries turned primarily to agriculture, timber and later, whaling. Unlike Perth and Fremantle, Albany was a strong supporter of Federation in 1901.

Today the town is a significant tourist destination and base from which to explore the south-west of the state, and is well regarded for its natural beauty and preservation of heritage. The town has an important role in the ANZAC legend, being the last port of call for troopships departing Australia in the First World War.

History[edit]

The Albany region was home to the Menang Noongar people, who made use of the area during the summer months for fishing and other activities. They called the area Kinjarling which means "the place of rain".[9] Many town names in South-Western Australia end in "up" or "ing", which means "place of" in the Noongar language. They would sometimes camp near "Boondie Yokine" – roughly translated as Dog Rock.[9] Early European explorers discovered evidence of fish traps located on Emu Point and on the French, now the Kalgan, River and a small "village" of bark dwellings that were, at the time, deserted.

The coastline of the Albany area was observed for the first time in 1627 by the Dutchman François Thijssen, captain of the ship 't Gulden Zeepaert (The Golden Seahorse), who sailed to the east as far as Ceduna in South Australia and back. Captain Thijssen had discovered the south coast of Australia and charted about 1,800 kilometres (1,100 mi) of it between Cape Leeuwin and the Nuyts Archipelago.[10][11]

In 29 September 1791, explorer Captain George Vancouver while exploring the south coast, entered and named King George the Third's Sound and Princess Royal Harbour, and took possession of New Holland for the British Crown. Vancouver went out of his way to establish good relationships with the local Aboriginal people.[12][13]

Old Forts Lighthouse. King Point, Albany.
Convict gaol (1852)

In 1792, Frenchman Bruni d'Entrecasteaux, in charge of the Recherche and L'Esperance, reached Cape Leeuwin on 5 December and explored eastward along the southern coast. The expedition did not enter King George Sound due to bad weather.

In 1801, Matthew Flinders entered King George Sound and stayed for about a month before charting the rest of the southern Australian coastline. By 1806 he had completed the first circumnavigation of Australia.

French explorer Nicolas Baudin visited King George Sound from 18 February – 1 March 1803, in the Géographe and Casaurina. He surveyed Princess Royal Harbour, Oyster Harbour and the coast as far as Bald Island, to the east. During this visit, the Casaurina was beached in Princess Royal Harbour for repairs.[14]

Australian-born explorer Phillip Parker King visited King George Sound in 1822 on the Bathurst.

British Settlement[edit]

Albany Courthouse ca.1905
Freemason's Hotel, Albany ca. 1905
Emu Point Boat pens and ramp

In a letter dated 11 March 1826 Secretary of State for War and the Colonies Earl Bathurst instructed Governor of New South Wales Ralph Darling that if found suitable a settlement should be established at King George's Sound as it was located on the shipping route between Britain and Port Jackson.[15]

Major Edmund Lockyer was placed in command of the expedition by Governor Darling on 4 November 1826, and given instructions in case of an encounter with the French, that Lockyer was to land troops to signify to the French that "the whole of New Holland is subject to His Britannic Majesty's Government, and that orders have been given for the Establishment at King George's Sound of a Settlement for the reception of Criminals accordingly".[15]

On 26 October 1826, Frenchman Dumont d'Urville in the L'Astrolabe had visited King George Sound before sailing along the south coast to Port Jackson.

Lockyer and his expedition left Sydney on 9 November 1826 aboard HM brig Amity, with a detachment of twenty troops from the 39th Regiment, twenty-three convicts to assist in establishing the settlement, and six months provisions.[15]

Arriving at King George's Sound on 25 December 1826, Lockyer landed ashore early the next day and commenced a survey of the area. On 30 December the troops and prisoners were disembarked, setting up camp and landing stores. On 21 January 1827, as instructed by the Colonial Secretary, the Union Jack was raised and a feu de joie fired by the troops, formally annexing the territory, in assertion of the first official claim by the Imperial Government to British possession over the whole continent of Australia.[15][16]

Lockyer rescued Aboriginal women from offshore islands, who had been kidnapped by sealers operating in the Great Australian Bight as sexual slaves, and apprehended the culprits, sending them east to stand trial. As a result, the local Minang Noongar organised a corroboree in his honour, cementing the good relationships established earlier between local Aboriginal groups of the area and European explorers.

Lockyer left for Sydney on 3 April 1827, handing over command to Captain Joseph Wakefield. King George's Sound continued as a penal settlement for several years. Lieutenant George Sleeman took over as Commandant on 6 December 1828, followed by Captain Collett Barker on 3 December 1829.[15]

To the north at the Swan River, a new Colony, envisaged from the outset as a free settlement, was founded and proclaimed on 18 June 1829. Not only did the settlers of Swan River object to the presence of convicts within the Colony, but its commander James Stirling was unhappy having a military outpost within Western Australia under the command of the Governor of New South Wales. Given the inconvenience and expense of maintaining King George's Sound from Sydney, Governor Darling took the political opportunity and on 7 March 1831 the settlement was made part of the Swan River Colony and the convicts and military garrison were withdrawn to New South Wales.[15][17]

Albany was officially named by Lieutenant-Governor Stirling from 1 January 1832, after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, second son of King George III.[18][19]

In 1841 Albany was the final destination of explorer Edward John Eyre, the first person to reach Western Australia overland from the eastern colonies.

The old Albany Courthouse, built 1898

Until the opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897,[20] Albany was also home to the only deep-water port in Western Australia, Princess Royal Harbour. This is the largest natural harbour in Western Australia and also on the entire south coast of the Australian mainland, outside of Melbourne. This facility meant that, for many years, the first port of call for the mail from England was at Albany. This put Albany in a privileged position over Perth and it remained that way until engineer C. Y. O'Connor removed the bar that was blocking the entrance into the Swan River, constructing the Fremantle Inner Harbour, thus establishing this port as Western Australia's major harbour.

Since that time, Albany has become popular with retirees, with inhabitants enjoying the fresh air, clean beaches, and fine views over the Southern Ocean It is still also a thriving regional centre.

The Albany hospital was redeveloped as part of the Royalties for Regions initiative was opened in 2013. Renamed the Albany Health Campus the project cost A$170 million and is the largest regional hospital project in the states history.[21]

The Albany Entertainment Centre was opened in 2010 as part of waterfront redevelopments on lands adjacent to Albany Port. The National Anzac Centre was opened in 2014[22] in preparation for Anzac Centenary. The centre is situated within the Princess Royal Fortress Military Museum Precinct[23] near Mount Clarence.

World War I[edit]

Ships carrying the Australian Imperial Force and the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (later known collectively as ANZACs) to Egypt to join World War I gathered at Albany in late October 1914. The first detachment departed in convoy on 1 November 1914, with a second detachment departing in late December 1914. Albany was the last place in Australia that these ANZACs saw. The Albany Anzac Peace Park and the Pier of Remembrance were dedicated in 2010, as a precursor to centenary commemorations planned for 2014–2018.

The First Australian and New Zealand Expeditionary Force Fleet (1st Detachment) comprised the escort vessels HMS Minotaur of the Royal Navy's China Station, Japanese battlecruiser Ibuki, the Australian cruisers Melbourne and Sydney, and the Royal New Zealand Squadron warships Pyramus, Psyche, and Philomel.[citation needed] These warships protected a 38-strong convoy, consisting of the Australian troopships Hymettus, Geelong, Orvieto (which was fleet command vessel), Pera, Omrah, Clan Maccorquordale, Medic, Argyllshire, Shropshire, Karoo, Ascanius, Saldanha, Katuna, Euripides, Star of England, Star of Victoria, Port Lincoln, Wiltshire, Afric, Hororata, Morene, Rangatira, Suffolk, Benalla, Anglo-Egyptian, Armadale, Southern, and Militiades, plus the New Zealand transports Maunganui, Tahiti, Ruapehu, Orari, Limerick, Star of India, Hawke's Bay, Arawa, Athenic, and Waimana.[citation needed]

The Desert Mounted Corps Memorial on top of Mount Clarence is in memory of the dead of the Australian Light Horse Brigade, the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade and the Imperial Camel Corps from 1916 to 1918. The memorial consists of a statue of an Australian mounted soldier assisting a New Zealand soldier whose horse has been wounded and a wall bearing the words "Lest We Forget". The first recorded Dawn Service was conducted by Anglican Chaplain Padre Arthur Earnest White (44th Battalion AIF) on 25 April 1923 atop Mount Clarence, and has been held ever since with several thousand people participating each year. Atop the adjoining Mount Adelaide is the Princess Royal Fortress - gun emplacements, buildings and a collection of military memorablilia to honour the sacrifice of Australian Defence Force personnel spanning the Boer War to today. The contribution of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, president of Turkey from 1923 until 1938, is recognised by naming the entrance into Princess Royal Harbour as Atatürk Entrance, and there is a statue / monument overlooking the entrance on the Marine Drive walking trail.

In 2014 the centenary of the troops leaving Albany was commemorated. Approximately 40,000 people, including the Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott and New Zealand Prime Minister John Key, marked the occasion by attending ceremonies around the town.[24] The event injected about A$30 million into the local economy.[25]

Geography[edit]

Middleton Beach, Albany

The city centre of Albany is located between the hills of Mount Melville and Mount Clarence, which look down into Princess Royal Harbour. Many beaches surround Albany, with Middleton Beach being the closest to the town centre. Other popular beaches include Frenchman Bay and Muttonbird Island.

Albany is 418 kilometres (260 mi) SSE of the state capital, Perth, to which it is linked by Albany Highway.

Wine region[edit]

Albany is in a sub-region of the Great Southern region of Western Australia.[26]

Coastline[edit]

King George Sound, painted in 1803 by William Westall
View of Lake Seppings from Mount Clarence

The Albany coastline is notorious for deaths due to king waves washing people off rocks. On the otherwise picturesque coastline there are many beaches that are safe and usable:

Climate[edit]

Albany has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) with dry, warm summers, mild, wet winters, and pleasant springs and autumns.[27] Summers have short spells of very hot weather, but cool ocean breeze brings relief, especially during evenings and nights. The city is situated on what is promoted as the "Rainbow Coast", an appropriate title given the frequency of days with both sun and drizzle or showers. Albany has 44.8 clear days annually.

July is the wettest month, with a long-term average of 144.0 mm (5.67 in). Rain in excess of 0.2 millimetres (0.01 in) occurs on two days out of every three during an average winter. The driest month is February with a mean of 22.9 mm (0.90 in).

Albany received a record amount of rain on 20 November 2008 when violent storms swept across the Great Southern region. The town was flooded after 113.8 mm (4.48 in) of rain fell in a 24-hour period, the highest amount recorded since rainfall records began in 1877.[28] The wettest month on record was June 1920 when 292.8 millimetres (11.5 in) fell, while February 1877 and February 1879 remain the only rainless months.

Climate data for Albany
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 41.7
(107.1)
44.8
(112.6)
40.8
(105.4)
37.7
(99.9)
35.2
(95.4)
24.6
(76.3)
22.8
(73)
27.3
(81.1)
30.6
(87.1)
36.2
(97.2)
41.1
(106)
42.2
(108)
44.8
(112.6)
Average high °C (°F) 22.8
(73)
22.9
(73.2)
22.2
(72)
20.8
(69.4)
18.6
(65.5)
16.5
(61.7)
15.7
(60.3)
16.3
(61.3)
17.2
(63)
18.4
(65.1)
20.3
(68.5)
21.8
(71.2)
19.5
(67.1)
Average low °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
15.4
(59.7)
14.6
(58.3)
12.7
(54.9)
10.7
(51.3)
9.0
(48.2)
8.1
(46.6)
8.3
(46.9)
9.2
(48.6)
10.4
(50.7)
12.4
(54.3)
14.0
(57.2)
11.7
(53.1)
Record low °C (°F) 10.0
(50)
7.2
(45)
6.1
(43)
4.8
(40.6)
2.4
(36.3)
1.7
(35.1)
0.1
(32.2)
1.6
(34.9)
2.0
(35.6)
3.4
(38.1)
5.6
(42.1)
6.7
(44.1)
0.1
(32.2)
Rainfall mm (inches) 23.9
(0.941)
22.8
(0.898)
38.2
(1.504)
69.0
(2.717)
117.2
(4.614)
133.8
(5.268)
143.6
(5.654)
126.0
(4.961)
101.3
(3.988)
79.2
(3.118)
44.9
(1.768)
29.7
(1.169)
929.6
(36.6)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 3.4 3.4 5.3 8.0 11.1 12.5 13.9 13.0 11.4 9.5 6.5 4.3 102.3
 % humidity 67 67 69 69 70 70 70 68 69 70 68 67 68.7
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology[29]

Industry[edit]

Albany's main industries are tourism, fishing, timber (wood chips) and agriculture. From 1952 to 1978 whaling was a major source of income and employment for the local population.

Sperm whale remains at the Albany Whaling Station in July 1977

The Whaling Station, which closed operations in 1978, has been converted to a museum of whaling, and features one of the 'Cheynes' whale chasers that were used for whaling in Albany. The station was the last operating whaling station in the southern hemisphere and the English-speaking world at the time of closure.

Wind farm at Albany

The Western Power Wind Farm is located at Sand Patch, to the west of Albany. The wind farm, originally commissioned in 2001 with 12 turbines, now has 18 turbines, driven by strong southerly winds, and can generate up to 80%[30] of the city's electricity usage.[31]

Albany has a number of historical sites including the Museum, Albany Convict Gaol, The Princess Royal Fortress (commonly known as The Forts) and Patrick Taylor Cottage, one of the oldest dwellings in Western Australia, c1832.[32] Albany has a great deal of historical significance to Western Australia.

Natural sights are also numerous, especially the rugged coastline, which includes the Natural Bridge and the Gap. The beaches have pristine white sand. The destroyer HMAS Perth was sunk in King George Sound in 2001 as a dive wreck.[33] Albany is also close to two low mountain ranges, the Porongurups and Stirling Ranges.

Albany is the southern terminus of the Bibbulmun Track walking trail.[34]

Albany is home to HMAS Albany (based in Darwin) and the adopted home port of the Royal Australian Navy frigate HMAS Anzac. Albany is frequently visited by other warships.

Transport[edit]

Albany has a town bus service run by Loves bus service with 5 town routes. Albany is connected to Perth with road-coach services via Walpole and Bunbury; via Katanning and Northam; via Kojonup and Williams. A coach service also serves Jerramungup, Ravensthorpe and Hopetoun.

There is an air connection to Perth from the Albany Airport serviced by Virgin Australia Regional Airlines using Fokker 50 aircraft.

Media[edit]

Albany radio stations include RadioWest (formerly 6VA), GOLD MX, Rete Italia, Vision FM, Fly FM Albany, HOT FM, ABC South Coast, ABC NewsRadio, ABC Radio National, ABC Classic FM, Triple J, Racing Radio & Albany Community Radio.

Below is a table showing the broadcast frequencies on which these services can be received.

Service Broadcast Frequency
ABC Local Radio 630 kHz AM
RadioWest 783 kHz AM
GOLD MX 1611 kHz AM
Rete Italia 1629 kHz AM
Vision FM (Local) 87.6 MHz FM
Fly FM 88.0 MHz FM
ABC NewsRadio 92.1 MHz FM
Triple J 92.9 MHz FM
Vision FM 93.7 MHz FM
ABC Classic FM 94.5 MHz FM
Hot FM 95.3 MHz FM
ABC Radio National 96.9 MHz FM
Albany Community Radio 100.9 MHz FM
Racing Radio 104.9 MHz FM
Hot FM (Local) 106.5 MHz FM

Localised television stations available in Albany include GWN7, WIN Television Western Australia, Ten West, SBS and ABC Television Western Australia. GWN7 broadcasts a half-hour news program for regional WA, GWN7 News, at 5:30pm on weeknights with a district newsroom covering Albany and surrounding areas based in the city.

Below is a table showing the full suite of digital television services available in Albany. These services are broadcast from Mount Clarence and cover the majority of the geographic area with some areas requiring signal to be received from the Southern Agricultural site at Mount Barker. Both these transmission sites employ VERTICAL POLARITY. Furthermore a number of residents rely on receiving these services via satellite using the Viewer Access Satellite Television (VAST) system.

LCN Channel Name Broadcast Ch. No. Broadcast Frequency
2 ABC UHF 43 634.5 MHz
3 SBS ONE UHF 41 620.625 MHz
5 TEN UHF 44 641.5 MHz
6 GWN7 UHF 45 648.5 MHz
8 WIN UHF 42 627.5 MHz
21 ABC UHF 43 634.5 MHz
22 ABC2/ABC4 UHF 43 634.5 MHz
23 ABC3 UHF 43 634.5 MHz
24 ABC NEWS 24 UHF 43 634.5 MHz
30 SBS HD UHF 41 620.625 MHz
32 SBS2 UHF 41 620.625 MHz
33 SBS3 UHF 41 620.625 MHz
34 NITV UHF 41 620.625 MHz
50 ONE UHF 44 641.5 MHz
55 ELEVEN UHF 44 641.5 MHz
62 7TWO UHF 45 648.5 MHz
63 7mate UHF 45 648.5 MHz
64 4ME UHF 45 648.5 MHz
80 GEM UHF 42 627.5 MHz
82 GOLD2 UHF 42 627.5 MHz
84 GOLD UHF 42 627.5 MHz
88 GO! UHF 42 627.5 MHz

Local newspapers are the Albany Advertiser (established 1888) and The Extra, (owned by Seven West Media Limited, publishers of The West Australian), and The Great Southern Weekender, independently owned but part of the Fairfax Media regional group.

Education[edit]

There are currently several primary schools, 8 high schools and 1 university in the Albany area.

Albany Senior High School

Primary schools[edit]

  • Albany Primary School
  • Flinders Park Primary
  • Mount Lockyer Primary
  • Parklands School
  • Spencer Park Primary
  • Yakamia Primary
  • Woodbury Boston Primary School
  • Woodthorpe School
  • Little Grove Primary School
Great Southern Grammar Gym

High schools[edit]

Universities[edit]

  • University of Western Australia
  • Curtin University of Technology

TAFE[edit]

  • Great Southern Institute of Technology

Localities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Albany (SUA)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  2. ^ About Albany City of Albany, accessed 1 December 2009
  3. ^ Battye, James Sykes (1924). Western Australia: A History from Its Discovery to the Inauguration of the Commonwealth. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 61. 
  4. ^ Nind, Isaac Scott (7 February 1828). "View of Frederick Town, King Georges Sound, at the expiration of the first year of its settlement" (pdf). Manuscripts, Oral History and Pictures. State Library of New South Wales. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  5. ^ Nind, Isaac Scott (1832). "Description of the Natives of King George's Sound (Swan River Colony) and Adjoining Country". The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 1: 12. JSTOR 1797657. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  6. ^ Wilson, Thomas Braidwood (1835). "Formation of the Settlement at King George's Sound". Narrative of a Voyage Round the World. London: Sherwood Gilbert & Piper. p. 281. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  7. ^ West, D.A.P., The Settlement on the Sound – Discovery and settlement of the Albany Region 1791–1831, Western Australian Museum, Perth, 1976, reprinted 2004. pp. 55–115.
  8. ^ Hutchison, D., Fremantle Walks, Fremantle Arts Centre Press, Fremantle, 2006, pp. 51–55.
  9. ^ a b The Amity Heritage Precinct www.museum.wa.gov.au. http://www.albanyaustralia.com/history.htm Retrieved 3 August 2007.
  10. ^ McHugh, Evan (2006). 1606: An Epic Adventure. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. pp. 44–57. ISBN 978-0-86840-866-8. 
  11. ^ Garden 1977, p.8.
  12. ^ Vancouver, George (1798). "2". A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round the World 1. London: G.G. & J. Robinson. p. 35. 
  13. ^ Garden 1977, p.9.
  14. ^ Baudin, Nicolas (trans. Christine Cornell), The Journal of Post Captain Nicolas Baudin, Libraries Board of South Australia, Adelaide, 1974.
  15. ^ a b c d e f "King George's Sound Settlement". State Records. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  16. ^ "Hoisted the Flag - Claim for Major Lockyer". The Argus (Melbourne). 12 January 1931. p. 6. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  17. ^ (pg. 19) Dowson 2008, Old Albany. ISBN 978-0-9805395-2-3
  18. ^ Uren, Malcolm John Leggoe (1948). Land Looking West: The Story of Governor James Stirling in Western Australia. London: Oxford University Press. p. 24. 
  19. ^ Western Australian Land Information Authority. "History of country town names". Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  20. ^ Western Australian Museum. "History of the Albany Port". Archived from the original on 1 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  21. ^ "New $170m Albany Health Campus opened, Grylls". Nationals WA. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  22. ^ Paige Taylor (30 October 2014). "Albany rekindles its Anzac bonds". The Australian. News Limited. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  23. ^ "National Anzac Centre, Albany". Anzac Albany. 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  24. ^ Rebecca Trigger and Chloe Papas (1 November 2014). "Albany Anzac centenary: WA port town honours WWI troops". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  25. ^ Shannon Hampton (7 November 2014). "Albany's $30m windfall". Albany Advertiser. Yahhoo7. Retrieved 10 November 2014. 
  26. ^ James Halliday (2009). The Australian Wine Encyclopedia. Hardie Grant Books. ISBN 978-1-74066-774-6. 
  27. ^ Garden 1977, p.5.
  28. ^ "PerthNow - Storm dumps record rainfall on Albany". 20 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-24. [dead link]
  29. ^ "Climate statistics for Albany". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 
  30. ^ "Albany Wind Farm". Verve Energy. 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  31. ^ Wind Energy in Western Australia Jade Carlton, www.sustainability.dpc.wa.gov.au. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
  32. ^ "Assessment Documentation - Patrick Taylor Cottage" (pdf). Register of Heritage Places. Heritage Council of Western Australia. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  33. ^ Former HMAS Perth Dive Wreck www.albany.wa.gov.au. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
  34. ^ "Overview Map". Track Info. Bibbulmun Track Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
Bibliography
  • Garden, Donald S. Albany : a panorama of the Sound from 1827. West Melbourne, Vic.: Thomas Nelson (Australia), 1977. ISBN 0-17-005167-6

External links[edit]

Wikisource[edit]