|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Melting point||208 to 210 °C (406 to 410 °F)|
|(what is this?)|
Albendazole, marketed as Albenza among others, is a benzimidazole medication used for the treatment of a variety of parasitic worm infestations. It is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, effective against roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.
Albendazole is used for a wide range of diseases caused by parasitic worms including: giardiasis, trichuriasis, filariasis, neurocysticercosis, hydatid disease, enterobiasis, and ascariasis, among others.
Potentially serious side effects include bone marrow suppression which usually improves on stopping the medication. Liver inflammation has been reported and those with prior liver problems are at greater risk. Common side effects include: nausea, abdominal pains, and headaches. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category D in Australia, meaning it may cause harm if taken by a pregnant women.
Albendazole was first discovered at the SmithKline Animal Health Laboratories in 1972. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system. It is marketed in the U.S. by Amedra Pharmaceuticals, and by GlaxoSmithKline in international markets.
It is effective first-line of treatment against:
In Africa, albendazole is being used to treat lymphatic filariasis as part of efforts to stop transmission of the disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, albendazole is used in conjunction with ivermectin, and elsewhere in the world, the medicine is used in combination with diethylcarbamazine.
Albendazole may cause abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, or temporary hair loss.
In rare cases, it may cause persistent sore throat, severe headache, seizures, vision problems, yellowing eyes or skin, dark urine, stomach pain, easy bruising, mental/mood changes, very stiff neck, or changes in amount of urine. Elevation of liver enzymes during treatment is a common side effect, but in rare cases, acute liver failure has been reported. Allergic reactions are also possible.
Rarely, albendazole has been reported to cause marrow suppression, agranulocytosis, or aplastic anemia, which may be permanent. The risk of developing this side effect seems to be increased in patients with liver disease, including echinococcal cysts. Because of this dangerous side effect, it is important to regularly monitor complete blood counts.
Antacids/histamine H2 antagonists
The drug cimetidine heightens serum albendazole concentrations, and increases the half life of albendazole. This might be a helpful interaction on more severe cases, because it boosts the potency of albendazole.
Hypersensitivity to the benzimidazole class of compounds contraindicates its use.
In Australia, albendazole is assigned class D. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown trace amounts of albendazole appears in semen. Given its potential for teratogenicity, the manufacturers advise the male sexual partner should use adequate protections. It should not be taken when pregnant, and within one month after taking this drug.
Mechanism of action
As a vermicidal, albendazole causes degenerative alterations in the intestinal cells of the worm by binding to the colchicine-sensitive site of tubulin, thus inhibiting its polymerization or assembly into microtubules. The loss of the cytoplasmic microtubules leads to impaired uptake of glucose by the larval and adult stages of the susceptible parasites, and depletes their glycogen stores. Degenerative changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, the mitochondria of the germinal layer, and the subsequent release of lysosome.
Brand names include: Albenza, Eskazole, Zentel, Andazol,Noworm and Alworm.
Albendazole has been used as an anthelmintic and for control of flukes in a variety of animal species, including cattle, sheep, goats, swine, camels, dogs, cats, elephants, poultry, and others. In many countries, it is very commonly used for ruminant livestock. For use in livestock, albendazole is marketed by Zoetis (formerly Pfizer Animal Health) in numerous countries (including the United States and Canada) as Valbazen in oral suspension and paste formulations; by Interchemie in the Netherlands and elsewhere as Albenol-100; by Channelle Animal Health Ltd. in the United Kingdom as Albex; and by Ravensdown in New Zealand as Albendazole. Although most formulations are administered orally, Ricomax (ricobendazole, or albendazole sulfoxide) is administered by subcutaneous injection.
Labeled usage (with regard to host species, dosage, withdrawal intervals, reproductive or lactational status, etc.) varies among nations. The US label for Valbazen oral suspension provides examples of some considerations in albendazole use in animals. It specifies dosage of 10 mg of albendazole per kg live mass for cattle and goats and 7.5 mg per kg live mass for sheep. With an albendazole concentration of 113.6 mg/ml in the suspension, these dosages are equivalent to 4 ml and 3 ml of suspension, respectively, per 100 pounds of body weight. Minimum intervals between administration and slaughter for food are 27 days (cattle) and 7 days (sheep and goats). This anthelmintic is not approved for use in female dairy cattle of breeding age or lactating does . The US label indicates albendazole is not to be administered to female cattle during the first 45 days of pregnancy or for 45 days after removal of bulls; or to ewes or does in the first 30 days of pregnancy or for 30 days after removal of rams or bucks.
The limitations relating to early pregnancy are due to a limited period during which teratogenic effects may occur. Summarized research data relating to the durations of these preslaughter and early pregnancy periods when albendazole should not be administered are found in US FDA NADA 110-048 (cattle) and 140-934 (sheep). Some data and inferences regarding goats are found in US FDA Supplemental NADA 110-048 (approved January 24, 2008).
Maximum residue limits (MRLs) for albendazole in food, adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius in 1993, are 5000, 5000, 100, and 100 micrograms/kg for kidney, liver, fat, and muscle, respectively, and 100 micrograms/l for milk. For analysis purposes, MRLs of various nations may pertain to concentration of a marker substance which has been correlated with concentrations of the administered substance and its metabolized products. For example, in Canada, the marker substance specified by Health Canada is albendazole-2-aminosulfone, for which the MRL in liver of cattle is 200 micrograms per kg.
Since 2010, the U.S. price of albendazole has increased by >4000% to over US$100 per 200-mg tablet. Amedra Pharmaceuticals is the U.S. distributor. GlaxoSmithKline retains distribution rights in all markets outside the U.S. The international wholesale price is typically less than US$0.05 per 200-mg tablet. In 2013, GlaxoSmithKline donated 763 million albendazole tablets for the treatment and prevention of parasitic infections in developing countries, bringing the total to over 4 billion tablets donated since 1998.
- "Albenza, (albendazole) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". Medscape Reference. WebMD. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Phenobarbital". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved Oct 14, 2014.
- Theodorides VJ, Gyurik RJ, Kingsbury WD, Parish RC (1976). "Anthelmintic Activity of Albendazole Against Liver Flukes, Tapeworms, Lung and Gastrointestinal Roundworms". Experientia 32 (8): 702–703. doi:10.1007/BF01919842. PMID 950011.
- "Albendazole". Monograph. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
AHFSwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
Cite error: The named reference
- "Prescribing medicines in pregnancy database". Australian Government. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines". World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "CorePharma and GlaxoSmithKline conclude agreement on US rights for Dexedrine®, Albenza® and Daraprim®".
- Horton J (2003). "Albendazole for the Treatment of Echinococcosis". Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 17 (2): 205–212. doi:10.1046/j.1472-8206.2003.00171.x. PMID 12667231.
- The Carter Center. "Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program". Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- Karabay O, Tamer A, Gunduz H, Kayas D, Arinc H, Celebi H (2004). "Albendazole versus Metronidazole Treatment of Adult Giardiasis: An Open Randomized Clinical Study" (pdf). World Journal of Gastroenterology 10 (8): 1215–1217. PMID 15069729.
- "Albenza (Albendazole) – Warnings and Precautions". Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Lanchote VL, Garcia FS, Dreossi SA, Takayanagui OM (2002). "Pharmacokinetic interaction between albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers and antiepileptic drugs in patients with neurocysticercosis". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 24 (3): 338–345. doi:10.1097/00007691-200206000-00003. PMID 12021623.
- Schipper HG, Koopmans RP, Nagy J, Butter JJ, Kager PA, van Boxtel CJ (2000). "Effect of dose increase or cimetidine co-administration on albendazole bioavailability" (pdf). The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 63 (5–6): 270–273. PMID 11421376.
- Wen H, Zhang HW, Muhmut M, Zou PF, New RR, Craig PS (1994). "Initial observation on albendazole in combination with cimetidine for the treatment of human cystic echinococcosis". Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 88 (1): 49–52. PMID 8192515.
- Gustavsen, KM; Bradley, MH; Wright, AL (Oct 2009). "GlaxoSmithKline and Merck: private-sector collaboration for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis.". Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology. 103 Suppl 1: S11–5. doi:10.1179/000349809X12502035776478. PMID 19843393.
- The Carter Center Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program
- MedicineNet article
- Albenza description at RxList