|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
||It has been suggested that Boston Strangler be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since July 2013.|
September 3, 1931|
|Died||November 25, 1973
|Cause of death||stabbed to death|
|Other names||The Boston Strangler
Mad Strangler of Boston
The Measuring Man
The Green Man
|Criminal penalty||Life imprisonment|
|Number of victims||13 (disputed)|
|Span of killings||June 14, 1962–January 4, 1964|
|Date apprehended||October 27, 1964|
Albert Henry DeSalvo (September 3, 1931 – November 25, 1973) was a criminal in Boston, Massachusetts, who confessed to being the "Boston Strangler", the murderer of thirteen women in the Boston area. DeSalvo was not imprisoned for these murders, however, but for a series of rapes. His murder confession has been disputed and debate continues as to which crimes DeSalvo had actually committed.
In July 2013, a DNA match between material found at the scene of the rape and murder of Mary Sullivan and DNA obtained from DeSalvo's nephew linked Albert Henry DeSalvo to that crime and excluded 99.9 percent of the population.
Authorities seeking a perfect, 100% DNA match exhumed DeSalvo's remains on July 12, 2013.
DeSalvo was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, to Frank and Charlotte DeSalvo. His father was a violent alcoholic, who at one point knocked out all of his wife's teeth and bent her fingers back until they broke. DeSalvo tortured animals as a child, and began shoplifting and stealing in early adolescence, frequently crossing paths with the law.
In November 1943, the 12-year-old DeSalvo was first arrested for battery and robbery. In December of the same year he was sent to the Lyman School for Boys. In October 1944, he was paroled and started working as a delivery boy. In August 1946, he returned to the Lyman School for stealing an automobile. After completing his second sentence, DeSalvo joined the Army. He was honorably discharged after his first tour of duty. He re-enlisted and, in spite of being tried in a court-martial, DeSalvo was again honorably discharged. DeSalvo served with the 2nd Squadron, 14th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Pictures of DeSalvo being arrested on Saturday February 25, 1967 show him in US Navy Dress Blue Uniform with Petty Officer 3rd insignia on his sleeve.
Between June 14, 1962, and January 4, 1964, 13 single women between the ages of 19 and 85 were murdered in the Boston area; they were eventually tied to the Boston Strangler. Most of the women were sexually assaulted in their apartments, and then strangled with articles of clothing. The eldest victim died of a heart attack. Two others were stabbed to death, one of whom was also badly beaten. Without any sign of forced entry into their dwellings, the women were assumed to have either known their killer or voluntarily allowed him into their homes. The police were not convinced that all of these murders were the work of a single individual, especially because of the wide gap in the victims' ages; much of the public, on the other hand, readily accepted that the crimes were committed by one person.
In the fall of 1964, in addition to the Strangler murders, the police were also trying to solve a series of rapes committed by a man who had been dubbed the "Measuring Man" or the "Green Man". On October 27, 1964, a stranger entered a young woman's home in East Cambridge posing as a detective. He tied his victim to her bed, proceeded to sexually assault her, and suddenly left, saying "I'm sorry" as he went. The woman's description led police to identify the assailant as DeSalvo and when his photo was published, many women identified him as the man who had assaulted them. Earlier on October 27, DeSalvo had posed as a motorist with car trouble and attempted to enter a home in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. The owner of the home, future Brockton Police Chief Richard Sproles, became suspicious and ultimately fired a shotgun at DeSalvo.
Under arrest for his role in the "Green Man" rapes, DeSalvo was not suspected of being involved with the murders. Only after he was charged with rape did he give a detailed confession of his activities as the Boston Strangler, both under hypnosis induced by William Joseph Bryan and also without hypnosis during interviews with Assistant Attorney General John Bottomly. He initially confessed to fellow inmate George Nassar, who then notified his attorney, F. Lee Bailey. Bailey took DeSalvo's case. Though there were some inconsistencies, DeSalvo was able to cite details which had not been made public. However, there was no physical evidence to substantiate his confession. As such, he stood trial for earlier, unrelated crimes of robbery and sexual offenses. Bailey brought up the confession to the murders as part of his client's history at the trial as part of an insanity defense, but it was ruled as inadmissible by the judge.
For his 1967 trial, DeSalvo was mentally evaluated by Dr. Harry Kozol, also of Eugene O'Neill and Patty Hearst fame. Bailey engaged a plea bargain to lock in his client's guilt in exchange for taking the death penalty off of the table and also to preserve the possibility of an eventual insanity verdict. Bailey was angered by the jury's decision to put DeSalvo in prison for life: "My goal was to see the Strangler wind up in a hospital, where doctors could try to find out what made him kill. Society is deprived of a study that might help deter other mass killers who lived among us, waiting for the trigger to go off inside them."
Imprisonment and death
DeSalvo was sentenced to life in prison in 1967. In February of that year, he escaped with two fellow inmates from Bridgewater State Hospital, triggering a full-scale manhunt. A note was found on his bunk addressed to the superintendent. In it, DeSalvo stated he had escaped to focus attention on the conditions in the hospital and his own situation. The day after the escape, he turned himself in to his lawyer in Lynn, Massachusetts. Following the escape, he was transferred to the maximum security prison known at the time as Walpole, where he later recanted his Strangler confessions. In 1973, he was found stabbed to death in the prison infirmary. Robert Wilson, who was associated with the Winter Hill Gang, was tried for DeSalvo's murder but the trial ended in a hung jury – no one was ever convicted for his murder.
DeSalvo's papers are housed in the Lloyd Sealy Library Special Collections at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City. His papers include his correspondence, mainly with the members of the Bailey family, and gifts sent to the Baileys of jewelery and leatherwork crafted by DeSalvo while in prison.
On July 11, 2013, Boston law enforcement officials announced DNA found that links DeSalvo to the rape and murder of 19-year-old Mary Sullivan. DeSalvo's remains were exhumed, and the Suffolk District Attorney Daniel F. Conley said he expected investigators to find an exact match when the evidence is compared with his DNA.
On July 19, 2013 Suffolk County DA Daniel F. Conley, Mass. Attorney General Martha Coakley and Boston Police Commissioner Edward F. Davis announced the DNA test results proving Albert Henry DeSalvo was the source of seminal fluid recovered at the scene of Sullivan's 1964 murder.
Lingering doubts remain as to whether DeSalvo was indeed the Boston Strangler – and whether the real murderer could still be at large. When he confessed, people who knew him personally did not believe him capable of the crimes. It was also noted that the women allegedly killed by "The Strangler" were of widely varying ages, social strata and ethnicities, and that their deaths involved inconsistent modus operandi.
Susan Kelly, an author who has had access to the files of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts' "Strangler Bureau", argued in her book that the murders were the work of several killers, rather than that of a single individual. Another author, former FBI profiler Robert Ressler, has said that, "You're putting together so many different patterns [regarding the Boston Strangler murders] that it's inconceivable behaviorally that all these could fit one individual."
In 2000, Elaine Whitfield Sharp, an attorney specializing in forensic cases from Marblehead, Massachusetts, began representing the families of DeSalvo and of Mary A. Sullivan – a 19-year old who was among the Strangler's final victims in 1964 – both to clear DeSalvo's name and to re-ignite efforts to find her real killer. A former print journalist, Sharp obtained court approval to exhume both Sullivan and DeSalvo for DNA testing, filed several court actions to obtain information and physical evidence from the government, and worked with various film producers to create documentaries so as to better educate the public. Through these efforts, Sharp was able to identify several inconsistencies between DeSalvo's confessions and the crime scene evidence, casting even more doubts over DeSalvo's identity as the Boston Strangler.
For example, contrary to DeSalvo's statement that he first raped Sullivan, the forensic investigation revealed no evidence to support that claim. Also, he did not, as he claimed, strangle her with his bare hands; instead, she was strangled by ligature. Forensic pathologist Michael Baden noted that DeSalvo incorrectly stated the time of the victim's death — a detail that DeSalvo got wrong in several of the murders, said Susan Kelly. More importantly still, James Starrs, professor of forensic science at George Washington University, told a news conference that a semen-like substance on her body did not match DeSalvo's DNA and could not associate him with her murder.
The victim's nephew, Casey Sherman, also wrote a book, A Rose for Mary (2003), in which he expanded upon the evidence — and leads from Kelly's book — to conclude that DeSalvo could not be responsible for her death, and to try to determine her killer's identity. Sharp continues to work on the case for the DeSalvo family.
On July 11, 2013, Suffolk County District Attorney Daniel F. Conley stated that DNA testing had revealed a "familial match" between DeSalvo and forensic evidence in the Sullivan killing, leading authorities to request the exhumation of DeSalvo's body in order to provide a definitive forensic link of DeSalvo to the murder of Mary Sullivan.
George Nassar, the inmate DeSalvo reportedly confessed to, is among the suspects in the case. He is currently serving a life sentence for the 1967 shooting death of an Andover, Massachusetts gas station attendant. In 2008 and again in 2009, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court denied Nassar's appeals of his 1967 conviction. In 2006, Nassar argued in court filings that he had been unable to make his case in a previous appeal, because he was in federal prison in Leavenworth, Kansas in the 1980s and therefore did not have access to Massachusetts legal resources. The court noted that Nassar had returned to Massachusetts in 1983, yet he did not plead his case for more than two decades. Nassar also filed a motion for a new trial in Essex County, which was denied, as was his 2011 petition to the United States Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari.
Ames Robey, a former prison psychologist who analyzed both DeSalvo and Nassar, has called Nassar a misogynistic, psychopathic killer and a far more likely suspect than DeSalvo. Several followers of the case have also declared Nassar to be the real Strangler, claiming that he fed details of the murders to DeSalvo. DeSalvo, they speculated, knew that he would spend the rest of his life in jail for the "Green Man" attacks, and "confessed" so that Nassar could collect reward money that they would split – thus providing support to DeSalvo's wife and two children. Another motive was his tremendous need for notoriety – DeSalvo hoped that the case would make him world famous; Robey testified that "Albert so badly wanted to be the Strangler."
In a 1999 interview with The Boston Globe, Nassar denied involvement in the murders, saying that the speculation had killed his chances for parole. "I had nothing to do with it," he said, "I'm convicted under the table, behind the scenes."
In 1971, the Texas legislature unanimously passed a resolution honoring DeSalvo for his work in 'population control' – after the vote, Waco Representative Tom Moore, Jr. admitted that he had submitted the legislation as an April Fool's Day joke against his colleagues — his declared intent was to prove that they pass legislation with no due diligence given to researching the issues beforehand. Having made his point, he withdrew the resolution.
References in popular culture
- DeSalvo was the subject of the 1968 Hollywood film The Boston Strangler, starring Tony Curtis as DeSalvo, and Henry Fonda and George Kennedy as the homicide detectives who apprehend him. The movie was highly fictionalized: It assumed DeSalvo was guilty, and it portrayed him as suffering from multiple personality disorder and committing the murders while in a psychotic state. DeSalvo was never diagnosed with, or even suspected of having, that disorder.
- DeSalvo was one of the serial killers whose murders were recreated by the killer in the movie Copycat.
- The spirit of DeSalvo is summoned by sheriff Lucas Buck to destroy the ghost of Caleb's sister on the American Gothic episode Strangler.
- DeSalvo's name was used for the character Andrew DeSalvo, a fictional character in Silent Hill 4: The Room. The character works as a guard for the Water prison where children are sent for punishment but is killed by another character named Walter Sullivan.
- On the album Buchenwald by English power electronics band Whitehouse, the second track is titled "Dedicated to Albert de Salvo – Sadist and Mass Slayer."
- Japanese serial killer-themed doom metal band Church of Misery released a 12" vinyl record titled "Boston Strangler" in 2002.
- Aggrotech group Combichrist made mention of DeSalvo in their song "God Bless"
- A waxwork of Albert DeSalvo featured in an episode of the British comedy series Psychoville. The waxwork (along with others of John George Haigh, John Christie and Jack the Ripper) comes to life in a fantasy sequence.
- The Rolling Stones' song, "Midnight Rambler", was inspired by DeSalvo and quotes his confession in its lyrics.
- The TNT crime drama Rizzoli and Isles features an episode based on DeSalvo's case.
- DeSalvo is the name of a metalcore band from Scotland, formed out former members of Stretchheads and Idlewild.
- Appears to psychopathic manchild David Sowerbutts in a vision in black comedy Psychoville.
- Jess Bidgood. "50 Years Later, a Break in a Boston Strangler Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
- "Remains unearthed of confessed Boston Strangler". Usatoday.com. 2013-07-12. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
- Cawthorne, Nigel (2007). Serial Killers And Mass Murderers: Profiles of the World's Most Barbaric Criminals. Ulysses Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-1569755785.
- "Albert DeSalvo". Eaglehorse.org. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
- [dead link]
- Carey, Benedict (September 1, 2008). "Harry L. Kozol, 102, Expert in Patty Hearst Trial". The New York Times.
- Bardsley, Marilyn (2001-02-23). "The Boston Strangler — Case Under Review — Crime Library on". Trutv.com. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
- Bardsley, Marilyn (1967-01-10). "The Boston Strangler — The Jury Speaks — Crime Library on". Trutv.com. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
- "The Boston Strangler". Biography. 1987. 34:13 minutes in. The Biography Channel. http://www.aetv.com/biography/bio_episode_guide.jsp?episode=135562.
- "Manuscript Collections". Lloyd Sealy Library Special Collections, John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
- "DNA links DeSalvo to Mary Sullivan's 1964 death". WHDH-TV Boston. July 11, 2013.
- "Authorities: DNA test of remains confirms link between Boston Strangler suspect, last victim", Washington Post (Washington Post), 2013, retrieved July 19, 2013
- Kelly, Susan. The Boston Stranglers: The Public Conviction of Albert Desalvo and the True Story of Eleven Shocking Murders. Citadel. October 1995. ISBN 1-55972-298-3.
- The Boston Strangler. CBS News. February 14, 2001.
- "DNA doubts over Boston Strangler". BBC News. December 6, 2001.
- "BostonStrangler.org". BostonStrangler.org. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
- Yvonne Abraham. "Body of Albert DeSalvo, self-confessed â€˜Boston Strangler,â€™ to be exhumed". Boston.com. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
- Frank, Gerold (1966). The Boston Strangler. Signet. ISBN 0-451-16625-6.
- Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. George Nassar, 450 Mass 1031 (Mass. 2008).
- Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. George Nassar, 454 Mass 1008 (Mass. 2009).
- Nassar v. District Attorney for Essex County, Massachusetts, et al., 456 Mass 1006 (Mass. 2010).
- Nassar v. District Attorney for Essex County, Massachusetts, et al., 131 S.Ct. 1481 (2011).
- Jay Lindsay (February 16, 2008). "Appeal denied for jailhouse confidant of reputed Boston Strangler George Nassar convicted of Lawrence and Andover murders". The Eagle-Tribune.
- "Texas Legislature de Salvo Resolution". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
- Albert DeSalvo Papers, Lloyd Sealy Library Special Collections at John Jay College of Criminal Justice (view upon appointment)
- Frank, Gerold. The Boston Strangler. The New American Library, Inc. 1966. ISBN 0-451-16625-6.
- Junger, Sebastian. A Death in Belmont. Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc. April 2006. ISBN 0-393-05980-4.
- Kelly, Susan. The Boston Stranglers: The Public Conviction of Albert Desalvo and the True Story of Eleven Shocking Murders. Citadel. October 1995. ISBN 1-55972-298-3.
- Landay, William. The Strangler. Dell Publishing. January 2007. ISBN 978-0-385-33615-4.
- Rogers, Alan. New England Remembers: The Boston Strangler. Commonwealth Editions. May 2006. ISBN 1-889833-52-5.
- Sherman, Casey and Dick Lehr. A Rose for Mary: The Hunt for the Boston Strangler. Northeastern University Press. September 2003. ISBN 1-55553-578-X.
- Sherman, Casey and Dick Lehr. Search for the Strangler: My Hunt for Boston's Most Notorious Killer. Grand Central Publishing. April 1, 2005. ISBN 0-446-61468-8.
- Albert DeSalvo – The Boston Strangler?
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, Boston Strangler
- The Boston Strangler (Court TV's Crime Library)
- The Boston Strangler at the Internet Movie Database
- The Boston Strangler
- "The Ayes of Texas". Snopes.com.
- Article about Sebastian Junger's Book A Death in Belmont TIME Magazine, 04/10/2006.
- "Albert DeSalvo". Find a Grave. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Boston Strangler Poem