Albert Einstein College of Medicine

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Coordinates: 40°51′03″N 73°50′42″W / 40.850852°N 73.844949°W / 40.850852; -73.844949

Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Einstein Logo wtagline low.png
Established 1955
Type Private, Not-for-profit, Nonsectarian
Dean Allen M. Spiegel, M.D.
Academic staff 2,000+ full-time
Students
  • 742 M.D.
  • 102 M.D./Ph.D.
  • 212 Ph.D.
  • 20 M.S.
Location New York City, NY, USA
Campus Urban
Nickname Einstein
(formerly known as AECOM)
Website http://www.einstein.yu.edu/

Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein) is a graduate school of Yeshiva University. It is a not-for-profit, private, nonsectarian medical school located on the Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus in the Morris Park neighborhood of the Bronx in New York City. In addition to medical degrees, Einstein offers graduate biomedical degrees through the Sue Golding Graduate Division. Allen M. Spiegel, M.D., has served as The Marilyn and Stanley M. Katz Dean since June 1, 2006.[1]

Einstein’s main focal areas are medical education, basic research, and clinical investigation. During the 2014–2015 academic year, Einstein is home to more than 2,000 full-time faculty members, 742 M.D. students, 212 Ph.D. students attending the Sue Golding Graduate Division and 106 students in the combined M.D./Ph.D. program. In addition, there are 292 postdoctoral research fellows at the Belfer Institute for Advanced Biomedical Studies.[2]

The medical school is known for its humanistic approach to its curriculum and training and for the diversity of its student body. The class of 2017 includes 183 students from 24 different U.S. states, 16% were born outside the U.S., and 11% identify themselves as belonging to groups considered underrepresented in medicine.[3]

Einstein is also a major biomedical and clinical research facility. Faculty members received $158 million in awards from the National Institutes of Health in 2014. In addition, the NIH funds major research centers at Einstein in aging, intellectual development disorders, diabetes, cancer, clinical and translational research, liver disease, and AIDS.[4]

History[edit]

Yeshiva University President Dr. Samuel Belkin began planning for a new medical school as early as 1945. Six years later, Dr. Belkin and New York City Mayor Vincent Impellitteri entered into an agreement to begin construction. At the same time, world-renowned physicist and humanitarian Albert Einstein sent a letter to Dr. Belkin. He remarked that such an endeavor would be "unique" in that the school would "welcome students of all creeds and races".[5] Two years later, on his 74th birthday, March 14, 1953, Albert Einstein agreed to have his name attached to the medical school.

The first classes began September 12, 1955, and had a total of 56 students. At the time, it was the first new medical school to be erected within New York City since 1897. The Sue Golding Graduate Division was established in 1957 to offer Ph.D.s in biomedical disciplines.[6] The Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP), a combined M.D./Ph.D. program, was first offered in 1964.[7] The C.R.T.P. (Clinical Research Training Program), which confers M.S. degrees in clinical research methods, began classes in July 1998.[8]

Allegations of discrimination[edit]

The College of Medicine has been the center of several allegations of discrimination. In 1994, the College was sued by Heidi Weissmann, a researcher in nuclear medicine and former associate professor of radiology, for sexual discrimination for not promoting her due to gender bias. The College settled the case for $900,000. [9] In 1998, Yeshiva University and the College of Medicine was sued by the American Civil Liberties Union for discrimination of two medical students over their sexual orientation by not allowing their non-student, non-married partners to live with them in student housing.[10]

Notable research and achievements[edit]

 Price Center
The Michael F. Price Center for Genetic and Translational Medicine and Harold and Muriel Block Research Pavilion, 2008

Multiple achievements have been made at Einstein:[11]

  • In 1964, Einstein was the first medical school in the United States to establish a Department of Genetics.
  • In 1965, Einstein opened one of the first General Clinical Research Centers in the US, funded by the NIH.
  • In 1974, Einstein's Liver Research Center – now the Marion Bessin Liver Research Center – was the first institute in the nation devoted to the study of liver disease and injury.
  • In 1976, researchers at Einstein identified the mechanism of action of Taxol, one of the most significant cancer-treatment drugs ever developed. (Susan B. Horwitz, Ph.D.)
  • In 1978, Einstein was designated a Diabetes Research and Training Center, one of 7 such comprehensive centers in the US. The Center has been home to the foremost diabetes investigators involved in seminal work on the insulin receptor, the mechanism of diabetes complications, on glucose toxicity, on brain control of metabolism, and on hypoglycemia as well as landmark studies such as the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the Diabetes Prevention Program.
  • In 1988, one of the first NIH-funded Centers for AIDS Research (CFARs) in the country was created at Einstein. Researchers at the center were the first to identify pediatric AIDS as a distinct disease and established the first day-care center in the world for children with AIDS. (Arye Rubinstein, M.D.)
  • In 1994, Einstein became the only New York City medical school selected by the NIH to participate in the Women's Health Initiative, the largest research study of women's health ever undertaken. (Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Ph.D., principal investigator)
  • In 2006, Einstein became the only medical institution in the Northeast to serve as a research site for the Hispanic Community Health Study, the largest research study of Hispanic health ever conducted. (Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Ph.D., principal investigator)
  • Einstein researchers demonstrated the association between reduced levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), or "good" cholesterol, and heart disease.
  • Einstein researchers identified a key missing neurotransmitter in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, a finding that influenced all subsequent Alzheimer's disease research. (Peter Davies, Ph.D.)
  • Researchers at Einstein discovered structural abnormalities of brain cells that explain deficiencies in cognitive development, greatly contributing to our understanding of mental retardation. (Dominick P. Purpura, M.D.)
  • Einstein researchers helped discover the mechanisms responsible for the extraordinary diversity of antibodies and their remarkable precision in mounting an immune response. (Matthew D. Scharff, M.D.)
  • Scientists at Einstein pioneered research that has led to improved methods of avoiding organ transplant rejection. (Stanley G. Nathenson, M.D.)
  • Einstein researchers are leaders in epidemiologic research in migraine and other types of headache. (Richard B. Lipton, M.D.)

Leadership[edit]

  • Allen M. Spiegel, M.D., The Marilyn and Stanley M. Katz Dean, June 1, 2006–present. Dr. Spiegel was previously the director of the National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive Diseases & Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), where he worked for over 30 years.
  • Dominick P. Purpura, M.D., The Marilyn and Stanley M. Katz Dean, 1984–2006. His 22 years as dean are a record for the head of a medical school.[12]
  • Ernst R. Jaffé, M.D., acting dean, 1972–74, 1983–84.
  • Ephraim Friedman, M.D., dean, 1974–83.
  • Labe C. Scheinberg, M.D., dean, 1970–72.
  • Harry H. Gordon, M.D., dean, 1967–70.
  • Marcus D. Kogel, M.D., founding dean, 1953–67.

Academic programs[edit]

The school offers M.D.[1] and Ph.D. [2] degrees and has a Medical Scientist Training Program [3] that awards a combined M.D./Ph.D. degree. Students pursuing the Ph.D or M.D./Ph.D. degree are offered full tuition remission and a stipend of $31,300.[13] At any given time there are approximately 742 medical students, 212 Ph.D. students, and 102 students pursuing a combined M.D./Ph.D. The College of Medicine also offers M.S. degrees in clinical research methods [4] and in bioethics [5]. The school is known for its medical community promoting awareness, and humanism in social, ethical, and medical realms through its hospital affiliations, free ECHO health clinic [6], and Bronx community health fairs.

It is currently ranked nationwide by U.S. News & World Report at #34 in research (out of 153 medical schools).[14]

Affiliations[edit]

Albert Einstein College of Medicine is affiliated with five medical centers: Montefiore Medical Center, [15] the University Hospital and academic medical center for Einstein; Jacobi Medical Center, Einstein’s founding hospital and first affiliate, and three other hospital systems: Bronx Lebanon Hospital [7], North Shore-LIJ Health System on Long Island and Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn. The broad geographical reach of Einstein’s residency programs is a distinction not shared by all New York medical schools. Through its affiliation network, Einstein runs the largest postgraduate medical training program in the US. Einstein's Department of Family and Social Medicine (DFSM) offers the Residency Program in Social Medicine (RPSM, est. 1970), created to address the shortage of primary care clinicians trained to work in underserved communities. [8] Additionally, Einstein runs the Rose Kennedy Center. The Rose Kennedy Center for research and treatment to help persons who have developmental disabilities is considered a premier center in this type of work. Of particular note are the occupational and physical therapy departments considered cutting edge in this area.

Departments[edit]

Einstein has many departments working in the fields of academic medicine and basic science. A Ph.D. or an M.D./Ph.D [9] degree can be pursued in biomedical sciences in any of the following departments:[16]

  • Anatomy and Structural Biology [10]
  • Anesthesiology
  • Biochemistry [11]
  • Cardiothoracic Surgery
  • Cell Biology [12]
  • Dentistry
  • Developmental and Molecular Biology [13]
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Epidemiology and Population Health [14]
  • Family and Social Medicine
  • Genetics [15]
  • Medicine (Divisions)
    • Allergy and Immunology
    • Cardiology
    • Critical Care Medicine
    • Dermatology
    • Endocrinology
    • Gastroenterology
    • General Internal Medicine
    • Geriatrics
    • Hematology
    • Hepatology
    • Infectious Diseases
    • Nephrology
    • Oncology
    • Pulmonary Medicine
    • Rheumatology
  • Microbiology and Immunology [17]
  • Molecular Pharmacology [18]
  • Leo M. Davidoff Department of Neurological Surgery
  • The Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology
  • Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience [16]
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Obstetrics & Gynecology and Women's Health
  • Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
  • Orthopedic Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery
  • Pathology [17]
  • Pediatrics
  • Physiology and Biophysics [19]
  • Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
  • Radiation Oncology
  • Radiology
  • The Arthur S. Abramson Department of Rehabilitation Medicine
  • Surgery
  • Systems & Computational Biology [18]
  • Urology
  • The Division of Substance Abuse (DoSA) is the largest addiction treatment program in Bronx County, second largest public treatment program in New York State, and largest in the world operating under the auspices of a medical school. Serving over 3600 persons, with primary residence or work site in The Bronx, the Division provides comprehensive opioid addiction treatment at nine (9) community-based outpatient facilities located throughout the borough, as well as ambulatory services for all substances of abuse at the Division’s Chemical Dependency Wellness Services program located in North and South Bronx facilities.
The Division’s continuum of care includes:
  1. Addiction screening, assessment and diagnosis.
  2. Primary health care and behavioral health care.
  3. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid addiction, including methadone and buprenorphine.
  4. Medically supervised ambulatory chemical dependency wellness services to treat opioid drugs, cocaine, crystal meth, and other abused substances.
  5. HIV and Hepatitis C testing, primary care and case management.
  6. Vaccinations for Hepatitis A and B
  7. Directly observed preventive therapy for tuberculosis
  8. Specialized case management services for women and families, including prenatal and gynecological care.
  9. Intensive vocational services that promote self-sufficiency.
  • Sound View Throgs Neck Community Mental Health Center

Centers and Institutes[edit]

Children's Evaluation and Rehabilitation Center (CERC) is the main clinical arm of the Rose F. Kennedy University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities (RFK UCEDD), one of 67 UCEDDs in the United States. Composed of 10 interdisciplinary teams (Early Childhood Center, Infant and Toddler Team, Infant Preschool Unit, School Age Unit, Adolescent Unit, Adult Team, Special Care Dentistry Program, Rehab Team, Children's Hearing Program,and Developmental and Family Support Unit), CERC provides care for approximately 8,000 children and adults with developmental and other disabilities each year.[20] Under the direction of Robert W. Marion, M.D., a medical geneticist, CERC's mission is to provide outstanding care to children with disabilities and their families, provide training to the next generation of leaders in the field of neurodevelopmental disabilities, and to perform research into the causes and potential treatments of the conditions that affect our patients. The research arm of CERC is headed by Dr. John J. Foxe.[21]

CERC is home to one of 36 LEND (Leadership in Neurodevelopmental Disabilities) programs in the US, offering hands-on training to professionals in developmental and behavioral pediatrics, special care and general dentistry, medical genetics and genetic counseling, psychiatry, psychology, social work, nursing, and other specialties. Each year, more than 1,000 professionals receive long-term, intermediate-term, or short-term training at our centers.

In 2007, CERC has also developed a substantial clinical research program, investigating the causes and treatments of such conditions as autism and autism spectrum disorder, sensorineural hearing loss and cerebral palsy.

Student life[edit]

Einstein is located in Morris Park, a residential neighborhood in the northeast Bronx. Within a 15-minute drive of campus are the Wildlife Conservation Park (better known as the Bronx Zoo) and the New York Botanical Garden and its Haupt Conservatory. Also nearby is the fishing community of City Island, which features marinas and a broad selection of seafood restaurants.[29]

There are more than 50 student clubs organized around a variety of activities, medical specialties, and a wide range of religious, political, and ethnic affiliations. Offerings include dance and movie clubs, an arts and literary magazine, and the Einstein Community Health Outreach (ECHO), which launched the state’s first student-coordinated free clinic.[30]

Manhattan is a 30–45 minute ride by car, express bus, or mass transit from Einstein’s campus.

The Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus[edit]

The Falk center with one of the 3 Einstein Student Housing buildings in the background
  • The Michael F. Price Center for Genetic and Translational Medicine is a $220 million research building, officially opened and dedicated on June 12, 2008. It is 201,000 square feet (18,700 m2) and will house 40 new laboratories. It is a state of the art research facility and contains a BSL-3 laboratory for infectious disease research.
  • The Arthur B. and Diane Belfer Educational Center for Health Sciences (1972) is the school's main educational building and houses the 1st year medical students' lecture hall (Riklis Auditorium) along with instructional labs and various conference rooms. The administrative offices are also located here.
  • The Leo Forchheimer Medical Sciences Building (1953) is the school's first building. It contains the Robbins auditorium (the 2nd year medical student lecture hall), Max and Sadie lounge, various biological research labs and anatomy labs, and other lecture rooms for graduate courses. In 2007, the building caught on fire twice, severely disrupting classes and research. This building is also home to the D. Samuel Gottesman Library, located on the 1st floor of the building. [19]
  • The D. Samuel Gottesman Library [20] serves the needs of the Einstein community. (during peak exam periods the library will have extended study hours on Friday night and Saturday, the weekend before exams.) The library is open Sunday through Friday; it is closed in observance of the Sabbath on Saturdays. In June 2006, the library embarked on a year-long renovation project of its main floor.[31]
  • Ullmann Research Center for Health Sciences (1964).
  • The Irwin B. and Sylvia Chanin Institute for Cancer Research (1978) is devoted exclusively to basic investigations into malignant processes.
  • Mazer Building contains, among other things, the Lubin Student Center, which is the school's kosher dining hall.
  • Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center [32]
  • The Samuel H. and Rachel Golding Building (1996) is a 10-story biomedical research facility that is an addition to the original Forchheimer building.
  • Falk Recreation Center, which houses a gym, pool, indoor track, in addition to basketball, squash and racquetball courts.
  • Morris Park Avenue bisects the campus, separating the majority of academic and research buildings from the residential buildings and new construction.
  • The Eastchester Road Residence Complex, a 634-apartment complex comprising three 28 story apartment buildings, provides housing to all MD and PhD students (including some post-doctoral fellows) and their families.
  • The Rhinelander Hall Residence Complex houses mostly post-docs and the occasional med student.
  • The Jack D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Weiler is a division of Montefiore Medical Center.
  • The Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research in Mental Retardation and Human Development lies on the adjacent campus of the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center (Jacobi Medical Center).
  • The Van Etten Building (soon to be fully renovated), home to the now finished Ruth L. Gottesman Clinical Skills Center, a 22,700-square-foot (2,110 m2) space of classrooms and 23 fully equipped exam rooms for the clinical instruction of first and second year medical students.[33][34]

Beginning in 2007 with the construction of the Michael F. Price Center, EE&K Architects have been working closely with Albert Einstein College of Medicine on a comprehensive master plan of the future long-term development and renovation of The Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus.[35]

Notable people[edit]

Alumni[edit]

Faculty[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Einstein: Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  2. ^ "Overview | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  3. ^ "Profile of the Class of 2017". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2012-07-14. 
  4. ^ "Centers | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  5. ^ "Einstein: Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  6. ^ "History | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  7. ^ "Welcome to the MSTP @ Einstein!", Albert Einstein College of Medicine website.
  8. ^ "CRTP Home | Clinical & Translational Research | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  9. ^ "Medical School, Researcher Settle Sex Bias Lawsuit; Experts Say $ 900,000 Payment Could Encourage Similar Cases". The Washington Post. March 18, 1994. 
  10. ^ "A.C.L.U. Sues Yeshiva U. On Housing for Gay Couples". The New York Times. June 25, 1998. 
  11. ^ "Einstein Firsts | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  12. ^ "Einstein: Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Einstein.yu.edu. 2006-05-09. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  13. ^ "EINSTEIN PhD: Graduate Programs in Biomedical Sciences – PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  14. ^ "Yeshiva University (Einstein) – Best Medical Schools – Graduate Schools – Education – US News". Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. 2010-04-15. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  15. ^ "Getting to The Weiler Division". Montefiore.org. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  16. ^ "Academic Departments | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  17. ^ "Albert Einstein College of Medicine: Microbiology & Immunology". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  18. ^ "Albert Einstein College of Medicine:". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  19. ^ "Albert Einstein College of Medicine:". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  20. ^ "Albert Einstein College of Medicine:". Einstein.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  21. ^ "Einstein's Children Evaluation and Rehabilitation Center Names First Research Director | Einstein News". Einstein.yu.edu. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  22. ^ "Albert Einstein College of Medicine:". Aecom.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  23. ^ http://www.aecom.yu.edu/cfar/page.aspx?id=466
  24. ^ "Einstein Diabetes Research Center - Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NYC, NY". Aecom.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  25. ^ "Albert Einstein College of Medicine:". Aecom.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  26. ^ "Institute for Aging Research | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Aecom.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  27. ^ "Institute for Clinical & Translational Research | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Aecom.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  28. ^ "Centers | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Aecom.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  29. ^ "Student Life | Einstein College of Medicine". Aecom.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  30. ^ "Home | ECHO Free Clinic | Albert Einstein College of Medicine". Aecom.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  31. ^ "D. Samuel Gottesman Library - Renovation News". Library.aecom.yu.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  32. ^ "Einstein Announces Major Expansion of MRI Research Facility | Einstein News". Einstein.yu.edu. 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  33. ^ "Einstein Clinical Skills, Bronx, NY | EE&K — Ehrenkrantz Eckstut & Kuhn Architects". Eekarchitects.com. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  34. ^ "Einstein Van Etten Building, Bronx, NY | EE&K — Ehrenkrantz Eckstut & Kuhn Architects". Eekarchitects.com. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  35. ^ "Albert Einstein College of Medicine Master Plan, Bronx, NY | EE&K — Ehrenkrantz Eckstut & Kuhn Architects". Eekarchitects.com. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  36. ^ Haberman, Clyde (1994-07-03). "June 26 – July 2: Hebron Massacre; Israel Says Gunman Acted by Himself". The New York Times. 
  37. ^ http://www.wor710.com/pages/46367.php
  38. ^ Shell E (January 1, 2002). "Chapter 4: On the Cutting Edge". The Hungry Gene: The Inside Story of the Obesity Industry. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 978-1422352434. 
  39. ^ Shell E (January 1, 2002). "Chapter 5: Hunger". The Hungry Gene: The Inside Story of the Obesity Industry. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 978-1422352434. 

External links[edit]