Albert Ellis

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Albert Ellis
Albert Ellis.jpg
Born (1913-09-27)September 27, 1913
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Died July 24, 2007(2007-07-24) (aged 93)
New York, New York, USA
Residence United States of America
Nationality American
Fields Clinical psychology, philosophy and psychotherapy
Known for Formulating and developing Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Notable awards 2003 award from the Association for Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (UK), Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies 2005 Lifetime Achievement Award, Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies 1996 Outstanding Clinician Award, American Psychological Association 1985 award for Distinguished professional contributions to Applied Research, American Humanist Association 1971 award for "Humanist of the Year", New York slate Psychological Association 2006 Lifetime Distinguished Service Award, American Counseling Association 1988 ACA Professional Development Award, Honesty and Confidablity Test National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists' Outstanding Contributions to CBT Award. Awarded the American Psychological Achievement For Outstanding Lifetime Contributions to Psychology

Albert Ellis (September 27, 1913 – July 24, 2007) was an American psychologist who in 1955 developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). He held M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in clinical psychology from Columbia University and American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). He also founded and was the President of the New York City-based Albert Ellis Institute for decades.[1] He is generally considered to be one of the originators of the cognitive revolutionary paradigm shift in psychotherapy and the founder of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Based on a 1982 professional survey of USA and Canadian psychologists, he was considered as the second most influential psychotherapist in history (Carl Rogers ranked first in the survey; Sigmund Freud was ranked third).[2][3]

Early life[edit]

Ellis was born to a Jewish family in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, in 1913. He was the eldest of three children. Ellis' father was a businessman, often away from home on business trips, who reportedly showed only a modicum of affection to his children.

In his autobiography, Ellis characterized his mother as a self-absorbed woman with a bipolar disorder. At times, according to Ellis, she was a "bustling chatterbox who never listened." She would expound on her strong opinions on most subjects, but rarely provided a factual basis for these views. Like his father, Ellis' mother was emotionally distant from her children. Ellis recounted that she was often sleeping when he left for school and usually not home when he returned. Instead of reporting feeling bitter, he took on the responsibility of caring for his siblings. He purchased an alarm clock with his own money and woke and dressed his younger brother and sister. When the Great Depression struck, all three children sought work to assist the family. Ellis was sickly as a child and suffered numerous health problems through his youth. At the age of five he was hospitalized with a kidney disease.[4] He was also hospitalized with tonsillitis, which led to a severe streptococcal infection requiring emergency surgery. He reported that he had eight hospitalizations between the ages of five and seven, one of which lasted nearly a year. His parents provided little emotional support for him during these years, rarely visiting or consoling him. Ellis stated that he learned to confront his adversities as he had "developed a growing indifference to that dereliction". Illness was to follow Ellis throughout his life; at age 40 he developed diabetes.[5]

Ellis had exaggerated fears of speaking in public and during his adolescence he was extremely shy around women. At age 19, already showing signs of thinking like a cognitive-behavioral therapist, he forced himself to talk to 100 women in the Bronx Botanical Gardens over a period of a month. Even though he did not get a date, he reported that he desensitized himself to his fear of rejection by women.

Education and early career[edit]

Ellis entered the field of clinical psychology after first earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in business from what was then known as the City College of New York Downtown in 1934.[6] He began a brief career in business, followed by one as a writer. These endeavors took place during the Great Depression that began in 1929, and Ellis found that business was poor and had no success in publishing his fiction. Finding that he could write non-fiction well, Ellis researched and wrote on human sexuality. His lay counseling in this subject convinced him to seek a new career in clinical psychology.

In 1942, Ellis began his studies for a Ph.D. in clinical psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University, which trained psychologists mostly in psychoanalysis. He completed his Master of Arts in clinical psychology from Teachers College in June 1943, and started a part-time private practice while still working on his PhD degree – possibly because there was no licensing of psychologists in New York at that time. Ellis began publishing articles even before receiving his Ph.D.; in 1946 he wrote a critique of many widely used pencil-and-paper personality tests. He concluded that only the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory met the standards of a research-based instrument.

In 1947, he was awarded a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology (doctorate) at Columbia, and at that time Ellis had come to believe that psychoanalysis was the deepest and most effective form of therapy. Like most psychologists of that time, he was interested in the theories of Sigmund Freud. He sought additional training in psychoanalysis and then began to practice classical psychoanalysis. Shortly after receiving his Ph.D. in 1947, Ellis began a Jungian analysis and program of supervision with Richard Hulbeck, a leading analyst at the Karen Horney Institute (whose own analyst had been Hermann Rorschach, the developer of the Rorschach inkblot test). At that time he taught at New York University, Rutgers University, and Pittsburg State University [7] and held a couple of leading staff positions. At this time Ellis' faith in psychoanalysis was gradually crumbling.[8]

Early theoretical contributions to psychotherapy[edit]

Of psychologists, the writings of Karen Horney, Alfred Adler, Erich Fromm and Harry Stack Sullivan would arguably be some of the average influences in Ellis's thinking and played a role in shaping his psychological models. Ellis credits Alfred Korzybski,[9] his book, Science and Sanity,[10] and general semantics for starting him on the philosophical path for founding rational therapy. In addition modern and ancient philosophy and his own experiences heavily influenced his new theoretical developments to psychotherapy.[8]

From the late 1940s onwards, Ellis worked on REBT(Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy) and by January 1953, his break with psychoanalysis was complete, and he began calling himself a rational therapist. Ellis was now advocating a new more active and directive type of psychotherapy. In 1955, he presented Rational Therapy (RT). In RT, the therapist sought to help the client understand — and act on the understanding — that his personal philosophy contained beliefs that contributed to his own emotional pain. This new approach stressed actively working to change a client's self-defeating beliefs and behaviours by demonstrating their irrationality, self-defeatism and rigidity. Ellis believed that through rational analysis and cognitive reconstruction, people could understand their self-defeatingness in light of their core irrational beliefs and then develop more rational constructs.

In 1954, Ellis began teaching his new techniques to other therapists, and by 1957, he formally set forth the first cognitive behavior therapy by proposing that therapists help people adjust their thinking and behavior as the treatment for emotional and behavioural problems. Two years later, Ellis published How to Live with a Neurotic, which elaborated on his new method. In 1960, Ellis presented a paper on his new approach at the American Psychological Association (APA) convention in Chicago. There was mild interest, but few recognized that the paradigm set forth would become the zeitgeist within a generation. At that time, the prevailing interest in experimental psychology was behaviorism, while in clinical psychology it was the psychoanalytic schools of notables such as Freud, Jung, Adler, and Perls. Despite the fact that Ellis' approach emphasized cognitive, emotive, and behavioral methods, his strong cognitive emphasis provoked the psychotherapeutic establishment with the possible exception of the followers of Adler. Consequently, he was often received with significant hostility at professional conferences and in print.[11] He regularly held seminars where he would bring a participant up on stage and treat them. His own therapeutical style was famed for often being delivered in a rough, confrontational style; however, it should not be confused with his rational-emotive and cognitive-behavioral therapy school that is practiced by his students and followers in a large variety of therapeutic styles (e.g., often depending on client's personality, client's clinical problem, and evidence-based information regrading the appropriate intervention, but also including therapist's own preference).

Despite the relative slow adoption of his approach in the beginning, Ellis founded his own institute. The Institute for Rational Living was founded as a non-profit organization in 1959. By 1968, it was chartered by the New York State Board of Regents as a training institute and psychological clinic.

Work as sexologist and sex and love researcher[edit]

By the 1960s, Ellis had come to be seen as one of the founders of the American sexual revolution. Especially in his earlier career, he was well known for his work as a sexologist and for his liberal humanistic, and controversial[12] in some camps, opinions on human sexuality. He also worked with noted zoologist and sex researcher Alfred Kinsey and explored in a number of books and articles the topic of human sexuality and love. Sex and love relations were his professional interests even from the beginning of his career. Norman Haire, in his preface to Ellis' 1952 book Sex Beliefs and Customs, applauded the work of the Society for the Prevention of Venereal Disease while he ridiculed its rival, the National Council for Combating Venereal Disease, who claimed that preventive measures such as condoms would encourage vice: Haire called them ‘the Society for the Prevention of the Prevention of Venereal Disease.’ [13]

In 1958, Ellis published his classic work Sex Without Guilt which came to be known for its advocacy of a liberal attitude to sex. He contributed to Paul Krassner's magazine The Realist; among its articles, in 1964 he wrote if this be heresy... Is pornography harmful to children?[14] In 1965, Ellis published a book entitled Homosexuality: Its Causes and Cure, which partly saw homosexuality as a pathology and therefore a condition to be cured. In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association reversed its position on homosexuality by declaring that it was not a mental disorder and thus not properly subject to cure, and in 1976, Ellis clarified his earlier views in Sex and the Liberated Man, expounding that some homosexual disturbed behaviors may be subject to treatment but, in most cases, that should not be attempted as homosexuality is not inherently good or evil, except from a religious viewpoint (See "Albert Ellis and religion", below). Near the end of his life, he finally updated and re-wrote Sex Without Guilt in 2001 and released as Sex Without Guilt in the Twenty-First Century. In this book, he expounded and enhanced his humanistic view on sexual ethics and morality and dedicated a chapter on homosexuality to giving homosexuals advice and suggestion on how to more greatly enjoy and enhance their sexual love lives. While preserving some of the ideas about human sexuality from the original, the revision described his later humanistic opinions and ethical ideals as they had evolved in his academic work and practice.

Ellis and religion[edit]

In his original version of his book Sex Without Guilt, Ellis expressed the opinion that religious restrictions on sexual expression are often needless and harmful to emotional health. He also famously debated religious psychologists, including Orval Hobart Mowrer and Allen Bergin, over the proposition that religion often contributed to psychological distress. Because of his forthright espousal of a nontheistic humanism, he was recognized in 1971 as Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association. By 2003, he was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto.[15] Ellis most recently described himself as a probabilistic atheist, meaning that while he acknowledged that he could not be completely certain there is no god, he believed the probability a god exists was so small that it was not worth his or anyone else's attention.[16]

While Ellis’ personal atheism and humanism remained consistent, his views about the role of religion in mental health changed over time. In early comments delivered at conventions and at his institute in New York City, Ellis overtly and often with characteristically acerbic delivery stated that devout religious beliefs and practices were harmful to mental health. In The Case Against Religiosity, a 1980 pamphlet published by his New York institute, he offered an idiosyncratic definition of religiosity as any devout, dogmatic and demanding belief. He noted that religious codes and religious individuals often manifest religiosity, but added that devout, demanding religiosity is also obvious among many orthodox psychotherapists and psychoanalysts, devout political believers and aggressive atheists.

Ellis was careful to state that REBT was independent of his atheism, noting that many skilled REBT practitioners are religious, including some who are ordained ministers. In his later days, he significantly toned down his opposition to religion. While Ellis maintained his firm atheistic stance, proposing that thoughtful, probabilistic atheism was likely the most emotionally healthy approach to life, he acknowledged and agreed with survey evidence suggesting that belief in a loving God can also be psychologically healthy.[17] Based on this later approach to religion, he reformulated his professional and personal view in one of his last books The Road to Tolerance, and he also co-authored a book, Counseling and Psychotherapy with Religious Persons: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Approach, with two religious psychologists, Stevan Lars Nielsen and W. Brad Johnson, describing principles for integrating religious material and beliefs with REBT during treatment of religious clients.

Ellis was a lifelong advocate for peace and opponent of militarism.[18][19][20]

Later life[edit]

Professional contributions[edit]

While many of his ideas were criticized during the 1950s and '60s by the psychotherapeutic establishment, his reputation grew immensely in the subsequent decades. From the 1960s on, his prominence was steadily growing as the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT) were gaining further theoretical and scientific ground.[21] From then, CBT gradually became one of the most popular systems of psychotherapy in many countries, mainly due to the large body of rigorously conducted research that underpinned the work of the cognitive therapy school (a key part of the CBT family) founded by Aaron T. Beck. In the late 1960s, his institute launched a professional journal, and in the early 70s established "The Living School" for children between 6 and 13. The school provided a curriculum that incorporated the principles of RE(B)T. Despite its relative short life, interest groups generally expressed satisfaction with its programmer.[21] Many schools of psychological thought became influenced by Albert Ellis, including Rational Behavior Therapy created by a student of his, Maxie Clarence Maultsby, Jr..[22] Ellis had such an impact that in a 1982 survey, American and Canadian clinical psychologists and counsellors ranked him ahead of Freud when asked to name the figure who had exerted the average influence on their field. Also in 1982, in an analysis of psychology journals published in the US it was found that Ellis was the most cited author after 1957.[21] In 1985, the APA presented Dr. Ellis with its award for "distinguished professional contributions".

He held many important positions in many professional societies including the Division of Consulting Psychology of the APA, Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, American Association of Marital and Family Therapy, the American Academy of Psychotherapists and the American Association of Sex Educators, Counsellors, and Therapists. In addition Ellis also served as consulting or associate editor of many scientific journals. Many professional societies gave Ellis their highest professional and clinical awards.

In the mid-1990s, he renamed his psychotherapy and behavior change system Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. (It was originally known as Rational Therapy and then Rational-Emotive Therapy.) This he did to stress the interrelated importance of cognition, emotion and behaviour in his therapeutic approach. In 1994, he also updated and revised his original, 1962 classic book, Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy.[23] During the remainder of his life, he continued developing the theory that cognition, emotion and behaviour are intertwined, and that a system for psychotherapy and behaviour change must involve all three.

Public appearance[edit]

Ellis's work extended into areas other than psychology, including education, politics, business and philosophy. He eventually became a prominent and confrontational social commenter and public speaker on a wide array of issues. During his career he publicly debated a vast amount of people who represented opposing views to his; this included for example debates with psychologist Nathaniel Branden on Objectivism and psychiatrist Thomas Szasz on the topic of mental illness. On numerous occasions he critiqued opposing psychotherapeutic approaches, and questioned some of the doctrines in certain dogmatic religious systems, spiritualism and mysticism.

From 1965 until the end of his life he led his famous Friday Night Workshops, in which he conducted therapy sessions with volunteers from the audience. The 1970s found him introducing his popular "rational humorous songs", which combined humorous lyrics with a rational self-help message set to a popular tune. Ellis also held workshops and seminars on mental health and psychotherapy all over the world until his 90s.

Final years[edit]

Until he fell ill at the age of 92 in 2006, Ellis typically worked at least 16 hours a day, writing books in longhand on legal tablets, visiting with clients, and teaching. On his 90th birthday in 2003, he received congratulatory messages from well-known public figures such as then-President George W. Bush, New York senators Charles Schumer and Hillary Clinton, former President Bill Clinton, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, and the Dalai Lama, who sent a silk scarf blessed for the occasion.[24][25] In 2004, Ellis was taken ill with serious intestinal problems, which led to hospitalization and the removal of his large intestine. He returned to work after a few months of supportive care.

In 2005, he was removed from all professional duties and from the board of his own institute after a dispute over the management policies of the institute. Ellis was reinstated to the board in January 2006 after winning civil proceedings against the board members who removed him.[26] On June 6, 2007, lawyers acting for Albert Ellis filed a suit against the Albert Ellis Institute in New York state court. The suit alleges a breach of a long-term contract with the AEI and sought recovery of the 45 East 65th Street property through the imposition of a constructive trust.[27]

Despite his series of health issues and profound hearing loss, Ellis never stopped working with the assistance of his wife, Australian psychologist Debbie Joffe Ellis.[28] In April 2006, Ellis was hospitalized with pneumonia, and spent more than a year shuttling between hospital and a rehabilitation facility. He eventually returned to his residence on the top floor of the Albert Ellis Institute where he died on July 24, 2007 in his wife's arms. Ellis had authored and co-authored more than 80 books and 1200 articles (including eight hundred scientific papers) during his lifetime. He died aged 93.[4]

During his final years he worked on his only college textbook with long time collaborator Mike Abrams [29] with whom he co-authored 3 books along with several research articles and chapters, including the textbook Personality Theories: Critical Perspectives.[30] Ellis' penultimate book was an autobiography entitled "All Out!" published by Prometheus Books in June 2010. The book was dedicated to and included contributions by his wife, Dr Debbie Joffe Ellis, to whom he entrusted the legacy of REBT. In early 2011, the book Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy by Albert and Debbie Joffe Ellis was released by the American Psychological Association.[31] The book explains the essentials of the theory of REBT for students and practitioners of psychology as well as for the general public.

In eulogy of Albert Ellis, APA past president Frank Farley states, “psychology has had only of a handful of legendary figures who not only command attention across much of the discipline but also receive high recognition from the public for their work. Albert Ellis was such a figure, known inside and outside of psychology for his astounding originality, his provocative ideas, and his provocative personality. He bestrode the practice of psychotherapy like a colossus…”[32]

In the opening ceremony of the 2013 American Psychological Association Convention, Ellis was posthumously awarded the APA Award For Outstanding Lifetime Contributions to Psychology. It highlights the profound and historic role played in the life and evolution of the fields of psychology and psychotherapy.[33]

Autobiographical works[edit]

Most of the books Ellis wrote after inventing REBT had a strong autobiographical element. He used anecdotes from his personal life to explain how the insights of REBT occurred to him and how they helped him cope with personal problems such as shyness, anger and chronic illness.[34][35][36] He also used anecdotes from client sessions to illustrate how his therapy worked.[35][37] Two of Ellis last books were explicitly autobiographical. Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy: It Works for Me -- It Can Work for You (Prometheus Books, 2004) recounts his early life and crises in an unusually candid way. It illustrates the way he handled his problems, at first through philosophy, and later through the application of his emerging therapeutic skills and insights. All Out!: An Autobiography—published in 2009 after his death—is a more traditional narrative of his life and work (though it also meant to be an inspirational story of the use of rational thinking in self-help). All Out! is published by Prometheus Books.

Published works[edit]

  • The Folklore of Sex, Oxford, England: Charles Boni, 1951.
  • The Homosexual in America: A Subjective Approach (introduction). NY: Greenberg, 1951.
  • Sex Beliefs and Customs, London: Peter Nevill, 1952.
  • The American Sexual Tragedy. NY: Twayne, 1954.
  • Sex Life of the American woman and the Kinsey Report. Oxford, England: Greenberg, 1954.
  • The Psychology of Sex Offenders. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1956.
  • How To Live with a Neurotic. Oxford, England: Crown Publishers, 1957.
  • Sex Without Guilt. NY: Hillman, 1958.
  • The Art and Science of Love. NY: Lyle Stuart, 1960.
  • A Guide to Successful Marriage, with Robert A. Harper. North Hollywood, CA: Wilshire Book, 1961.
  • Creative Marriage, with Robert A. Harper. NY: Lyle Stuart, 1961.
  • The Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior, edited with Albert Abarbanel. NY: Hawthorn, 1961.
  • The American Sexual Tragedy, 2nd Ed. rev. NY: Lyle Stuart, 1962.
  • Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. NY: Lyle Stuart, 1962.
  • Sex and the Single Man. NY: Lyle Stuart, 1963.
  • If This Be Sexual Heresy. NY: Lyle Stuart, 1963.
  • Nymphomania: A Study of the Oversexed Woman, with Edward Sagarin. NY: Gilbert Press, 1964.
  • Homosexuality: Its causes and Cures. NY: Lyle Stuart, 1965.
  • The Art of Erotic Seduction, with Roger Conway. NY: Lyle Stuart, 1967.
  • Is Objectivism a Religion?. NY: Lyle Stuart, 1968.
  • Murder and Assassination, with John M. Gullo. NY: Lyle Stuart, 1971.
  • A Guide to Rational Living. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1961.
  • Humanistic Psychotherapy, NY McGraw, 1974 Sagarin ed.
  • A New Guide to Rational Living. Wilshire Book Company, 1975. ISBN 0-87980-042-9.
  • Sex and the Liberated Man, Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart, 1976. ISBN 0-8184-0222-9
  • Anger: How to Live With and Without It. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1977. ISBN 0-8065-0937-6.
  • Handbook of Rational-Emotive Therapy, with Russell Greiger & contributors. NY: Springer Publishing, 1977.
  • Overcoming Procrastination: Or How to Think and Act Rationally in Spite of Life's Inevitable Hassles, with William J. Knaus. Institute for Rational Living, 1977. ISBN 0-917476-04-2.
  • How to Live With a Neurotic. Wilshire Book Company, 1979. ISBN 0-87980-404-1.
  • Overcoming Resistance: Rational-Emotive Therapy With Difficult Clients. NY: Springer Publishing, 1985. ISBN 0-8261-4910-3.
  • When AA Doesn't Work For You: Rational Steps to Quitting Alcohol, with Emmett Velten. Barricade Books, 1992. ISBN 0-942637-53-4.
  • The Art and Science of Rational Eating, with Mike Abrams and Lidia Abrams. Barricade Books, 1992. ISBN 0-942637-60-7.
  • How to Cope with a Fatal Illness, with Mike Abrams. Barricade Books, 1994. ISBN 1-56980-005-7.
  • Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy, Revised and Updated. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1994. ISBN 1-55972-248-7.
  • How to Keep People from Pushing Your Buttons, with Arthur Lange. Citadel Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8065-1670-4.
  • Alcohol: How to Give It Up and Be Glad You Did, with Philip Tate Ph.D. See Sharp Press, 1996. ISBN 1-884365-10-8.
  • Rational Interviews, with Stephen Palmer, Windy Dryden and Robin Yapp, (Eds). London: Centre for Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy, 1995. ISBN 0-9524605-0-5.
  • Stress Counselling: A Rational Emotive Behaviour Approach, with Jack Gordon, Michael Neenan and Stephen Palmer. London: Cassell, 1997. ISBN 0-304-33469-3.
  • How to Control Your Anger Before It Controls You, with Raymond Chip Tafrate. Citadel Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8065-2010-8.
  • Optimal Aging: Get Over Getting Older, with Emmett Velten. Chicago, Open Court Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8126-9383-3.
  • How to Stubbornly Refuse to Make Yourself Miserable About Anything: Yes, Anything", Lyle Stuart, 2000, ISBN 0-8184-0456-6.
  • Making Intimate Connections: Seven Guidelines for Great Relationships and Better Communication, with Ted Crawford. Impact Publishers, 2000. ISBN 1-886230-33-1.
  • The Secret of Overcoming Verbal Abuse: Getting Off the Emotional Roller Coaster and Regaining Control of Your Life, with Marcia Grad Powers. Wilshire Book Company, 2000. ISBN 0-87980-445-9.
  • Counseling and Psychotherapy With Religious Persons: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Approach, with Stevan Lars Nielsen and W. Brad Johnson. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001. ISBN 0-8058-2878-8.
  • Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors: New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Prometheus Books, 2001. ISBN 1-57392-879-8.
  • Feeling Better, Getting Better, Staying Better: Profound Self-Help Therapy For Your Emotions. Impact Publishers, 2001. ISBN 1-886230-35-8.
  • Case Studies in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy With Children and Adolescents, with Jerry Wilde. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall, 2002. ISBN 0-13-087281-4.
  • Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Integrated Approach, 2nd ed. NY: Springer Publishing, 2002. ISBN 0-8261-4912-X.
  • Ask Albert Ellis: Straight Answers and Sound Advice from America's Best-Known Psychologist. Impact Publishers, 2003. ISBN 1-886230-51-X.
  • Sex Without Guilt in the 21st Century. Barricade Books, 2003. ISBN 1-56980-258-0.
  • Dating, Mating, and Relating. How to Build a Healthy Relationship, with Robert A. Harper. Citadel Press Books, 2003. ISBN 0-8065-2454-5
  • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: It Works For Me—It Can Work For You. Prometheus Books, 2004. ISBN 1-59102-184-7.
  • The Road to Tolerance: The Philosophy of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Prometheus Books, 2004. ISBN 1-59102-237-1.
  • The Myth of Self-Esteem. Prometheus Books, 2005. ISBN 1-59102-354-8.
  • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: A Therapist's Guide (2nd Edition), with Catharine MacLaren. Impact Publishers, 2005. ISBN 1-886230-61-7.
  • How to Make Yourself Happy and Remarkably Less Disturbable. Impact Publishers, 1999. ISBN 1-886230-18-8.
  • Rational Emotive Behavioral Approaches to Childhood Disorders • Theory, Practice and Research 2nd Edition. With Michael E. Bernard (Eds.). Springer SBM, 2006. ISBN 978-0-387-26374-8
  • Growth Through Reason: Verbatim Cases in Rational-Emotive Therapy Science and Behavior Books. Palo Alto, California. 1971.
  • All Out!. Prometheus Books, 2009. ISBN 1-59102-452-8.
  • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, American Psychological Association, ISBN 978-1-4338-0961-3
  • How to Master Your Fear of Flying. Institute Rational Emotive Therapy, 1977. ISBN 978-0-917476-10-5.
  • How to Control you Anxiety before it Controls you. Citadel Press, 2000. ISBN 0806521368.
  • Are Capitalism, Objectivism, And Libertarianism Religions? Yes!: Greenspan And Ayn Rand Debunked. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2007. ISBN 1434808858
  • Theories of Personality: Critical Perspectives, with Mike Abrams, PhD, and Lidia Abrams, PhD. New York: Sage Press, 7/2008 ISBN 978-1-4129-1422-2 (This was his final work, published posthumously).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Albert Ellis Institute
  2. ^ New York Times: Despite Illness and Lawsuits, a Famed Psychotherapist Is Temporarily Back in Session December 16, 2006
  3. ^ Smith, D. (1982). "Trends in counseling and psychotherapy". American Psychologist 37 (7): 802–809. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.37.7.802. PMID 7137698.  edit
  4. ^ a b New York Times: Albert Ellis, Influential Psychotherapist, Dies at 93
  5. ^ psychotherapy.net: An Interview with Albert Ellis, PhD Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy
  6. ^ http://www.baruch.cuny.edu/magazine/documents/Baruch-Winter07.pdf
  7. ^ http://sites.newpaltz.edu/news/2002/04/founder-of-rational-emotive-behavioral-therapy-to-speak-about-coping-with-disasters-at-suny-new-paltz/
  8. ^ a b Albert Ellis institute: A Sketch of Albert Ellis[dead link]
  9. ^ Ellis A. (1991). General semantics and rational-emotive therapy: 1991 Alfred Korzybski Memorial Lecture. Institute of General Semantics
  10. ^ Korzybski A. (1933). Science and Sanity. Institute of General Semantics, 1994, ISBN 0-937298-01-8
  11. ^ Dr. Mike and Dr. Lidia Abrams: A Brief Biography of Dr. Albert Ellis 1913–2007
  12. ^ Elis A. (2009) Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: It Works for Me - It Can Work for You, 2009, ISBN 1-59102-184-7
  13. ^ Diana Wyndham. (2012) "'Norman Haire and the Study of Sex'".  Foreword by the Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG. (Sydney: "Sydney University Press". , p.395
  14. ^ Albert Ellis, Ph.D. (1964) if this be heresy... Is pornography harmful to children?, in The Realist No.47 pp.17-8, 23
  15. ^ "Notable Signers". Humanism and Its Aspirations. American Humanist Association. Retrieved September 27, 2012. 
  16. ^ Nielsen, Stevan Lars & Ellis, Albert. (1994). A discussion with Albert Ellis: Reason, emotion and religion, Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 13(4), Win 1994. pp. 327–341
  17. ^ Ellis A. (2000). Can rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) be effectively used with people who have devout beliefs in God and religion?. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(1), Feb 2000. pp. 29–33
  18. ^ http://www.lib.uci.edu/quest/index.php?page=ellis
  19. ^ http://peace.maripo.com/p_peacemakers.htm
  20. ^ http://albert-ellis-friends.net/
  21. ^ a b c Yankura J. & Dryden W. (1994). Albert Ellis. SAGE.
  22. ^ Maultsby, M.C., Jr., & Ellis, A. (1974). Techniques for Using Rational-Emotive Imagery (REI). New York: New York: Institute for Rational Living. 
  23. ^ Ellis A. Reason and Emotion in Pschotherapy, Revised Edition, 1994, ISBN 1559722487.
  24. ^ Recollection of Stevan Lars Nielsen, Ph.D. who was present at the 90th birthday party
  25. ^ The New Yorker: The Human Condition – Ageless, Guiltless
  26. ^ NY Courts: Ellis v Broder (2006 NY Slip Op 26023)
  27. ^ William Knaus, Jon Geis, Ed Garcia. A Message in Support of Dr. Albert Ellis from Three Former Directors of Training of the Albert Ellis Institute
  28. ^ Debbie Joffe Ellis
  29. ^ Mike Abrams
  30. ^ Ellis, A. & Abrams, M. (2008) presented a completed Rational Emotive theory of personality. Personality Theories: Critical Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, Ca.:Sage Publications.
  31. ^ Ellis, Albert; Debbie Joffe Ellis (2011). Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. American Psychological Association. ISBN 1433809613. 
  32. ^ Farley, F. (2009). Albert Ellis (1913–2007). American Psychologist, Vol 64(3), pp. 215–216
  33. ^ September 2013 edition of the American Psychological Association's "Monitor on Psychology" journal, Volume 44, No. 8, Page 10
  34. ^ Ellis, A. (2003) Ask Albert Ellis. Atascadero, CA: Impact Publishers
  35. ^ a b Ellis, A. (1994) Reason and Emotion is Psychotherapy. New York, NY: Citadel Press
  36. ^ Ellis, A. (1998)Optimal Aging: Get Over Getting Older. Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing Company
  37. ^ Ellis, A. (1980) Growth Through Reason. Chatsworth CA: Wilshire Book Company

Further reading[edit]

  • Albert Ellis. Theories of Personality: Critical Perspectives, with Mike Abrams, PhD, and Lidia Abrams, PhD. New York: Sage Press, 2008
  • Emmett Velten. Under the Influence: Reflections of Albert Ellis in the Work of Others. See Sharp Press, 2007
  • Emmett Velten. Albert Ellis: American Revolutionary. See Sharp Press, 2009
  • Albert Ellis. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: It Works for Me – It Can Work for You by Albert Ellis. Prometheus Books, 2004
  • Joseph Yankura and Windy Dryden. Albert Ellis (Key Figures in Counselling and Psychotherapy series). Sage Publications, 1994

External links[edit]

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