Albert II of Brunswick-Lüneburg
|Albert II of Brunswick-Lüneburg|
|Noble family||House of Welf|
|Father||Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg|
|Mother||Rixa of Werle|
Albert II of Brunswick-Lüneburg (c. 1294–1358) was Bishop of Halberstadt from 1325 until his death. His regnal numbers indicate that he was the second Bishop Albert of Halberstadt.
Albert was a son of Duke Albert "the Fat" of Brunswick-Göttingen and his wife, Rixa of Werle. His reign can be characterized as an almost unbroken series of conflicts with the Pope, his cathedral chapter, the city of Halberstadt and various neighbouring Lords and Princes.
He was born towards the end of the 13th century. He joined the clergy at an early age and in 1319, he was already canon in Halberstadt. Soon afterwards, he was appointed provost of the St. Alexander minster in Einbeck. Bishop Albert I of Halberstadt died on 14 September 1324. On 6 October 1324, the cathedral chapter wrote a list of concessions his successor would have to agree to. The list included provisions on the jurisdiction of the archdeacon and episcoapal officials, about real estate held by the cathedral provost and mortgaging the chapter's real estate. In the subsequent election, the largest number of votes was cast for Louis of Steindorf. Albert received only five votes. However, Archbishop Matthias of Mainz, who was the metropolitan bishop, opted for Albert II. Pope John XXII ignored the rights of the cathedral chapted and appointed Giseko of Holstein, who never came into actual possession of the bishopric, but continued to raise claims on it.
During the interregnum between the death of Albert I and the confirmation of Albert II, the cathedral chapter had a conflict with Anhalt about the principality of Aschersleben and, almost simultaneously, a feud broke out between the chapter and Counts Albert II and Bernard of Regenstein, who were the patrons of the city of Quedlinburg. Bishop Albert II captured Gunteken Castle, close to Quedlinburg, around Easter 1325, and as a result, the chapter of Halberstadt became the new patrons of Quedlinburg on 14 April 1326.
After Albert had fought a more prominent feud against Meissen, the old conflict against the Counts of Regenstein broke out again. Albert accused the counts of various acts of violence and interference with his right and of converting churches into fortified buildings. The parties agreed to have the conflict arbitrated by Albert's brother, Duke Otto the Mild. However, after the Duke gave his verdict, the counts disagreed, took up arms and damaged Quedlinburg Abbey and City. The struggle did not go well for the counts and they had to make several concessions to their opponents, before Albert II was distracted by yet another conflict.
After some machinations by cathedral dean Jacob Snelhard, the cathedral chapter closed an alliance with the three collegiate convents in town to protect their freedoms and privileges against all interventions. This alliance was primarily directed against bishop Albert II. Albert's brother, Duke Otto the Mild, mediated and on 17 July 1336, a compromise was reached. Peace, however, did not last very long. Snelhard incited the citizens of Halberstadt against their bishop and the complained the his metropolitan, the Archbishop of Mainz, who sent master Albert of Gotha to investigate the complaints. After the investigation, the delegation from Mainz ruled against Snelhard and relieved him from his post.
Although Albert II had excommunicated members of the collegiate chapter, they continued to exercise their clerical tasks. Albert II ordered that the cathedral and the Church of Our Lady be closed. A lower member of the clergy, who came to read Mass, was denied entrance. An insurgence broke out in the city. Delegates sent by the bishop were killed and Albert had to flee. The situation calmed down in 1338. Albert lifted the excommunications and the written agreements between the citizens and the cathedral chapter were handed over and destroyed in the presence of a large number of prelates and knights. Albert returned and solemnly entered the city, accompanied by his brothers and cousins and other spiritual and temporal leaders and the citizens paid him homage again.
In 1340, the feud between the Halberstadt Convent and the Prince of Anhalt broke out again. The parties chose Archbishop Otto of Magdeburg as an arbitrator. He acknowledged that the Princes of Anhalt were entitled to Aschersleben and Emperor Louis IV enfeoffed Prince Bernhard III of Anhalt with the principality. However, Halberstadt Convent retained possession of Aschersleben.
Another bloody feud arose after Giseko of Holstein died and the Pope appointed Count Albert of Mansfeld as the new Bishop of Halberstadt. In his struggle against Albert of Mansfeld, Albert II was supported by his brothers and by the cities of Brunswick, Halberstadt, Quedlinburg and Aschersleben.
In the 1350s, there were further struggles with the pope. Pope Innocent VI tried every means available to dislodge Albert from his see. After Albert of Mansfeld died, the pope excommunicated Albert II and appointed Louis of Meissen as his successor. Albert II resigned, so that Louis could actually succeed him. On 13 May 1358, Albert sealed his resignation deed.
He seems to have died later that year, and was buried in the Brunswick Cathedral.
- Historia Alberti II. episcopi Halberstadensis ab anno 1324 ad 1359 conscripta, in the series Scriptores Rerum Brunsvicensium, printed by Leibnitz, vol. II, p 148—152
- Budäus, Bischof Alberti II. von Halberstadt Leben, Wandel etc., Janicke, Halberstadt, 1624
- Karl Mehrmann: Bischof Albrecht II. von Halberstadt, Zeitschrift des Harzvereins für Geschichte und Alterthumskunde, vol. 26, 1893, p. 142-190, Online
- Karl Janicke (1875), "Albrecht II., Bischof von Halberstadt", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German) 1, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 265–266
- Helmut Beumann (1953), "Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German) (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot) 1: 164–165", , (full text online)
Albert II of Brunswick-LüneburgBorn: c. 1294 Died: 1358
Albert I of Anhalt
|Bishop of Halberstadt
Louis of Meissen