Albert A. Murphree

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Albert A. Murphree
Albert Murphree portrait.jpg
University of Florida President Albert A. Murphree, circa 1920.
Born (1870-04-29)April 29, 1870
Chepultepec, Alabama
Died December 20, 1927(1927-12-20) (aged 57)
Gainesville, Florida
Education B.A., Nashville (1894)
M.A., Florida State (1902)
Occupation Mathematics Professor
University President
Employer Florida State University
University of Florida
Spouse(s) Jennie Henderson Murphree

Albert Alexander Murphree (April 29, 1870 – December 20, 1927) was an American college professor and university president. Murphree was a native of Alabama, and became a mathematics instructor after earning his bachelor's degree. He later served as the third president of Florida State College (later renamed Florida State University) from 1897 to 1909, and the second president of the University of Florida from 1909 to 1927. Murphree is the only person to have been the president of both of Florida's original state universities, the University of Florida[1] and Florida State University,[2] and he played an important role in the organization, growth and ultimate success of both institutions.

Early life and education[edit]

Murphree was born near Chepultepec, Alabama in 1870.[3] His father was Jesee Ellis Murphree, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War; his mother was Emily Helen Cornelius.[4] His parents raised him in a family of ten children in Walnut Grove, Alabama, where he attended community schools and a local two-year college.[5] He graduated from the University of Nashville with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1894,[6] and taught mathematics at several high schools and small colleges in Alabama, Tennessee and Texas.[7] In 1895, he became a mathematics instructor at the West Florida Seminary (now known as Florida State University) in Tallahassee, Florida,[8] and two years later, its board of trustees appointed him as the seminary's third president in 1897, at the age of 27.[9] Later, Murphree married Jennie Henderson, the daughter of one of the seminary's trustees.[10] He subsequently started and completed the academic work for a Master of Arts degree while serving as president of the seminary, renamed Florida State College in 1901.

Professor and university president[edit]

Murphree from 1911 Seminole

As President of West Florida Seminary, Murphree worked to create Florida's first liberal arts college by 1897, and in 1901 it was reorganized into the Florida State College with four departments: the College, the College Academy, the School for Teachers and the School of Music. Under his leadership, the Florida State College produced the state's first Rhodes Scholar in 1905, Frederic "Fritz" Buchholz (1885-65).[11]

In 1905, several prominent political backers advanced Murphree's name to be the first president of the new University of the State of Florida located in Gainesville, Florida, which was the newly consolidated men's university and land-grant college created by the Florida Legislature's passage of the Buckman Act, which segregated Florida's schools of higher learning by race and gender. Instead, the Florida Board of Control selected Andrew Sledd, then the president of the University of Florida in Lake City, to be the first president of the new men's university. Murphree continued to serve as the president of Florida State College, which became the all-female Florida Female College under the Buckman Act. From 1905 to 1909, Murphree emphasized greater academic expectations for his female students,[12] while upgrading and expanding the college's curriculum to meet modern university standards.[13] In 1909, Murphree convinced the legislature to change the name of the college to the Florida State College for Women.

When the first president of the University of Florida, Andrew Sledd, was not re-appointed for the 1909–1910 school year because of a conflict over what the new governor and members of the Florida Board of Education believed were Sledd's inflexible admissions standards that were impeding the growth of the university, Murphree's name was once again advanced as a replacement.[15] This time, the Board of Control voted unanimously to approve his appointment.[16] Murphree assumed his new duties during the summer of 1909, and worked diligently with his predecessor to ensure a smooth transition that capitalized on previous successes.[17] In a surprise to some of his previous political supporters, Murphree endorsed Sledd's admissions standards, and thereafter actually tightened the requirements for entry again in 1912.[18]

Beginning in 1910, Murphree reorganized the university's administration into four academic colleges: the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Law, the College of Agriculture, and the College of Engineering, as well as the Graduate School.[19] Murphree took particular interest in the "School of Graduate Studies," and the university awarded its first master's degree in 1910.[20] He later oversaw the addition of the College of Education in 1912, the School of Pharmacy in 1924, the School of Architecture in 1925, and the College of Commerce and Journalism in 1927.[21] During Murphree's term, he oversaw the construction of ten new major buildings, including such historical landmarks as Flint Hall (Science Department), Floyd Hall (College of Agriculture), Peabody Hall (College of Education), the University Auditorium, and the new University Library (now known as Smathers Library East).[22] The University of Florida's enrollment grew from 186 students in 1909 to over 2,000 in 1927.[23]

Murphree is reported to have taken pride in knowing every Florida student by name.[24] Under Murphree, student leaders formed the Florida Blue Key leadership society in 1923, the university celebrated its first homecoming parade in 1924, and students organized the first Gator Growl pep rally and variety show in 1925.[25]

While president of Florida, Murphree became a friend of William Jennings Bryan, the former U.S. Representative from Nebraska and the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1896, 1900 and 1908.[26] Bryan established a winter residence in Miami, Florida in 1912, and became a full-time Florida resident in 1921.[27] Bryan was a frequent speaker throughout Florida, and first met Murphree at a speech at the university in 1916.[26] As a result of his friendship with Murphree, Bryan volunteered to be the fund-raising drive chairman for the construction of the university's new Florida Union building (now known as Dauer Hall).[28]

Murphree's name was floated as a possible gubernatorial candidate on several occasions, but he publicly disavowed any personal interest in elected office.[29] Without consulting Murphree in advance, on January 13, 1924, William Jennings Bryan announced his candidacy to be a delegate to the 1924 Democratic National Convention, where, if elected, he would nominate Murphree as the party's candidate for President of the United States in the 1924 election.[30] Bryan campaigned vigorously despite Murphree's steadfast refusal to do so as a candidate.[31] Murphree stated that he was flattered by Bryan's effort, but "Nobody expects a Southern man to be nominated President, much less a Florida man."[29] Florida newspapers urged Murphree to run, but few others took his candidacy seriously.[31] Bryan was elected as a delegate to the Democratic Convention, pledged to support Murphree's nomination, but Bryan was greeted by boos and jeers at the convention because of his nomination of Murphree.[32] Bryan later told Senator J. Thomas Heflin that his reception by his fellow convention delegates was the most humiliating of his life.[32]

Murphree was elected president of the National Association of State Universities in 1927.[23]

Statue of Albert A. Murphree, second president of the University of Florida (1909–1927). Murphree is the only president honored with a statue on the university's campus.

Death and legacy[edit]

Murphree died unexpectedly in his sleep, at the age of 57, in Gainesville on December 20, 1927.[33] His wife Jennie had died six years earlier in 1921.[34] They are both buried in St. John's Episcopal Church cemetery in downtown Tallahassee, only a few blocks from Florida State University. Murphree and his wife were survived by four children––two sons, John A.H. Murphree and Albert A. Murphree, Jr., and two daughters, Alberta Murphree Worth and Martha Murphree Wallace.[33] Murphree's daughter Martha graduated from Florida State College for Women with a bachelor's degree in 1925.[34] His son and namesake, Albert A. "Waddy" Murphree, Jr., graduated from the University of Florida with a bachelor's degree in 1929, earned a master's degree from Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar from 1929 to 1933, and would later serve as a professor of English literature at the university from 1941 to 1974.[35]

Murphree, who was the second choice to be the first president of the University of Florida, served longer as the second leader of the university than all but one of its other ten presidents.[36] While he was not the founding president, Murphree built upon the solid academic standards, faculty selections and planning of his predecessor, Andrew Sledd, and greatly expanded and improved upon them; he imposed the university's modern organizational structure and was responsible for the beginnings of many of its traditions.[37]

After his death, Murphree was widely praised on the editorial pages of newspapers throughout the state and region.[38] He was credited with helping the University of Florida grow from a small state college into a rapidly expanding regional university in his eighteen years as its president.[38]

The University Auditorium was the largest construction project completed on the University of Florida's Gainesville campus during the presidency of Albert Murphree. The auditorium was built between 1922 and 1925.

The two universities that Murphree nurtured in their infancy continued to grow and prosper after his death. In 2010, Florida State University had a total enrollment of over 41,000 undergraduate, graduate and professional students; the University of Florida enrolled over 50,000 total students. In a little over one hundred years, the two national research universities, in whose early expansion and improvement Murphree had played a fundamental role, had grown to take their places among the largest single-campus universities in the United States, the University of Florida among the ten largest.[39]

In honor of its second president, the University of Florida erected a statue of Murphree on its Gainesville campus, adjacent to such landmarks as the Plaza of the Americas, Library East and Peabody Hall; Murphree is the only Florida president so honored.[39] Florida also named one of its early dormitories, Murphree Hall, in tribute.[24] In remembrance of its third president, Florida State University erected a campus statue adjacent to Jennie Murphree Hall, named for Murphree's wife.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The University of Florida was first known as the "University of the State of Florida," and its creation was the result of the 1905 consolidation of four predecessor institutions, including the University of Florida at Lake City (formerly known as Florida Agricultural College until 1903), the East Florida Seminary in Gainesville, the St. Petersburg Normal and Industrial School, and the South Florida Military College in Bartow. The school's official name was shortened to the "University of Florida" in 1909.
  2. ^ Florida State University was first known as the West Florida Seminary from its founding until 1901, then as Florida State College from 1901 to 1905, as the Florida Female College from 1905 to 1909, and from 1909 to 1947 as the Florida State College for Women. Adding to the confusing succession of names, the Florida Legislature granted the West Florida Seminary the right to call itself the "University of Florida" from 1885 to 1903, although it is unclear how widely used this title was, given that the school continued to call itself the West Florida Seminary and then Florida State College throughout this period. Aspiring to refashion Florida Agricultural College into a more comprehensive university, the legislature renamed it the "University of Florida," a name which it used exclusively from 1903 to 1905. As a result of the Buckman Act, Florida Agricultural College was abolished and its academic programs merged into the new University of the State of Florida in 1905.
  3. ^ Orland Kay Armstrong, The Life and Work of Dr. A.A. Murphree, The Record Company, St. Augustine, Florida, pp. 20–22 (1928). Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  4. ^ Armstrong, Life and Work, p. 19.
  5. ^ Armstrong, Life and Work, pp. 20–23.
  6. ^ Armstrong, Life and Work, p. 23. Early biographies of Murphree and early histories of the University of Florida often refer to Murphree as "Dr. Murphree," and he was apparently addressed as such by his later students. The highest academic degree he completed was a master's, but Rollins College and the University of Alabama conferred upon him honorary doctor of laws degrees.
  7. ^ Armstrong, Life and Work, pp. 23–24.
  8. ^ Armstrong, Life and Work, p. 25.
  9. ^ Armstrong, Life and Work, p. 27.
  10. ^ Armstrong, Life and Work, pp. 26–27.
  11. ^ Vires, Florida State University Alumni magazine, Vires. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
  12. ^ Florida State University, Office of the President, The Presidents of Florida State University. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
  13. ^ Florida State University, Florida State University––Women and Science at FSU. Retrieved on July 2, 2007.
  14. ^ James M. Farr, The Making of a University: The personal memoirs of one intimately associated with its growth (unpublished manuscript), Special Collections, George Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, p. 191 (c. 1935–1941).
  15. ^ Carl Van Ness, "Florida's Sledd Affair: Andrew Sledd and the Fight for Higher Education in Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 343–351 (2009).
  16. ^ Van Ness, "Florida's Sledd Affair," p. 348.
  17. ^ Van Ness, "Florida's Sledd Affair," pp. 349–350.
  18. ^ Van Ness, "Florida's Sledd Affair," p. 350. Murphree wrote to the Savannah Morning News, "I shall not cater to the peoples' whim for numbers, but shall maintain the same high standards of scholarship upheld by Dr. Sledd and his able faculty." He also subsequently retained the entire faculty selected by his predecessor.
  19. ^ University of Florida, Past Presidents, Albert Murphree (1909–1927). Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  20. ^ Armstrong, Life and Work, p. 52.
  21. ^ Armstrong, Life and Work, pp. 51, 74–75.
  22. ^ Armstrong, Life and Work, p. 51.
  23. ^ a b Armstrong, Life and Work, p. 12.
  24. ^ a b University of Florida Foundation, Named UF Facilities, Albert A. Murphree Hall. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  25. ^ Julian M. Pleasants, Gator Tales: An Oral History of the University of Florida, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, p. 26 (2006).
  26. ^ a b Samuel Proctor, "William Jennings Bryan and the University of Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, vol. 39, pp. 2–3 (1960). Retrieved September 22, 2010.
  27. ^ Proctor, "William Jennings Bryan," p. 1.
  28. ^ Proctor, "William Jennings Bryan," pp. 4–8.
  29. ^ a b Armstrong, Life and Work, p. 15.
  30. ^ Proctor, "William Jennings Bryan," p. 12.
  31. ^ a b Proctor, "William Jennings Bryan," pp. 12–14.
  32. ^ a b Proctor, "William Jennings Bryan," p. 14.
  33. ^ a b Armstrong, Life and Work, pp. 13–14.
  34. ^ a b Florida State University, Office of the President, The First Ladies of Florida State University. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
  35. ^ University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries, Special Collections, A Guide to the Albert Alexander Murphree Papers. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  36. ^ Pleasants, Gator Tales, pp. 14, 27, 34. The third president, John J. Tigert, served for nineteen years, one year longer than Murphree.
  37. ^ Pleasants, Gator Tales, pp. 14–27.
  38. ^ a b See, generally, Armstrong, Life and Work, pp. 161–172.
  39. ^ a b University of Florida, About UF. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  40. ^ Florida State University, Legacy Walk. Retrieved February 14, 2010.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Armstrong, Orland Kay, The Life and Work of Dr. A.A. Murphree, The Record Company, St. Augustine, Florida (1928).
  • Farr, James M., The Making of a University (unpublished manuscript), University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries, Special Collections, Gainesville, Florida (c. 1939–1941).
  • Pleasants, Julian M., Gator Tales: An Oral History of the University of Florida, University of Florida, Gainesvile, Florida (2006). ISBN 0-8130-3054-4.
  • Proctor, Samuel, & Wright Langley, Gator History: A Pictorial History of the University of Florida, South Star Publishing Company, Gainesville, Florida (1986). ISBN 0-938637-00-2.
  • Van Ness, Carl, & Kevin McCarthy, Honoring the Past, Shaping the Future: The University of Florida, 1853–2003, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (2003).

External links[edit]