List of ancient dwellings of Pueblo peoples in Colorado

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This is a list of ancient dwellings of Pueblo peoples in Colorado, United States.

Pueblo periods[edit]

Archaeologists have agreed on three main periods of ancient occupation by Pueblo peoples in southwestern Colorado: Pueblo I, Pueblo II, and Pueblo III.[1]

  • Pueblo I (AD 750 to 900). Pueblo buildings were built with stone, windows facing south, and in U, E and L shapes. The buildings were located more closely together than the previous Basketmaker period and reflected deepening religious celebration. Towers were built near kivas and likely used for look-outs. Pottery became more versatile, not just for cooking, but now included pitchers, ladles, bowls, jars and dishware for food and drink. White pottery with black designs emerged, the pigments coming from plants. Water management and conservation techniques, including the use of reservoirs and silt-retaining dams also emerged during this period.[2] Mid-way through this period, about AD 900, the number of Hovenweep residential sites increased.[3]
  • Pueblo II (AD 900-1150). During the Pueblo II period there was an increase in population that resulted in creation of more than 10,000 sites in 150 years. Since much of the land was arid, the people supplemented their diet by hunting, foraging and trading pottery for food.[4] By the end of the period, there were two-story dwellings made primarily of stone masonry, the presence of towers, and family and community kivas.[2][5][6]
  • Pueblo III (AD 1150-1300). Rohn and Ferguson, authors of Puebloan ruins of the Southwest, state that during the Pueblo III period there was a significant community change. Moving into community centers at pueblos canyon heads or cliff dwellings on canyon shelves. Population peaked between 1200 to 1250 to more than 20,000 in the Mesa Verde region.[7] By 1300 Ancient Pueblo People abandoned their settlements, as the result of climate changes and food shortage, and are believed to have moved south to villages in Arizona and New Mexico.[7]

Types of dwellings[edit]

In addition to the movable structures used by other Native Americans across North and South America, the Pueblo peoples created distinctive structures for living, worshiping, defense, storage, and daily life.

  • Pueblo - Referring to both a certain style of Puebloan architecture and groups of people themselves, the term pueblo is used in architectural terms to describe multistory, apartment-like buildings made of adobe. In this article they are called "great houses".
  • Great houses - Generally built on flat plains throughout the Southwest, the great house-style Pueblo dwelling sat independent of cliffs.
  • Pit houses - Most of the populations of the Southwest lived in pit houses, carefully dug rectangular or circular depressions in the earth with branch and mud adobe walls supported by log sized corner posts.
  • Cliff dwellings - Constructed in the sides of the mesas and mountains of the Southwest, cliff dwellings comprised a large number of the defensive structures of the Pueblo people.
  • Trincheras - The Hohokum or Trincheras culture used these distinctive type sites in the Southwest and northwest Mexico. Trincheras sites are defined by location on a hill or low mountain peak and terraces, walls, and other constructions of local stone. Remains of the terraces and walls reminded early explorers of "trincheras," the Spanish term for entrenchments or fortifications.
  • Jacal is a traditional adobe house built by the ancestral Pueblo peoples. Slim close-set poles were tied together and filled out with mud, clay and grasses, or adobe bricks were used to make the walls.[8]

Locations[edit]

Archuleta County[edit]

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Chimney Rock
(Site ID 5AA.985)
Anasazi Pueblo II Chimney Rock Chimney Rock National Monument Great house The Ancient Pueblo People site, designated on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, was a community inhabited between Durango and Pagosa Springs about 1,000 years ago with about 200 rooms. Rooms in the buildings were used for living, work areas and ceremonial purposes. The site is located within the San Juan National Forest Archaeological Area on 4,100 acres of land. Between May 15 and September 30 the Visitor Center is open and guided walking tours are conducted daily.[9] Great Kiva at Chimney Rock Colorado.JPG

Dolores County[edit]

For Canyon of the Ancients sites, also see the Canyon of the Ancients section.

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Ansel Hall
(Site ID 5DL.27)
Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Cahone Private owner The pueblo village was at least a moderate-sized community.[10] There was one occupation at Ansel Hall from 1080–1150, with its peak period about 1125. The community had Great kivas and Great Houses.[11] Crow Canyon Archaeological Center Research Reports found that at least one of the small sites was built late in the 11th century, about AD 1074. The pueblo village may have been abandoned by AD 1100, based upon the absence of 12th century white and black pottery.[12]
Brewer Archaeological District
(Site ID 5DL.578)
Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Dove Creek Brewer Archaeological District has two large prehistoric settlement sites: Brewer Mesa Pueblo (11th century) and Brewer Canyon Pueblo (13th century).[13] Brewer Canyon Pueblo, part of the Upper Squaw Canyon Center, had 245 site clusters from AD 1225 to 1290.[14]
Champagne Springs (Greenlee) Ruins (Sites 5DL2333-5DL2338) Anasazi Pueblo I, Pueblo II Squaw Point, s. of Dove Creek Ruins situated on two low hill tops on the top of Squaw Point Mesa approximately 6 miles south-southwest of Dove Creek, Colorado. Both sites are characterized by a material culture that appears to be representative of the years spanning the late Pueblo I and early Pueblo II periods.[15]

LaPlata County[edit]

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Darkmold Site
(Site ID 5LP4991)
Anasazi Basketmaker Durango The Late Archaic Basketmaker II Darkmold Site, inhabited from about 220 BC through AD 750, was added to the Colorado Register of Historic Properties in 2000. Archaeological evidence found at the site include slab-lined roasting pits and bell-shaped pits.[16]
Durango Rock Shelters Archeology Site
(Site ID 5LP4134)
Anasazi Basketmaker, Pueblo I Durango Durango Rock Shelters Archeology Site, also known as the Fall Creek Rock Shelters Site, is an Ancient Pueblo People (Anasazi) archaeological site, it is located in La Plata County, Colorado. People from the Late Basketmaker II and Basketmaker III Eras inhabited the site between AD 0 and AD 1000.[17]
Spring Creek Archeological District
(Site ID 5LP1254)
Anasazi Basketmaker, Pueblo periods Bayfield Spring Creek Archaeological District, also known as Zabel Canyon Indian Ruins, is located in the San Juan National Forest. The site was inhabited from 300 BC through the times Ancient Pueblo People lived in southwestern Colorado through the protohistoric periods of the Ute, Apache and Navajo ranged and lived in the area. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.[16]
Talus Village
(Site ID 5LP4223)
Anasazi Basketmaker Durango Talus Village, a Basketmaker II site with Basketmaker pit-house dwellings, was excavated in 1940 by Earl Morris, the first archaeologist to conduct professional excavations in LaPlata County. It was added to the Colorado Register of Historic Properties in 1996.[16]
Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
(Site ID 5MT.4342)
Anasazi Pueblo I, Pueblo II, Pueblo III Red Mesa Ute Mountain Ute Mancos Canyon Historic District, located on the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe reservation, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. It was occupied by puebloan people during the broad periods from AD 500 to 1499 [they left southwestern Colorado by 1300].[18]

Montezuma County[edit]

Anasazi Heritage Center[edit]

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Escalante
(Site ID 5MT2149)
Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Dolores Anasazi Heritage Center Great house Ruins. Escalante Pueblo was constructed approximately 1120 to 1130 AD and made of groupings of stone walled family and communal rooms, including kivas. The architecture is like that of the Chaco Canyon in present-day New Mexico.[19] The pueblo was also occupied about 1150 AD and again 1200 AD.[20] Anasazi Heritage Center - CO - BLM - Escalante Pueblo.jpeg
Dominguez Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Dolores Anasazi Heritage Center Great house Ruins. Dominguez Pueblo, an example of independent family homes outside the main pueblo. Discovered at the site were items that shed light on how the people may have lived, including "6,900 turquoise, jet and shell beads; a shell and turquoise frog pendant and mosaics, two fine ceramic vessels, six bone scrapers, a woven mat and many other items."[19] Anasazi Heritage Center - CO - BLM - Dominguez Pueblo.png

Canyon of the Ancients[edit]

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Sand Canyon
(Site ID 5MT16853)
Anasazi Pueblo III Dolores Canyons of the Ancients National Monument One of the largest pueblos of the 13th century, Sand Canyon Pueblo, built between 1250 and 1280, contains at least 20 multi-family room blocks with 420 rooms, 90 kivas, and 14 towers. A spring runs through the center of the walled site that held up to 725 people. Construction was exacting, with care taken to shape stone, and some double and triple walls for stability. Families lived in clusters of rooms that included living, storage and work rooms and had their own family kivas. The community shared roofed plazas, great kivas and towers often connected to kivas. By 1280 new construction had stopped and people began migrating out of the pueblo; By 1290 the pueblo was abandoned, as were other Colorado pueblo sites, never to be inhabited again by puebloan people.[21][22] The Northern San Juan pueblo, significant for its ceremonial use and burial remains, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.[18]
Castle Rock Pueblo Anasazi Pueblo III Dolores Canyons of the Ancients National Monument Great house There was one occupation at the Castle Rock Pueblo from 1250–1275, with its peak period about 1260. The community had Great Houses.[11] There were at least 16 kivas, 40 surface rooms, nine possible towers, and a D-shaped enclosure.
Lowry Pueblo
(Site ID 5MT1566)
Anasazi Pueblo II Pleasant View Canyons of the Ancients National Monument There was one occupation at Lowry Pueblo from 1080–1150, with its peak period about 1125. The community had Great Houses, Great kivas and roads.[11] The Lowry Pueblo National Historic Landmark consists of 8 kivas, a great (community) kiva and 40 rooms built as high as three stories. The underground great kiva was built about AD 1103 and had murals painted over about 5 layers of plaster. About 1110 another kiva was built on top of the original kiva. Based upon the size of the kiva it's thought that the Lowry Pueblo may have been a local center for religious gatherings and celebration.[21][23][24] Lowry Pueblo.jpg

Hawkins Preserve[edit]

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Hawkins Pueblo Anasazi Pueblo II Cortez Cortez Cultural Center, Hawkins Preserve Hawkins Pueblo, occupied by several related groups, is the largest ruin within the preserve. It was most populated in the Pueblo II period, from about AD 1000 to 1150. The site contains several room block ruins and rubble that contains a kiva, mounds, and middens.[25]

Hovenweep National Monument

The Hovenweep National Monument (Site ID 5MT.604) is registered on the National and Colorado State Historic Registers.

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Cajon Group Anasazi Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument Cajon Group, constructed like the Holly, Hackberry and Horseshoe configuration, is located at the head of Allen Canyon. It consists of a cluster of room blocks and the remains of a tower, estimated to house 80-100 people, that was constructed on a boulder that sits below the rim of the canyon.[26][27] Up to seven kiva depressions are located around the spring. Remnants of wall alignments below the rim on the talus represent possible terrace farming.[28]
Cutthroat Castle Group Anasazi Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument Cutthroat Castle, the largest of the remains, is located on the north side of the stream. Cutthroat is unique among the units due to the lack of a spring, the numerous kivas and the fact that much of the architecture sits below the rim.[29]
Goodman Point (Site ID 5MT604) Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument Goodman Point group, the largest and eastern most village, contains small and large clusters of pueblo buildings built partially underground. It was most heavily populated in between AD 1150-1300, the Pueblo III period. Earlier residents include Basketmakers from AD 200-450 and during the second Pueblo period AD 900-1150.[30][32]
Hackberry and Horseshoe group Anasazi Pueblo III Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument Hackberry was a medium sized Pueblo III village in the east fork of Bridge Canyon.[33] About 250 to 350 inhabitants are thought to have resided in the Hackberry Group. Located about 500 yards away, the Horseshoe group consists of four pueblo buildings that for a U-shape.[34] Horseshoe Ruin had a dam at the rim to create a reservoir. Horseshoe House is a D-shaped structure containing three rooms surrounding a possible central kiva. The architectural style suggests ceremonial or public use.[33] About 800 years ago the buildings were constructed with "precisely fit" stones and set with mortar of sand, ash, clay and water.[34]
Holly Group Anasazi Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument The Holly group is located at the head of Keeley Canyon.[35] Holly is the site known for a rock art panel that has been interpreted as a summer solstice marker.[36] The five named buildings at the site are Curved Wall House, Great House, Holly Tower, Isolated Boulder House and Tilted Tower.[37]
Hovenweep Castle Anasazi Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument Hovenweep.jpg
Hovenweep House Anasazi Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument
Rim Rock House Anasazi Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument
Stronghold House Anasazi Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument
Square Tower Anasazi Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument Square Tower group is the largest collection of pueblo buildings at Hovenweep and was populated with up to 500 people. It is located in Little Ruin Canyon[38] which is made up of Square Tower, Tower Point, and Twin Towers ruin groups. Towers at Hovenweep were built in a variety of shapes; D-shapes, squares, ovals and circles[39] and for several purposes, including tool and grinding work areas, kivas for ritual functions, residential rooms and storage.[40] Towers have limited access, contain few windows and many have narrow slots or peepholes placed in the walls. The slots and doors of Hovenweep Castle, in Square Tower Group, have been shown to define an apparent solar calendar. The building is aligned so that light is channeled through openings into the building at sunset of the summer solstice, the winter solstice and the spring and fall equinox. The light falls in a predictable pattern on interior door lintels.[40][41] Squaretower.JPG
Twin Towers Anasazi Between Cortez, CO and Blanding, UT Hovenweep National Monument

McElmo Drainage Unit

The McElmo Drainage Unit, located in Montezuma and Dolores Counties, consists of tributaries of McElmo Creek, situated north of the northern slopes of Mesa Verde and Ute Mountain, that is part of the northern San Juan River drainage.[42] For Sand Canyon, see the Canyons of the Ancients and for Ansel Hall, see Dolores County.

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Albert Porter Pueblo
(Site ID 5MT123)
Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Yellow Jacket Private owner Great house Albert Porter Pueblo, also known by its Site ID and as Hedrick Ruin, was a small puebloan North San Juan village.[18] See the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center.
Unnamed (Site ID 5MT4700) Anasazi Pueblo III Yellow Jacket There was one occupation from 1200–1250 of the Mesa Verde culture site.[43]
Bass Site
(Site ID 5MT136)
Anasazi Pueblo II Yellow Jacket Federal owner There was one occupation with Great Houses at the Bass Site from 1080–1150, with its peak period about 1125.[11] Based upon reporting to the Colorado Historical Society, occupancy extended into the early 1200s.[43] The North San Juan pueblo site was added to the National Register of Historic Places for Montezuma County, Colorado in 1999.[18]
Cannonball Ruins
(Site ID 5MT338)
Anasazi Late Pueblo II, Pueblo III Cortez Private owner Cannonball Ruins, part of the Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, was occupied from AD 1140-1300. The large settlement had architectural characteristics similar to the nearby Hovenweep pueblos. The site was first excavated in 1908 by Sylvanus Morley. Cannonball Ruins has been listed on the Colorado State Register of Historical Properties and the National Register for Historic Places since 1997.[43]
James A. Lancaster Site
(Site ID 5MT4803)
Anasazi Basketmaker, Pueblo I-III Pleasant View Private owner Ruins also called Clawson Ruins[43] were of the Pueblo tradition from the broad periods of AD 0-1499 [Pueblo people left Montezuma County area by 1300.] The previous village, added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, is now owned by a private individual and is located under water.[18]
Joe Ben Wheat Site Complex
(Site ID 5MT.16722)
Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Yellow Jacket Ruins from about AD 1075-1300. The site is a large multi-component site with 90 rooms and 14 kivas.[43]
Mitchell Springs Archeological Site
(Site ID 5MT.10991)
Anasazi Basketmaker, Pueblo I, Pueblo II Cortez Private owner Ruins from AD 500 - 1000,[43] also known as the Mitchell Springs Ruin Group, is a Northern San Juan pueblo. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in Montezuma County in 2001.[18] Ruins of 9 medium-sized pueblos from the Basketmaker II period to late Pueblo III. Occupying up to 1,000 people the pueblo had a total of 300 rooms, 35 kivas and towers.
Mud Springs Pueblo
(Site ID 5MT4466)
Anasazi Pueblo III Cortez Private owner Ruins, also called Toltec Springs,[43] was occupied from 1200–1250, with its peak period about 1225. The community had reservoirs and construction with double or triple walls.[11] The pueblo site, added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982, is currently in a conservation area.[18]
Pigge Site
(Site ID 5MT4802)
Anasazi Basketmaker, Pueblo I-III Pleasant View Private owner There was an occupation, with roads, at the Pigge Site from 1175–1225, with its peak period about 1200.[11] The National Register of Historic Places reports occupation through the broad periods of AD 0 - 1499 [by 1300 puebloan people from southwestern Colorado had migrated out of their pueblos.] The site, added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, is currently under water.[18][43]
Roy's Ruin
(Site ID 5MT3930)
Anasazi Pueblo III Cortez Roy's Ruin, part of the Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, was occupied in the early 1200s. It is a classic Prudden Unit. The pueblo was built with masonry construction in roomblocks. The small site had a tower, kiva and a midden. Roy's Ruin has been listed on the Colorado State Register of Historical Properties and the National Register for Historic Places since 1992.[43]
Seven Towers Pueblo
(5MT1000)
Anasazi Pueblo III Yellow Jacket Federal owner The Northern San Juan pueblo ruins from about AD 1150-1300 was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1999.[18][43]
Wallace Ruin
(Site ID 5MT5670)
Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Cortez Private Wallace Ruin, was a Northern San Juan and Chaco pueblo inhabited during the broad AD 1000 to 1499 period [Ancient Pueblo People left southwestern Colorado by 1300]. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.[18]
Woods Canyon Pueblo
(Site ID 5MT.11842)
Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Yellow Jacket Federal Great house Woods Canyon Pueblo, also known as Wood Canyon Ruin, was a Northern San Juan pueblo inhabited during the broad AD 1000 to 1499 period [Ancient Pueblo People left southwestern Colorado by 1300]. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1999.[18] Ruins consisting of as many as 200 rooms, 50 kivas, and 16 towers, and possibly a plaza.
Yellow Jacket pueblo
(Site ID 5MT5)
Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Yellow Jacket Private owner. Great house Yellowjacket pueblo experienced two periods of occupation. The first occurred between AD 1075 and 1150, with peak residency in 1125. The next period occurred between 1175 and 1250. The peak of the second period occurred in 1225. The community had Great Houses, Great kivas, reservoirs and roads.[11] Yellow Jacket pueblo was a village of the Mesa Verde culture was added to the National Register of Historic Places for Montezuma County in 1985.[18] Covering 100 acres, the pueblo contains at least 195 kivas (including a probable great kiva), 19 towers, a possible Chaco-era great house, and as many as 1,200 surface rooms. See the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center.

Mesa Verde

Mesa Verde National Park (Site ID 5MT.9790) is listed in the National and State Registers of Historic places.

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Balcony House Anasazi Cortez Mesa Verde National Park Great house Ruins. Set on a high ledge facing east, Balcony House with 45 rooms and 2 kivas, which would have been cold for its residents in the winter. The modern visitor enters by climbing a 32 foot ladder and a crawling through a 12 foot tunnel. The exit, a series of toe-holds in a cleft of the cliff, was believed to be the only entry and exit route for the cliff dwellers, which made the small village was easy to defend. One log was dated at AD 1278 so it was likely built not long before the Mesa Verde people migrated out of the area.[44][45] Visitors can enter Balcony House through ranger guided tours.[46]

This photo is of an Emmett Harryson, a Navajo, at a T-shaped doorway at Balcony House (1929).
Boy in doorway MVNP.jpg
Cliff Palace Anasazi Cortez Mesa Verde National Park This multi-storied ruin, the largest and best-known of the cliff dwellings in Mesa Verde, is located in the largest cave in the center of the Great Mesa. It was south and southwest facing, providing greater warmth from the sun in the winter. The site had 217 rooms, including storage rooms, open courts, walkways, and 23 kivas. Many of the rooms were brightly painted.[47][48] Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde.jpg
Fire Temple Anasazi Cortez Mesa Verde National Park Mesa Verde National Park Fire Temple and New Fire House 2006 09 12.jpg
Long House Anasazi Cortez Mesa Verde National Park Cliff dwellings Ruins. Located on the Wetherill Mesa, Long House is the 2nd largest village for about 150 people. The 150 rooms are not clustered like the standard cliff dwellings, nor is it one of the most elegant set of buildings; Stones were used without shaping for fit and stability. Two overhead ledges contain more rooms. One ledge seems to include an overlook with small holes in the wall to see the rest of the village below. A spring is accessible within several hundred feet and seeps are located in the rear of the village.[49] Long House cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde, 2006May23.jpg
Mesa Verde Reservoirs Anasazi Cortez Mesa Verde National Park A Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. These ancient reservoirs, built by the Ancient Puebloans, were named a National Civil Engineering Historic Landmark on September 26, 2004. 249FarViewReservoir.JPG
Mug House Anasazi Cortez Mesa Verde National Park This ruin situated on Wetherill Mesa was professionally excavated in the late 1960s by archaeologist Arthur Rohn. The structure contains 94 rooms, in four levels, including a large kiva, with simple vertical walls and masonry pilasters. This ceremonial structure has a keyhole shape, due to a recess behind the fireplace and a deflector, that is considered an element of the Mesa Verde style. The rooms clustered around the kiva formed part of the courtyard, indicating the kiva would have been roofed.
Oak Tree House Anasazi Cortez Mesa Verde National Park Ruins. Oak Tree House and neighboring Fire Temple can be visited via a 2 hour ranger-guided hike.[50] Mesa Verde National Park Oak Tree House Close View 2006 09 12.jpg
Spruce Tree House Anasazi Cortez Mesa Verde National Park Ruins. Spruce Tree House is the 3rd largest village, within several hundred feet of a spring, had 130 rooms and 8 kivas. Because of its protective location, it is well preserved.[51][52] The short trail to Spruce House begins at the Chapin Mesa Archeological Museum.[53] Mesa Verde National Park Spruce Tree House Three Storeyed House 2006 09 12.jpg
Square Tower House Anasazi Pueblo III Cortez Mesa Verde National Park The Square Tower House is one of the stops on the Mesa Top Loop Road diving tour.[53] The tower that gives this site its name is the tallest structure in Mesa Verde. This cliff dwelling was occupied between AD 1200 and 1300. Square Tower.jpeg

Towaoc area[edit]

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Cowboy Wash
(Site ID 5MT10010)
Anasazi Pueblo III Towaoc The site is dated between approximately 1150 and 1175 A.D. It is located on the south slopes of Ute Mountain. Some archeologists believe that the site was settled by immigrants from Chaco Canyon, or the Chuska Mountains.[54]
Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
(Site ID 5MT.4342)
Anasazi Pueblo I, Pueblo II, Pueblo III Towaoc Ute Mountain Ute Mancos Canyon Historic District, located on the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe reservation, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. It was occupied by puebloan people during the broad periods from AD 500 to 1499 [they left southwestern Colorado by 1300].[18] Eagle's Nest pueblo.jpg
Yucca House
(Site ID 5MT5006)
Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Towaoc Yucca House National Monument Pueblo village There were two occupations at Yucca House: 1) 1080-1150, with its peak period about 1125 and 2) 1225-1275, with its peak in 1250. The community had Great kivas and Great Houses.[11] Two unexcavated settlement areas covered in vegetation include: 1) Western Complex was a large pueblo of up to 600 rooms, 100 kivas and a giant, perhaps community, kiva. A spring runs through the complex. A large building, Upper House, was made of adobe. 2) Lower House is an L-shaped pueblo with a plaza, 8 rooms and a large kiva.[31] Yucca-House-NM.jpg

Other

The sites are sorted by nearest town and site name.

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
O'Brien Site
(Site ID 5MT.5518)
Anasazi Pueblo II Dolores Ruins from AD 1075 - 1150. On the Colorado State Register of Historic Properties.[43]
Bement Site
(Site ID 5MT.4388)
Anasazi Pueblo I, Pueblo II Mancos Bement Site is a Colorado State Register of Historic Properties site, representing the first and second Pueblo periods. Between AD 750-850 there was one shelter on the site. About 150 years later, a group of six structures were inhabited from 1000 to 1150.[43]
Lost Canyon Archeological District
(Site ID 5MT.10435)
Anasazi Pueblo II, Pueblo III Mancos Federal owner Ruins from AD 1050-1300[43] or earlier was Mesa Verde culture pueblo. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in Montezuma County in 1988.[18]
Puzzle House
(Site ID 5MT.11787)
Anasazi Basketmaker, Pueblo II-III Pleasant View Puzzle House, is a pueblo settlement occupied three times, first about AD 650 and two occupations between AD 1075-1225. The site is on the state register.[55][56]
Shields Pueblo Anasazi Ruins in southwestern Colorado.

Montrose County[edit]

Site name Pueblo peoples Period Nearest town (modern name) Location Type Description Photo
Dolores Cave
(Site ID 5MN.915)
Gateway Basketmaker and Pueblo periods Uravan The rock shelter is listed on the State register. Corn dated at AD 1500 found at the site provides evidence that some people from the Ancient Pueblo periods may have remained in the area and farmed corn.[43]
Tabeguache Pueblo
(Site ID 5MN.1609)
Gateway Pueblo II Nucla Tabeguache Pueblo is an example of an early, dispersed Ancient Pueblo settlement, inhabited about AD 1100 and later abandoned.[57]
Tabeguache Cave II
(Site ID 5MN.890)
Gateway Basketmaker, Pueblo I-III Uravan Tabeguache Cave II is a large prehistoric rock shelter occupied from about AD 600 - 1500. There is also a Tabeguache Cave and two other rock shelters near Nucla, Colorado.[57]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Manitou Cliff Dwellings, tourist attraction

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rohn, Arthur H.; Ferguson, William M. Puebloan ruins of the Southwest. University of New Mexico Press, 2006. pp. 43. ISBN 0-8263-3969-7.
  2. ^ a b Wenger, Gilbert R. (1991) [1980]. The Story of Mesa Verde National Park. Mesa Verde Museum Park, Colorado: Mesa Verde Museum Association. pp. 39-45.
  3. ^ History & Culture. National Park Service. Retrieved 9-20-2011.
  4. ^ Stuart, Moczygemba-McKinsey, pp. 56-57.
  5. ^ Pueblo Indian History. Crow Canyon Archaeological Center. Retrieved 10-9-2011.
  6. ^ Lancaster, James A.; Pinkley, Jean M. Excavation at Site 16 of three Pueblo II Mesa-Top Ruins. Archeological Excavations in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. National Park Service. May 19, 2008. Retrieved 10-9-2011.
  7. ^ a b Pueblo III - Overview. Crow Canyon Archaeological Center. 2011. Retrieved 9-27-2011.
  8. ^ "DeWitt Colony Life". Texas A&M University. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  9. ^ Chimney Rock Archaeological Area.
  10. ^ Cordell, Gumerman, p. 161.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Aldenderfer, Mark S.; Maschner, Herber D. G. (1996). Anthropology, Space and Geographic Information Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 127. ISBN 0-19-508575-2.
  12. ^ Regional Context: Architecture, Settlement Patterns, and Abandonment. Crow Canyon Archaeological Center. 2011. Retrieved 9-26-2011.
  13. ^ National & State Registers for Dolores County, Colorado. Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 10-8-2011.
  14. ^ Varien, Mark D.; Wilshusen, Richard H. (editors). (2002). Seeking the Center Place, Archaeology and Ancient Communities in the Mesa Verde Region. University of Utah Press. p. 210. ISBN 0-87480-735-2.
  15. ^ Dove, Donald E. Greenlee Ruins Conclusions and Recommendations. Colorado Archaeology Society. 2011. Retrieved 9-27-2011.
  16. ^ a b c Colorado State Register of Historic Places for LaPlata County, Colorado. Colorado Historical Society. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  17. ^ National Register of Historic Places - La Plata County, Colorado American Dreams, Inc. Retrieved 10-16-2011.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n National Register of Historic Places for Montezuma County, Colorado. American Dreams, Inc. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  19. ^ a b "What is unique about the Escalante and Dominguez Pueblos?". U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 2011-08-08. Retrieved 2011-06-18. 
  20. ^ "Mesa Verde County Archaeology: Anasazi Heritage Center". Mesa Verde Country Visitor Information Bureau. 1995–2011. Retrieved 2011-06-18. 
  21. ^ a b Canyons of the Ancients Visitor Information. Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved 9-24-2011.
  22. ^ Plog, Stephen. (1997). Ancient Peoples of the American Southwest. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-02116-3.
  23. ^ Gregory, Lee. Colorado Scenic Guide: Southern Region. Johnson Books, Boulder, Colorado, 1996 (1st edition 1984). pp. 17-18. ISBN 1-55566-145-9.
  24. ^ Casey, Robert. L. (1993) [1983]. High Journey to the Southwest. The Globe Pequot Press. p. 229. ISBN 1-56440-151-0.
  25. ^ Hawkins Preserve: Research. Cortez Cultural Center. 2011. Retrieved 9-26-2011.
  26. ^ Cajon Group. National Park Service. Retrieved 9-20-2011.
  27. ^ Winter, Joseph (1975). Hovenweep 1974: Archeological Report No.1. San Jose, CA: Anthropology Department, San Jose State University. 
  28. ^ Winter, Joseph (1976). Hovenweep 1975 Archeological Report no.2. San Jose, CA: Anthropology Dept, San Jose State University. 
  29. ^ Most information from this section can be found here:Ferguson, William (1987). Anasazi Ruins of the Southwest in Color. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-0873-2. 
  30. ^ Goodman Point. National Park Service. Retrieved 9-20-2011.
  31. ^ a b Hovenweep Visitor Guide National Park Service. Retrieved 9-20-2011.
  32. ^ The Hovenweep Visitor's Guide published by the National Park Service does not include Goodman Point,[31]
  33. ^ a b Rohn, Arthur H.; Ferguson, William M. Puebloan ruins of the Southwest. University of New Mexico Press, 2006. p. 157. ISBN 0-8263-3969-7.
  34. ^ a b Horseshoe and Hackberry Groups. National Park Service. Retrieved 9-20-2011.
  35. ^ Holly Ruin. National Park Service. Retrieved 9-20-2011.
  36. ^ Frazier, Kendrick. People of Chaco: A Canyon and Its Culture. W.W. Norton and Company, New York, 1986. p. 200. ISBN 0-393-30496-5.
  37. ^ Rohn, Arthur H.; Ferguson, William M. Puebloan ruins of the Southwest. University of New Mexico Press, 2006. p. 153. ISBN 0-8263-3969-7.
  38. ^ Square Tower. National Park Service. Retrieved 9-20-2011.
  39. ^ Little Ruin Canyon Trail Guide. National Park Service. Retrieved 9-20-2011.
  40. ^ a b Gibbon, Guy E.; Ames, Kenneth M. (1998) Archaeology of Prehistoric Native America: An Encyclopedia. p. 377. ISBN 0-8153-0725-X.
  41. ^ Frazier, Kendrick. People of Chaco: A Canyon and Its Culture. W.W. Norton and Company, New York, 1986. pp. 199-200. ISBN 0-393-30496-5.
  42. ^ Great Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, A.D. 1075-1300. National Register of Historic Places, Multiple Property Documentation Form. pp. 1, 3, 8. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n National & State Registers. Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 10-7-2011.
  44. ^ Wenger, Gilbert R. (1991) [1980]. The Story of Mesa Verde National Park. Mesa Verde Museum Park, Colorado: Mesa Verde Museum Association. pp. 55-56. ISBN 0-937062-15-4.
  45. ^ Casey, Robert. L. (1993) [1983]. High Journey to the Southwest. The Globe Pequot Press. pp. 225-226. ISBN 1-56440-151-0.
  46. ^ Balcony House." Mesa Verde National Park. Retrieved 9-21-2011.
  47. ^ Watson, Don. Indians of the Mesa Verde. Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado: Mesa Verde Museum Association. pp. 3, 29, 31, 37. ISBN 0-937062-00-6.
  48. ^ Wenger, Gilbert R. (1991) [1980]. The Story of Mesa Verde National Park. Mesa Verde Museum Park, Colorado: Mesa Verde Museum Association. p. 51. ISBN 0-937062-15-4.
  49. ^ Wenger, Gilbert R. (1991) [1980]. The Story of Mesa Verde National Park. Mesa Verde Museum Park, Colorado: Mesa Verde Museum Association. p. 57. ISBN 0-937062-15-4.
  50. ^ New 2011 Backcountry Hikes. National Park Service. Retrieved 9-24-2011.
  51. ^ Spruce Tree House. Mesa Verde National Park. Retrieved 9-21-2011.
  52. ^ Wenger, Gilbert R. (1991) [1980]. The Story of Mesa Verde National Park. Mesa Verde Museum Park, Colorado: Mesa Verde Museum Association. p. 52. ISBN 0-937062-15-4.
  53. ^ a b Self-Guided Tours: Chapin Mesa. Mesa Verde National Park. Retrieved 9-21-2011.
  54. ^ Cassells, E. Steve. (1997). The Archeology of Colorado, Revised Edition. Boulder, Colorado: Johnson Books. pp. 162. ISBN 1-55566-193-9.
  55. ^ National & State Registers for Montezuma County, Colorado. Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 10-8-2011.
  56. ^ <<</state.html National Register of Historic Places in <<< County American Dreams, Inc. Retrieved 2011-10-6.
  57. ^ a b National & State Registers. Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 10-8-2011.