Albert Sidney Johnston
|Albert Sidney Johnston|
Albert Sidney Johnston
photo between 1860 and 1862
February 2, 1803|
|Died||April 6, 1862
Hardin County, Tennessee
|Allegiance|| United States of America
Republic of Texas
Confederate States of America
|Service/branch|| United States Army
Confederate States Army
|Years of service||1826–1834; 1846; 1849–1861 (USA)
|Rank|| Brevet Brigadier General (USA)
Brigadier General (Texas)
|Commands held||Department of the Pacific (USA)
Army of Central Kentucky (CSA)
Army of Mississippi (CSA)
Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) served as a general in three different armies: the Texian (i.e., Republic of Texas) Army, the United States Army, and the Confederate States Army. He saw extensive combat during his military career, fighting actions in the Texas War of Independence, the Mexican-American War, the Utah War, and the American Civil War.
Considered by Confederate President Jefferson Davis to be the finest (and the second-highest ranking) general officer in the Confederacy before the emergence of Robert E. Lee, he was killed early in the Civil War at the Battle of Shiloh and was the highest-ranking officer, Union or Confederate, killed during the entire war. Davis believed the loss of Johnston "was the turning point of our fate".
Johnston was unrelated to Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston.
Johnston was born in Washington, Kentucky, the youngest son of Dr. John and Abigail Harris Johnston. His father was a native of Salisbury, Connecticut. Although Albert Johnston was born in Kentucky, he lived much of his life in Texas, which he considered his home. He was first educated at Transylvania University in Lexington, where he met fellow student Jefferson Davis. Both were appointed to the United States Military Academy, Davis two years behind Johnston. In 1826 Johnston graduated eighth of 41 cadets in his class from West Point with a commission as a brevet second lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Infantry.
Johnston was assigned to posts in New York and Missouri and served in the Black Hawk War in 1832 as chief of staff to Bvt. Brig. Gen. Henry Atkinson. In 1829 he married Henrietta Preston, sister of Kentucky politician and future civil war general William Preston. He resigned his commission in 1834 to return to Kentucky to care for his dying wife, who succumbed two years later to tuberculosis. They had one son, Col. William Preston Johnston, who would also serve in the Confederate Army.
In April 1834, Johnston took up farming in Texas and enlisted as a private in the Texas Army during the Texas War of Independence against the Republic of Mexico in 1836. One month later, Johnston was promoted to major and the position of aide-de-camp to General Sam Houston. He was named Adjutant General as a colonel in the Republic of Texas Army on August 5, 1836. On January 31, 1837, he became senior brigadier general in command of the Texas Army.
On February 7, 1837, he fought in a duel with Texas Brig. Gen. Felix Huston, challenging each other for the command of the Texas Army; Johnston refused to fire on Huston and lost the position after he was wounded in the pelvis. The second president of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, appointed him Secretary of War on December 22, 1838. Johnston was to provide the defense of the Texas border against Mexican invasion, and in 1839 conducted a campaign against Indians in northern Texas. In February 1840, he resigned and returned to Kentucky, where he married Eliza Griffin, his late wife's first cousin, in 1843. The couple settled on a large plantation he named China Grove in Brazoria County, Texas, where they raised Johnston's two children from his first marriage and the six children born to him and Eliza.
Johnston returned to the Texas Army during the Mexican-American War under General Zachary Taylor as a colonel of the 1st Texas Rifle Volunteers. The enlistments of his volunteers ran out just before the Battle of Monterrey. Johnston managed to convince a few volunteers to stay and fight as he himself served as the inspector general of volunteers and fought at the battles of Monterrey and Buena Vista. Johnston remained on his plantation after the war until he was appointed by President Taylor to the U.S. Army as a major and was made a paymaster in December 1849. He served in that role for more than five years, making six tours, and traveling more than 4,000 miles (6,400 km) annually on the Indian frontier of Texas. He served on the Texas frontier at Fort Mason and elsewhere in the West. In 1855 President Franklin Pierce appointed him colonel of the new 2nd U.S. Cavalry (the unit that preceded the modern 5th U.S.), a new regiment, which he organized. As a key figure in the Utah War, he led U.S. troops who established a non-Mormon government in the formerly Mormon territory. He received a brevet promotion to brigadier general in 1857 for his service in Utah. He spent 1860 in Kentucky until December 21, when he sailed for California to take command of the Department of the Pacific.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Johnston was the commander of the U.S. Army Department of the Pacific in California. Like many regular army officers from the South he was opposed to secession, but resigned his commission soon after he heard of the secession of his adopted state Texas. It was accepted by the War Department on May 6, 1861, effective May 3. On April 28 he moved to Los Angeles where he had family and remained there until May when, suspected by local Union authorities, he evaded arrest and joined the Los Angeles Mounted Rifles as a private, leaving Warner's Ranch May 27. He participated in their trek across the southwestern deserts to Texas, crossing the Colorado River into the Confederate Territory of Arizona on July 4, 1861.
Early in the Civil War, Confederate President Jefferson Davis decided that the Confederacy would attempt to hold as much of its territory as possible and he distributed its military forces around its borders and coasts. In the summer of 1861, Davis appointed several generals to defend Confederate lines from the Mississippi River east to the Allegheny Mountains. The most sensitive, and in many ways the most crucial areas, along the Mississippi River and in western Tennessee along the Tennessee River and the Cumberland River were placed under the command of Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Brig. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, who had been initially in command in Tennessee as that State's top general. Their impolitic occupation of Columbus, Kentucky on September 3, 1861, two days before Johnston arrived in the Confederacy's capital, Richmond, Virginia, after his cross–country journey, drove Kentucky from its stated neutrality and the majority of Kentuckians into the Union camp. Their action gave Union Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant an excuse to take control of the even more important and strategically located town of Paducah, Kentucky without raising the ire of most Kentuckians and the pro-Union majority in the State legislature.
Confederate command in Western Theater
On September 10, 1861, Johnston was assigned to command the huge area of the Confederacy west of the Allegheny Mountains, except for coastal areas. He became commander of the Confederacy's western armies in the area often called the Western Department or Western Military Department. After his appointment, Johnston immediately headed for his new territory. He was permitted to call on governors of Arkansas, Tennessee and Mississippi for new troops, although this authority was largely stifled by politics, especially with respect to Mississippi. On September 13, 1861, in view of the decision of the Kentucky legislature to side with the Union after the occupation of Columbus by Polk, Johnston ordered Brig. Gen. Felix Zollicoffer with 4,000 men to occupy Cumberland Gap in Kentucky in order to block Union troops from coming into eastern Tennessee. By September 18, Johnston had Brig. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner with another 4,000 men blocking the railroad route to Tennessee at Bowling Green, Kentucky.
Johnston had less than 40,000 men spread throughout Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas and Missouri. Of these, 10,000 were in Missouri under Missouri State Guard Maj. Gen. Sterling Price. Johnston's initial call upon the governors for more men did not result in many immediate recruits but Johnston had another, even bigger, problem since his force was seriously short of arms and ammunition even for the troops he had. As the Confederate government concentrated efforts on the units in the East, they gave Johnston only small numbers of reinforcements and minimal amounts of arms and material. Johnston could only keep up his defense by raids and other measures to make it appear he had larger forces than he did, a strategy that worked for several months. Johnston's tactics had so annoyed and confused Union Brig. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman that he became somewhat unnerved, overestimated Johnston's forces, and had to be relieved by Brig. Gen. Don Carlos Buell on November 9, 1861.
Battle of Mill Springs
Eastern Tennessee was held for the Confederacy by two unimpressive brigadier generals appointed by Jefferson Davis, Felix Zollicoffer, a brave but untrained and inexperienced officer, and soon to be Maj. Gen. George B. Crittenden, a former U.S. Army officer with apparent alcohol problems. While Crittenden was away in Richmond, Zollicoffer moved his forces to the north bank of the upper Cumberland River near Mill Springs (now Nancy, Kentucky), putting the river to his back and his forces into a trap. Zollicoffer decided it was impossible to obey orders to return to the other side of the river because of scarcity of transport and proximity of Union troops. When Union Brig. Gen. George H. Thomas moved against the Confederates, Crittenden decided to attack one of the two parts of Thomas's command at Logan's Cross Roads near Mill Springs before the Union forces could unite. On January 19, 1862, the ill-prepared Confederates, after a night march in the rain, attacked the Union force with some initial success. As the battle progressed, Zollicoffer was killed, Crittenden was unable to lead the Confederate force since he was probably intoxicated and the Confederates were turned back and routed by a Union bayonet charge, suffering 533 casualties from their force of 4,000. The Confederate troops who escaped were assigned to other units as Crittenden faced an investigation of his conduct.
After this Confederate defeat at the Battle of Mill Springs, Davis sent Johnston a brigade and a few other scattered reinforcements, and he sent Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, who was supposed to attract recruits because of his victories early in the war and give Johnston a competent subordinate. The brigade, however, came with the incompetent Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd, who was to take command at Fort Donelson as the senior general present just before Brig. Gen. Grant attacked the fort. Beauregard's move to the west contributed to the movement of the Union commanders into action against the forts so they could act before, in their view, Beauregard could make a difference in the theater. They had heard that he was bringing 15 regiments with him, but this actually was not true.
Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Nashville
Based on the assumption that Kentucky neutrality would act as a shield against a direct invasion from the north, Tennessee initially had sent men to Virginia and concentrated defenses in the Mississippi Valley, circumstances that no longer applied in September 1861. Even before Johnston arrived in Tennessee, two forts had been started to defend the Tennessee River and the Cumberland River which provided avenues into the State from the north. Both had been sited in Tennessee, however, in order to respect Kentucky neutrality and were not in ideal locations. Fort Henry on the Tennessee River was in an especially unfavorable low–lying location commanded by hills on the Kentucky side of the river. Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River, although in a better location, also was not well–sited, had a vulnerable land side and did not have enough heavy artillery for its defense against gunboats.
Maj. Gen. Polk ignored the problems of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson when he took command and, after Johnston took command, at first refused to comply with Johnston's order to send an engineer, Lt. Joseph K. Dixon, to inspect the forts. After Johnston asserted his authority, Polk ultimately had to allow Dixon to proceed. Dixon recommended that the forts be maintained and strengthened, even though they were not in ideal locations, because much work had been done on them and the Confederates might not have time to build new ones. Johnston accepted the recommendations. Johnston wanted Major, later Lt. Gen., Alexander P. Stewart to command the forts but President Davis appointed Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman as commander. Then, in order to prevent Polk from dissipating his forces by implementing his proposal to allow some men to join a partisan group, Johnston ordered him to send Brig. Gen. Gideon Pillow and 5,000 men to Fort Donelson. Pillow took up a position at nearby Clarksville, Tennessee and did not move into the fort itself until February 7, 1862. Alerted by a Union reconnaissance on January 14, 1862, Johnston ordered Tilghman to fortify the high ground opposite Fort Henry, which Polk had failed to do despite Johnston's orders. Tilghman also failed to act decisively on these orders, which in any event were now too late to be adequately carried out.
Gen. Beauregard arrived at Johnston's headquarters at Bowling Green on February 4, 1862 and was given overall command of Polk's force at the western end of Johnston's line at Columbus, Kentucky. On February 6, 1862, Union Navy gunboats quickly reduced the defenses of ill-sited Fort Henry, inflicting 21 casualties on the small remaining Confederate force. Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman surrendered the 94 remaining officers and men of his approximately 3,000-man force which had not been sent to Fort Donelson before U.S. Grant's force could even take up their positions. Johnston knew he could be trapped at Bowling Green if Fort Donelson fell, so he moved his force to Nashville, the capital of Tennessee and an increasingly important Confederate industrial center, beginning on February 11, 1862.
Johnston also reinforced Fort Donelson with 12,000 more men, including those under Floyd and Pillow, a curious decision in view of his thought that the Union gunboats alone might be able to take the fort. He did order the commanders of the fort to evacuate the troops if the fort could not be held. The senior generals sent to the fort to command the enlarged garrison, Gideon J. Pillow and John B. Floyd, squandered their chance to avoid having to surrender most of the garrison and on February 16, 1862, Brig. Gen. Simon Buckner, having been abandoned by Floyd and Pillow, surrendered Fort Donelson. Colonel Nathan Bedford Forrest escaped with his cavalry force of about 700 men before the surrender. The Confederates suffered about 1,500 casualties with an estimated 12,000 to 14,000 taken prisoner. Union casualties were 500 killed, 2,108 wounded, 224 missing.
Johnston, who had little choice in allowing Floyd and Pillow to take charge at Fort Donelson on the basis of seniority after he ordered them to add their forces to the garrison, took the blame and suffered calls for his removal because a full explanation to the press and public would have exposed the weakness of the Confederate position. His passive defensive performance while positioning himself in a forward position at Bowling Green, spreading his forces too thinly, not concentrating his forces in the face of Union advances, and appointing or relying upon inadequate or incompetent subordinates subjected him to criticism at the time and by later historians. The fall of the forts exposed Nashville to imminent attack, and it fell without resistance to Union forces under Brig. Gen. Buell on February 25, 1862, two days after Johnston had to pull his forces out in order to avoid having them captured as well.
Concentration at Corinth
Johnston had various remaining military units scattered throughout his territory and retreating to the south to avoid being cut off. Johnston himself retreated with the force under his personal command, the Army of Central Kentucky, from the vicinity of Nashville. With Beauregard's help, Johnston decided to concentrate forces with those formerly under Polk and now already under Beauregard's command at the strategically located railroad crossroads of Corinth, Mississippi, which he reached by a circuitous route. Johnston kept the Union forces, now under the overall command of the ponderous Maj. Gen. Henry Halleck, confused and hesitant to move, allowing Johnston to reach his objective undetected. This delay allowed Jefferson Davis finally to send reinforcements from the garrisons of coastal cities and another highly rated but prickly general, Braxton Bragg, to help organize the western forces. Bragg at least calmed the nerves of Beauregard and Polk who had become agitated by their apparent dire situation in the face of numerically superior forces before the arrival of Johnston on March 24, 1862.
Johnston's army of 17,000 men gave the Confederates a combined force of about 40,000 to 44,669 men at Corinth. On March 29, 1862, Johnston officially took command of this combined force, which continued to use the Army of the Mississippi name under which it had been organized by Beauregard on March 5.
Johnston now planned to defeat the Union forces piecemeal before the various Union units in Kentucky and Tennessee under Grant with 40,000 men at nearby Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, and the now Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell on his way from Nashville with 35,000 men, could unite against him. Johnston started his army in motion on April 3, 1862, intent on surprising Grant's force as soon as the next day, but they moved slowly due to their inexperience, bad roads and lack of adequate staff planning. Johnston's army was finally in position within a mile or two of Grant's force, and undetected, by the evening of April 5, 1862.
Battle of Shiloh and death
Johnston launched a massive surprise attack with his concentrated forces against Grant at the Battle of Shiloh on April 6, 1862. As the Confederate forces overran the Union camps, Johnston seemed to be everywhere, personally leading and rallying troops up and down the line on his horse. At about 2:30 p.m., while leading one of those charges against a Union camp near the "Peach Orchard", he was wounded, taking a bullet behind his right knee. He apparently did not think the wound was serious at the time, and so he sent his personal physician to attend to some wounded captured Union soldiers instead. It is possible that Johnston's duel in 1837 had caused nerve damage or numbness to his right leg and that he did not feel the wound to his leg as a result. The bullet had in fact clipped a part of his popliteal artery and his boot was filling up with blood. Within a few minutes, Johnston was observed by his staff to be nearly fainting off his horse. Among his staff was Isham G. Harris, the Governor of Tennessee, who had ceased to make any real effort to function as governor after learning that Abraham Lincoln had appointed Andrew Johnson as military governor of Tennessee. Seeing Johnston slumping in his saddle and his face turning deathly pale, Harris asked: "General, are you wounded?" Johnston glanced down at his leg wound, then faced Harris and replied with his last words: "Yes, and I fear seriously." Harris and other staff officers removed Johnston from his horse and carried him to a small ravine near the "Hornets Nest" and desperately tried to aid the general by trying to make a tourniquet for his leg wound, but little could be done by this point since he had already lost so much blood. He soon lost consciousness and bled to death a few minutes later. Harris and the other officers wrapped General Johnston's body in a blanket so as not to damage the troops' morale with the sight of the dead general. Johnston and his wounded horse, named Fire Eater, were taken to his field headquarters on the Corinth road, where his body remained in his tent until the Confederate Army withdrew to Corinth the next day, April 7, 1862. From there, his body was taken to the home of Colonel William Inge, which had been his headquarters in Corinth. It was covered in the Confederate flag and laid in state for several hours.
It is probable that a Confederate soldier fired the fatal round. No Union soldiers were observed to have ever gotten behind Johnston during the fatal charge, while it is known that many Confederates were firing at the Union lines while Johnston charged well in advance of his soldiers.
Johnston was the highest-ranking casualty of the war on either side, and his death was a strong blow to the morale of the Confederacy. Jefferson Davis considered him the best general in the country; this was two months before the emergence of Robert E. Lee as the pre-eminent general of the Confederacy.
Johnston was initially buried in New Orleans. In 1866, a joint resolution of the Texas Legislature was passed to have his body reinterred to the Texas State Cemetery in Austin The re-interment occurred in 1867. Forty years later, the state appointed Elisabet Ney to design a monument and sculpture of him to be erected at his gravesite.
The Texas Historical Commission has erected a historical marker near the entrance of what was once his plantation. An adjacent marker was erected by the San Jacinto Chapter of the Daughters of The Republic of Texas and the Lee, Roberts, and Davis Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederate States of America.
The University of Texas at Austin has also recognized Johnston with a statue on the South Mall.
- Eicher, p. 322.
- Dupuy, p. 378.
- Woodworth, p. 46.
- W.P. Johnston biography.
- Johnston, p. 273.
- Johnston, pp. 268, 275-91.
- Woodworth, pp. 18–19.
- Woodworth, pp. 17–33.
- Woodworth, pp. 20–22
- Woodworth, pp. 30–32.
- Woodworth, pp. 35, 45.
- Long, p. 114.
- Woodworth, pp. 39, 50.
- Woodworth, p. 39.
- Long, p. 115.
- Woodworth, p. 51.
- Long, p. 116.
- Johnston's appointment as a full general by his friend and admirer Jefferson Davis already had been confirmed by the Confederate Senate on August 31, 1861. The appointment had been backdated to rank from May 30, 1861, making him the second highest ranking general in the Confederate States Army. Only Adjutant General and Inspector General Samuel Cooper ranked ahead of him. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. p. 807. From General Command Line List. Weigley, p. 110. McPherson, p. 394.
- Woodworth, p. 52.
- Long, p. 119.
- Woodworth, p. 53.
- Woodworth, p. 55.
- Woodworth, pp. 55–56
- Long, p. 138.
- McPherson, p. 394 says Johnston had 70,000 troops to defend his territory between the Appalachians and the Ozarks by the end of 1861.
- Woodworth, p. 61
- Woodworth, p. 65.
- Long, pp. 161–162.
- Woodworth, p. 66.
- Woodworth, pp. 66–67.
- Woodworth, p. 67.
- Long, p. 162.
- Woodworth, p. 69.
- Woodworth, pp. 71–72.
- Woodworth, pp. 80, 84.
- Woodworth, pp. 72, 78.
- Woodworth, p. 54.
- Eicher, The Longest Night. pp. 111–113.
- Woodworth, p. 56.
- Long, p. 142
- Weigley, p. 108
- McPherson, p. 393.
- Woodworth, p. 57.
- Woodworth, p. 58.
- Long, pp. 167–168.
- Eicher, The Longest Night, p. 171 says the garrison at Fort Donelson numbered 1,956 men before the Fort Henry garrison and the men under Floyd and Pillow joined them in early February 1862.
- Woodworth, p. 71.
- McPherson, p. 396.
- A Confederate battery and the beginning of some fortifications were sited across the river at Fort Heiman but these were of little value when the Union flotilla appeared.
- Woodworth, p. 78.
- After some preliminary work with Johnston, Beauregard assumed command of this force, which he named the Army of the Mississippi, on March 5, 1862 while at Jackson, Tennessee. Like the other Confederate commander, he had to withdraw to the south after the fall of the forts or be surrounded by the advancing Union forces. Long, p. 178.
- Woodworth, pp. 78–79.
- Long, p. 167.
- Long, pp. 166–167
- Weigley, p. 109.
- Woodworth, p. 79.
- Loing, pp. 169–170.
- Woodworth, p. 80.
- McPherson, pp. 400–401.
- Floyd was able to ferry his four Virginia regiments out of the fort with him but left his Mississippi regiment behind to surrender with the rest of the garrison. Pillow escaped only with his chief of staff. Woodworth, p. 83. Long, p. 171.
- Woodworth, pp. 82–84.
- Woodworth, p. 84.
- McPherson, pp. 401–402.
- This included about 200 men not in Forrest's immediate command. Weigley, p. 111
- Long, p. 172.
- Weigley, p. 111.
- Woodworth, pp. 84–85.
- Weigley, p. 112.
- McPherson, pp. 405–406.
- Davis defended Johnston, saying: "If Sidney Johnston is not a general, we had better give up the war, for we have no general." McPherson, p. 495.
- Woodworth, p. 86.
- Long, p. 175.
- McPherson, p. 402.
- Woodworth, pp. 85–86.
- McPherson, p. 406.
- Woodworth, pp. 86–88.
- Woodworth, p. 88.
- Woodworth, pp. 90, 94.
- Woodworth, p. 95.
- Long, p. 188.
- McPherson,p. 406.
- Eicher, The Longest Night, p. 223.
- Long, 190.
- Eicher, Civil War High Commands p. 887 and Eicher, The Longest Night p. 219 are nearly alone in referring to this army as the Army of Mississippi. Muir, p. 85, in discussing the first "Army of Mississippi" includes this army as one of three in the article with that title but states: "Historians have pointed out that the Army of Mississippi is frequently mentioned in the Official Records as the Army of the Mississippi." Contemporaries, including Johnston and Beauregard, and modern historians call this Confederate army the Army of the Mississippi. 'The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.', Volume X, Part 1, index, pp. 96–99; 385 (Beauregard's report on the Battle of Shiloh, April 11, 1862, from Headquarters, Army of the Mississippi) and Part 2, p. 297 (Beauregard's announcement on taking command of Army of the Mississippi); p. 370 (Johnston General Orders of March 29, 1862 assuming command and announcing the army would retain the name Army of the Mississippi); pp. 405-409. Beauregard, p. 579. Boritt, p. 53. Connelly, Army of the Heartland: The Army of Tennessee, 1861-1862. p. 151. ("The Army retained Beauregard's chosen name...") Connelly, Civil War Tennessee: Battles And Leaders. p. 35. Cunningham, pp. 98, 122, 397. Engle, p. 123. Hattaway, p. 163. Hess, pp. 47, 49, 112 ("...Braxton Bragg's renamed Army of Tennessee (formerly the Army of the Mississippi)..."). Isbell, p. 102. McDonough, pp. 60, 66, 78. Kennedy, p. 48. Noe, p. 19. Williams, p. 122.
- Woodworth, pp. 96–97.
- Long, p. 192
- Woodworth, p. 97.
- Long, pp. 193–194.
- Weigley, p. 113.
- McPherson, pp. 406–407.
- Johnston did not achieve total surprise as some Union pickets were alerted to the Confederate presence and provided warning to some Union units before the attack began.
- Sword, pp. 270-73, 443-46; Cunningham, pp. 273-76; Smith, pp. 26-34. Sword offers evidence that Johnston lived as long as an hour after receiving his fatal wound.
- Sword, p. 444.
- Johnston is the only four-star (full) American general ever killed in battle. Muir, p. 84.
- Beauregard, G. T. The Campaign of Shiloh. p. 579. In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, vol. I, edited by Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence C. Buel. New York: Century Co., 1884-1888. OCLC 2048818.
- G. S. Boritt (1999). Jefferson Davis' Generals. Oxford University Press on Demand. ISBN 978-0-19-512062-2.
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- Thomas Lawrence Connelly (1979). Civil War Tennessee: battles and leaders. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 978-0-87049-284-6.
- O. Edward Cunningham (2007). Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862. ISBN 978-1-932714-27-2.
- Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson, and David L. Bongard. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography. New York: HarperCollins, 1992. ISBN 978-0-06-270015-5.
- David J. Eicher (2001). The longest night: a military history of the Civil War. ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
- Civil War high commands. Stanford University Press. 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1.
- Stephen Douglas Engle; Bison Book (2005). Struggle For The Heartland: The Campaigns From Fort Henry To Corinth. Bison Books. ISBN 978-0-8032-6753-4.
- Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. ISBN 0-252-00918-5.
- Earl J. Hess (2012). The Civil War in the West: Victory and Defeat from the Appalachians to the Mississippi. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3542-5.
- Shiloh and Corinth: Sentinels of Stone. University Press of Mississippi. 2007. ISBN 978-1-934110-08-9.
- William Preston Johnston (1878). The life of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston: embracing his services in the armies of the United States, the republic of Texas, and the Confederate States. D. Appleton.
- Frances H. Kennedy; Conservation Fund (Arlington, Va.) (1998). The Civil War Battlefield Guide. Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0-395-74012-5.
- Long, E. B. The Civil War Day by Day: An Almanac, 1861–1865. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971. OCLC 68283123.
- James Lee McDonough (1977). Shiloh, in Hell Before Night. ISBN 978-0-87049-199-3.
- James M. McPherson (1988). Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. New York : Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-503863-7.
- David Stephen Heidler; Jeanne T. Heidler, David J. Coles (2002). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-04758-5.
- Noe, Kenneth (2001). Perryville. ISBN 978-0-8131-2209-0.
- Smith, Derek (2005). The Gallant Dead: Union and Confederate Generals Killed in the Civil War. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-0132-7.
- Sword, Wiley (1992). The Confederacy's Last Hurrah: Spring Hill, Franklin, and Nashville. ISBN 978-0-7006-0650-4.
- Russell F. Weigley (2000). A great Civil War: a military and political history, 1861-1865. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-33738-2.
- T. Harry Williams (1995). P. G. T. Beauregard: Napoleon in Gray. LSU Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-1974-7.
- Steven E. Woodworth (1990). Jefferson Davis and his generals: the failure of Confederate command in the West. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0461-8.
- Larry J. Daniel (1997). Shiloh: the battle that changed the Civil War. ISBN 0-684-80375-5.
- Kendall D. Gott (2003). Where the South Lost the War: An Analysis of the Fort Henry-Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862. ISBN 978-0-8117-0049-8.
- Albert A. Nofi (2001). The Alamo: And the Texas War for Independence September 30, 1835 to April 21, 1836 : Heros, Myths and History. ISBN 978-0-306-81040-4.
- Charles Pierce Roland (1964). Albert Sidney Johnston: Soldier of Three Republics. ISBN 978-0-8131-9000-6.
- Charles Pierce Roland (2000). Jefferson Davis's Greatest General: Albert Sidney Johnston. McWhiney Foundation Press. ISBN 1-893114-20-1.
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