Alberta Highway 16
Alberta Provincial Highway No. 16, or the Yellowhead Highway, is the main east-west highway traversing central Alberta, Canada. It is designated a core route in Canada's National Highway System and forms the Yellowhead branch of the Trans-Canada Highway. Highway 16 spans approximately 633 km (393 mi) from Alberta's border with British Columbia in the west to its border with Saskatchewan in the east. As of 2010, all but less than 95 km (59 mi) of the route was divided, with a minimum of two lanes in each direction.
From west to east, Highway 16 passes through Jasper National Park, Hinton, Edson, Spruce Grove, Edmonton, Sherwood Park, Elk Island National Park, Vegreville, Vermilion, and Lloydminster. Signalized intersections exist in Jasper, Hinton, Edson, Edmonton, and Lloydminster. Highway bypass alignments have been planned for Hinton, Edson, and Lloydminster, all of which have been designated as Provincial Highway No. 16X.
Within the City of Edmonton, Highway 16 is named Yellowhead Trail. Most sections of Yellowhead Trail are free-flowing, while numerous intersections between 156 Street and 50 Street are signalized. Plans call for replacement of all signalled intersections with interchanges, flyovers and closures to bring Yellowhead Trail up to freeway standards by the year 2041.
The Yellowhead Highway follows a native trail of the same name. During the early 1800s, Pierre Bostonais, an Iroquois-Métis trapper with streaks of blonde in his hair, worked for the Hudson's Bay Company. Because of his hair colour, French Voyageurs referred to him as "Tête Jaune", literally "Yellow Head". By 1819, Bostonais acted as a guide for the company and had explored a route between the Fraser River and the present city of Prince George. Half a century late, the Canadian National Railway (CNR) would construct a routeline along what came to be known as the Yellowhead Trail.
Following World War I, as automobile use increased exponentially, CNR surveyor Fred Driscoll and Edmonton Automobile and Good Roads Association president formed a committee lobbying for the creation of the Yellowhead Highway. Discoll believed the abandoned railway bed would be an ideal base for a road. The Edmonton Automobile Association offered a gold medal to the first person to travel from Edmonton to Victoria through the gap. Charles Neiymer and Frank Silverthorne left in 4x4 on June 17, 1922. The following week, George Gordon and J. Sims departed Edmonton in a Ford Model T, following the same route. On July 4, both pairs arrived in Victoria and were each awarded gold medals.
However, it would take until World War II for any improvements to be made this overland route. The displacement of many Japanese-Canadians from the Pacific coast to internment camps in the interior led to some developments. 30 km (19 mi) of road was constructed along the railway bed, and an additional 40 km (25 mi) through steep terrain. By 1944, the Tote Road was opened through Jasper and into the Fraser Valley.
In August 1948, a motorcade was organized as a demonstration of the need for the highway. he Trans-Canada Highway Act was enacted in 1949, providing a 90% subsidy to upgrade selected routes to modern standards. However, the Tote Highway was not included under this subsidy. During the same time frame, the Trans Mountain Oil Pipe Line Company began looking at the Tote Road as a potential route for a pipeline between Edmonton and Vancouver. Construction began in 1952, and largely resulted in the destruction of the road along the pipeline's path.
Gradually, work progressed to reconstruct the highway. Elsewhere, the main route of the Trans-Canada Highway was completed in 1957. The Yellowhead Highway became eligible for federal funding soon thereafter. By 1969, the Tote Road was generally rebuilt and paved. On August 15, 1970, British Columbia Premier W. A. C. Bennett officially opened the Yellowhead Highway.
|Municipality of Jasper||0||Begins at the Alberta–British Columbia border
Enters Jasper National Park
|24|| Icefield Parkway (Highway 93) branches south
Western access into Jasper
|25|| Highway 93A branches south
Central access into Jasper
|28||Eastern access into Jasper|
|I.D. No. 12
(Jasper National Park)
|74||Exits Jasper National Park|
|Yellowhead County||93|| Highway 40 branches north near Entrance
Highway 40 concurrency begins
|Town of Hinton||95|| Highway 40 branches south
Highway 40 concurrency ends
|Yellowhead County||180||177||Highway 47 branches south
Future Highway 947 branches north
|Town of Edson||187||Intersects 51 Street, which connects to Highway 748|
|Yellowhead County||219||Highway 32 branches north|
|232||Passes through Niton Junction|
|245||Highway 751 branches north at Nojack|
|256||Highway 753 branches south|
|275||Highway 16A branches northeast|
|278|| Highway 22 (Cowboy Trail) branches north
Highway 22 concurrency begins
|n/a||284||Crosses Pembina River|
|Parkland County||289||285|| Highway 16A branches northwest at Entwistle
Highway 22 (Cowboy Trail) branches south
Highway 22 concurrency ends
|294||Highway 757 branches north|
|299||Passes south of Gainford|
|306||302||Highway 759 branches south towards Seba Beach|
|309||Passes through Fallis|
|312||Highway 765 branches north|
|Village of Wabamun||324||321||Intersects Range Road 40B/50 Street|
|Parkland County||327||324||Former Highway 30 branches south|
|329||Intersects Duffield access road|
|336||Highway 770 branches south|
|340||337||Highway 43 branches north|
|344||341||Highway 16A branches southeast|
|355||352||Intersects Highway 779 north of Stony Plain|
|City of Spruce Grove||360||356||Intersects Range Road 274/Campsite Road|
|363||359||Intersects Range Road 272/Century Road)|
|Parkland County||368||364||Highway 44 branches north|
|371||367||Highway 60 branches south at Acheson|
|City of Edmonton||376||372||Intersects Winterburn Road|
|378||374||Intersects Highway 216 (Anthony Henday Drive)|
|379||376||Intersects 184 Street NW|
|381||377||Intersects 170 Street NW|
|383||379||Intersects 156 Street NW|
|385||381||Intersects Mark Messier Trail/St. Albert Trail
Highway 2 branches north
|389||386||Intersects 97 Street NW
Highway 28 branches north
|391||387||Intersects 82 Street NW|
|392||388||Intersects Fort Road/Wayne Gretzky Drive|
|394||391||Intersects 50 Street NW
Highway 15 branches north
|397||393||Intersects Victoria Trail/118 Avenue NW|
|n/a||394||Crosses the North Saskatchewan River on the Beverly Bridge (eastbound) and Clover Bar Bridge (westbound)|
|City of Edmonton/
|398||395||Intersects Hayter Road/17 Street NW|
|400||396||Highway 216 (Anthony Henday Drive) branches south|
|400C||398||Intersects 17 Street NE/Broadmoor Boulevard|
|403||399||Intersects 33 Street NE/Sherwood Drive|
|Strathcona County||405||401||Intersects Range Road 231/Clover Bar Road|
|406||403||Intersects Highway 21|
|413||409||Highway 824 branches south to Ardrossan|
|414||Intersects Highway 830|
|I.D. No. 13 (Elk Island National Park)||430||Range Road 201A branches north within Elk Island National Park, which connects to Highway 831|
|Lamont County||442||Intersects Highway 834|
|463||Intersects Highway 15 and Highway 855 south of Mundare|
|County of Minburn No. 27||474||Highway 631 branches east|
|481||478||Highway 16A branches southeast towards Vegreville|
|487||Intersects Highway 857|
|492||489||Highway 16A branches northwest towards Vegreville|
|499||Passes through Lavoy|
|505||Intersects Highway 36 (Veterans Memorial Highway)|
|514||Passes through Ranfurly|
|Village of Innisfree||526||Intersects Highway 870|
|County of Minburn No. 27||538||Passes south of Minburn|
|Village of Mannville||551||Intersects Highway 881|
|County of Vermilion River||577||573||Intersects Highway 41 (Buffalo Trail) south of Vermilion|
|594||Intersects Highway 893 at Kenilworth Lake|
|Village of Kitscoty||609||Intersects Highway 897|
|County of Vermilion River||621||Passes south of Blackfoot|
|City of Lloydminster||633||Ends at intersection with Highway 17 (50 Avenue) at the Saskatchewan border|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
- Provincial Highways Designation Order, Alberta Transportation, p. 4
- "National Highway System". Transport Canada. 2009-12-13. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- "2010 Provincial Highways 1 - 216 Series Progress Chart". Alberta Transportation. March 2005. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation. Alberta Official Road Map (Map) (2010 ed.). Section J–2, J–3, I–3, I-4, I–5, I–6, I–7, J–7, I–8, and J–8.
- "Yellowhead Freeway in 2041". 630 CHED. June 14, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- R. Gibbard/R. Toohey (June 14, 2011). "Yellowhead Trail Strategic Plan". Project Status Report. City of Edmonton. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "Saskatchewan's Highway Network". Department of Highways. Saskatchewan Government. Retrieved March 24, 2008.
- Anderson, Frank W. (1998). The Yellowhead Trail in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Box 9055, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Frank W. Anderson. p. 105.
- 2010 Provincial Highways 1 - 216 Series Progress Chart (map, 8 MB) by Alberta Transportation.
BC Highway 16
AB Highway 16
SK Highway 16