Alberta Mountain forests

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Albert Mountains forest
View of Lake Moraine.jpg
Spruce forest around Moraine Lake in Banff National Park
Alberta Mountain forests map.svg
Biome Temperate coniferous forests
Bird species 179[1]
Mammal species 57[1]
Area 39,800 km2 (15,400 sq mi)
Country Canada
Habitat loss 56.25%[1]
Protected 63.85%[1]

The Alberta Mountain forests are a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of Canada.


This ecoregion covers the grand Rocky Mountains of Alberta including the eastern outliers of the Continental Ranges. Located almost entirely in Alberta and taking in the Alberta-British Columbia border from Banff north to Jasper, Alberta and Kakwa Wildlands Park. This is an area of glaciers and high mountains covered with a forest of tall trees. The highest points are the mountains around the Columbia Icefield the largest ice field in the Rockies.

The mountain valleys have a mild climate with warm, dry summers and snowy winters but the high mountain sides have a harsher climate. Average summer temperatures are 12°C going down to -7°C in winter.[2]


Trees include Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), White spruce (Picea glauca) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa).


These mountains are home to good numbers of large mammals including elk ((Cervus elaphus) which graze on the aspen bark, moose, Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Predators in the mountains and forests include Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis), American Black Bear (Ursus americanus cinnamomum), cougar and Gray Wolf (Canis lupus). Other wildlife is much smaller including the Snowshoe hare, the American Pygmy Shrew, and the Banff Springs snail which is endemic to Banff National Park. Birds include Townsend's warbler, veery and bald eagle.

Threats and preservation[edit]

80% of these forests are intact although some is being removed for urban development and tourism in the valley areas. Large areas of natural habitat remain in Banff National Park, Jasper National Park, Kakwa Wildlands, Willmore Wilderness Park, Bugaboo Provincial Park and Ghost River Wilderness Area.

This ecozone corresponds to the human region called Alberta's Rockies.


  1. ^ a b c d Hoekstra, J. M.; Molnar, J. L.; Jennings, M.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D.; Boucher, T. M.; Robertson, J. C.; Heibel, T. J.; Ellison, K. (2010). Molnar, J. L., ed. The Atlas of Global Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities to Make a Difference. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26256-0. 
  2. ^ "Alberta Mountain forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.