Moravia in 1960
November 28, 1907
|Died||September 26, 1990
|Resting place||Campo Verano, Rome|
|Pen name||Alberto Moravia|
|Occupation||Novelist, journalist, playwright, essayist, film critic|
|Notable works||Gli indifferenti (Time of Indifference, 1929)
Il conformista (The Conformist, 1947)
Racconti romani (Roman Tales, 1954)
La ciociara (Two Women, 1957)
|Notable awards||Strega Prize (1952)
Premio Marzotto (1957)
Viareggio Prize (1961)
Premio Mondello (1982)
|Spouse||Elsa Morante (1941–1962)
Carmen Llera (1984–his death)
|Partner||Dacia Maraini (1962–1978)|
Alberto Moravia (Italian pronunciation: [alˈbɛrto moˈraːvja]; November 28, 1907 – September 26, 1990), born Alberto Pincherle, was an Italian novelist and journalist. His novels explored matters of modern sexuality, social alienation, and existentialism.
He is best known for his debut novel Gli indifferenti (published in 1929), and for the anti-fascist novel Il Conformista (The Conformist), the basis for the film The Conformist (1970) by Bernardo Bertolucci. Other novels of his translated to the cinema are Agostino, filmed with the same title by Mauro Bolognini in 1962; Il Disprezzo (A Ghost at Noon or Contempt), filmed by Jean-Luc Godard as Le Mépris (Contempt) (1963); La Noia (Boredom), filmed with that title by Damiano Damiani in 1963 and released in the US as The Empty Canvas in 1964; and La Ciociara, filmed by Vittorio de Sica as Two Women (1960). Cedric Kahn's L'Ennui (1998) is another version of La Noia. He was an atheist.
He once remarked that the most important facts of his life had been his illness, a tubercular infection of the bones that confined him to a bed for five years, and Fascism, because they both caused him to suffer and do things he otherwise would not have done. "It is what we are forced to do that forms our character, not what we do of our own free will." His writing was marked by its factual, cold, precise style, often depicting the malaise of the bourgeoisie, and was rooted in the tradition of nineteenth-century narrative, underpinned by high social and cultural awareness. In his world, where inherited social, religious and moral beliefs are no longer acceptable, he considered sex and money the only basic criteria for judging social and human reality. Moravia believed that writers must, if they were to be successful in representing reality, "assume a moral position, a clearly conceived political, social, and philosophical attitude" but also that, ultimately, – "A writer survives in spite of his beliefs."
Between 1959 and 1962 Moravia was President of the worldwide association of writers, PEN International.
Alberto Pincherle (the pen-name "Moravia" was the surname of his paternal grandmother) was born in Via Sgambati in Rome, Italy, to a wealthy middle-class family. His Jewish Venetian father, Carlo, was an architect and a painter. His Catholic Anconitan mother, Teresa Iginia de Marsanich, was of Dalmatian origin.
The family he was born in had interesting twists and a complex cultural and political climate. Suffice it to mention on one hand the brothers Carlo and Nello Rosselli, founders of the anti-fascist resistance movement Giustizia e Libertà, murdered in France by Benito Mussolini's order in 1937, his cousins on father side, and, on the other hand, his uncle on mother side, Augusto De Marsanich, who was an undersecretary in the National Fascist Party cabinet.
Moravia did not finish conventional schooling because, at the age of nine, he contracted tuberculosis of the bone that confined him to bed for five years. He spent three years at home, and two in a sanatorium near Cortina d'Ampezzo, in northeastern Italy. Moravia was an intelligent boy and devoted himself to reading books: some of his favourite authors included Giosuè Carducci, Boccaccio, Fyodor Dostoevsky, James Joyce, Ariosto, Carlo Goldoni, William Shakespeare, Molière, Gogol, Mallarmé. He learned French and German, and wrote poems in French and Italian.
In 1925 he left the sanatorium and moved to Brixen. During the next three years, partly in Brixen and partly in Rome, he began to write his first novel, Gli indifferenti (Time of Indifference), published in 1929. The novel is a realistic analysis of the moral decadence of a middle-class mother and two of her children. In 1927, Moravia met Corrado Alvaro and Massimo Bontempelli, and started his career as a journalist with the magazine 900, which published his first short stories, including "Cortigiana stanca" ("The Tired Courtesan" or in French as "Lassitude de courtisane", 1927), "Delitto al circolo del tennis" ("Crime at the Tennis Club") (1928), "Il ladro curioso" ("The Curious Thief") and "Apparizione" ("Apparition") (both 1929).
Gli indifferenti and Fascist ostracism
Gli indifferenti was published at his own expense, costing 5,000 Italian lira. Literary critics welcomed the novel as a noteworthy example of contemporary Italian narrative fiction. The next year, he started collaborating with the newspaper La Stampa, then edited by author Curzio Malaparte. In 1933, together with Mario Pannunzio, he founded the literary review magazines Caratteri ("Characters") and Oggi ("Today"), and started writing for the newspaper Gazzetta del Popolo.
The years leading to World War II were problematic; the Fascist regime seized La mascherata ("Masquerade") (1941), prohibited reviews of Le ambizioni sbagliate (1935), and banned publication of Agostino (Two Adolescents) (1941). In 1935 he traveled to the United States to give a lecture series on Italian literature.
L'imbroglio ("The Cheat") was published by Bompiani in 1937. To avoid Fascist censorship he wrote mainly in the surrealist and allegoric genres, among the works is Il sogno del pigro ("The Dream of the Lazy"), however, the Fascist seizing of the second edition of La mascherata, in 1941, thereafter forced him to write under a pseudonym. That same year, he married the novelist Elsa Morante, whom he had met in 1936; they lived in Capri, where he wrote Agostino.
Return to Rome and national popularity
In May 1944, after the liberation of Rome, Alberto Moravia returned and began collaborating with Corrado Alvaro, writing for important newspapers such as Il Mondo and Il Corriere della Sera; the latter published his writing until his death.
At war's end, his popularity steadily increased, with works such as La Romana (The Woman of Rome) (1947), La Disubbidienza (Disobedience) (1948), L'Amore Coniugale e altri racconti ("Conjugal Love and other stories") (1949) and Il Conformista ("The Conformist") (1951). In 1952 he won the Premio Strega for I Racconti, and his novels began to be translated abroad. That same year "La Provinciale" was cinematically adapted by Mario Soldati; in 1954 Luigi Zampa directed La Romana, and in 1955 Gianni Franciolini directed I Racconti Romani ("The Roman Stories") (1954) a short collection that won the Marzotto Award. In 1953, Moravia founded the literary magazine Nuovi Argomenti ("New Arguments"), which featured Pier Paolo Pasolini among its editors.
In the 1950s, he wrote prefaces to works such as Belli's 100 Sonnets, Brancati's Paolo il Caldo and Stendhal's Roman Walks. From 1957 onwards, he also reviewed and criticised cinema for the weekly magazines L'Europeo and L'Espresso; it is collected in the volume Al Cinema ("At the Cinema") (1975).
La noia and later life
In 1960, he published one of his most famous novels, La Noia (Boredom or The Empty Canvas), the story of the troubled sexual relationship between a young, rich painter striving to find sense in his life and an easygoing girl in Rome. It won the Viareggio Prize and was filmed by Damiano Damiani in 1962. An adaptation of the book is the basis of Cedric Kahn's film L'ennui ("The Ennui") (1998).
Several films were based on his other novels: in 1960, Vittorio De Sica cinematically adapted La Ciociara with Sophia Loren; in 1963 Jean-Luc Godard filmed Il Disprezzo (Contempt) ; in 1964 Francesco Maselli filmed Gli Indifferenti (1964).
In 1962 Moravia and Elsa Morante parted; he went to live with the young writer Dacia Maraini. Increasingly, he concentrated on theatre; in 1966, he and Maraini and Enzo Siciliano founded the company called "Il Porcospino", which staged works by Moravia, Maraini, Carlo Emilio Gadda, and others.
In 1967 Moravia visited China, Japan, and Korea. In 1971 he published the novel Io e lui (["I and He"] The Two of Us) about a screenwriter and his independent penis and the situations to which he thrusts them, and the essay Poesia e romanzo ("Poetry and Novel"). In 1972 he went to Africa, which inspired his work A quale tribù appartieni? ("Which Tribe Do You Belong To?"), published in the same year. His 1982 trip to Japan, including a visit to Hiroshima, inspired a series of articles for L'Espresso magazine about the atomic bomb. The same theme is in the novel L'Uomo che Guarda ("The Man Who Looks") (1985) and the essay L'Inverno Nucleare ("The Nuclear Winter") including interviews with some contemporary principal scientists and politicians.
The short story collection, La Cosa e altri racconti ("The Thing and other stories"), was dedicated to Carmen Llera, his new companion (forty-five years his junior), whom he married in 1986. In 1984 he was elected to the European Parliament as member from the Italian Communist Party. His experiences at Strasbourg, which ended in 1988, are told in Il Diario Europeo ("The European Diary"). In 1985 he won the title of "European Personality".
In September 1990, Alberto Moravia was found dead in the bathroom of his Lungotevere apartment, in Rome. In that year, Bompani published his autobiography, Vita di Moravia ("Life of Moravia").
Themes and literary style
Moral aridity, the hypocrisy of contemporary life, and the substantial incapability of people finding happiness in traditional ways such as love and marriage are the regnant themes in the works of Alberto Moravia. Usually, these conditions are pathologically typical of middle-class life; marriage, in particular, is the target of works such as Disobedience and L'amore coniugale ("Conjugal Love") (1949). Alienation is the theme in works such as Il disprezzo ("Contempt" or "A Ghost at Noon") (1954) and La noia ("The Empty Canvas") from the 1950s, despite observation from a rational-realistic perspective. Political themes are often present: an example is La Romana ("The Woman of Rome") (1947), the story of a prostitute entangled with the Fascist regime and with a network of conspirators. The extreme sexual realism in La noia ("The Empty Canvas") (1960) introduced the psychologically experimental works of the 1970s.
Moravia's writing style was highly regarded for being extremely stark and unadorned, characterised by very elementary, common words within an elaborate syntax. A complex mood is established by mixing a proposition constituting the description of a single psychological observation mixed with another such proposition. In the later novels, the inner monologue is prominent.
- La cortigiana stanca (1927) (Tired Courtesan)
- Gli indifferenti (Time of Indifference, 1929)
- Inverno di malato (1930) (A Sick Boy's Winter)
- Le ambizioni sbagliate (1935)
- La bella vita (1935)
- L'imbroglio (1937, novellas) (The Imbroglio)
- I sogni del pigro (1940)
- La caduta (1940) (The Fall)
- La mascherata (1941) (The Fancy Dress Party, 1952)
- La cetonia (1943)
- L'amante infelice (1943) (The Unfortunate Lover)
- Agostino (Two Adolescents, 1944)
- L'epidemia (1944, short story collection)
- Ritorno al mare (1945) (Return to the Sea)
- L'ufficiale inglese (1946) (The English Officer)
- La romana (The Woman of Rome, 1947)
- La disubbidienza (Disobedience, 1947)
- L'amore coniugale (1947, short story collection)(Conjugal Love, Other Press, 2007)
- Il conformista (The Conformist, 1947)
- L'amore coniugale (The Conjugal Love, 1949)
- Luna di miele, sole di fiele (1952) (Bitter Honeymoon)
- Racconti romani (Roman Tales, 1954)
- Il disprezzo (A Ghost at Noon or Contempt, 1954)
- La ciociara (Two Women, 1957)
- Nuovi racconti romani (1959)
- La noia (The Empty Canvas or Boredom, 1960)
- L'automa (The Fetish, 1962, collection of short stories)
- L'uomo come fine (1963, essay)
- L'attenzione (1965)
- Una cosa e una cosa (Command, and I Will Obey You, 1967, short story collection)
- Il dio Kurt (drama, 1969)
- La vita è gioco (1969)
- Il paradiso (1970)
- Io e lui (Him and Me, 1971)
- A quale tribù appartieni (1972)
- Un'altra vita (1973)
- Al cinema (1975, essays)
- Boh (1976)
- La vita interiore (1978)
- Impegno controvoglia (1980)
- "1934" (1982)
- La cosa e altri racconti (1983, short story collection)
- L'uomo che guarda (1985)
- L'inverno nucleare (1986, essays and interviews)
- Il viaggio a Roma (1988)
- La villa del venerdì e altri racconti (1990)
- Le Monde's 100 Books of the Century, a list which includes A Ghost at Noon
- Viola, Carmelo R. (1991). "Alberto Moravia o del "realismo borghese"". Fermenti (in Italian) (Rome: Fermenti Editricce) (203). Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Accrocca, E.F. Roma allo specchio nella narrativa Italiano da De Amicis al primo Moravia, Istituto Storia Romana, Rome 1958. Reprinted in Giuliano Dego, Moravia (Writers and Critics Series), Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh 1966, page 3, ASIN B0000CN5PF.
- Dego, Giuliano (1966). Moravia (Writers and Critics Series). Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. Foreword. ASIN B0000CN5PF.
- Burnside, John (8 July 2011). "My hero Alberto Moravia". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Rose, Peter Isaac (2005). The Dispossessed: An Anatomy Of Exile. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press. pp. 138–139. ISBN 1558494669.
- Moravia, Aberto (1985). L’uomo che guarda. Milan: Bompiani. Foreword by Giorgio Cavallini.
- Media related to Alberto Moravia at Wikimedia Commons
- Quotations related to Alberto Moravia at Wikiquote
- The Paris Review Interview
- Alberto Moravia biography
- Listen to Pioggia di Maggio by Alberto Moravia free download on mp3
- Listen to Romolo e Remo, one of Moravia's Racconti Romani
- PEN International
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|International President of PEN International
Victor E. van Vriesland